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README.md

WordPress

WordPress is one of the most versatile open source content management systems on the market. A publishing platform for building blogs and websites.

TL;DR;

$ helm install stable/wordpress

Introduction

This chart bootstraps a WordPress deployment on a Kubernetes cluster using the Helm package manager.

It also packages the Bitnami MariaDB chart which is required for bootstrapping a MariaDB deployment for the database requirements of the WordPress application.

Bitnami charts can be used with Kubeapps for deployment and management of Helm Charts in clusters. This chart has been tested to work with NGINX Ingress, cert-manager, fluentd and Prometheus on top of the BKPR.

Prerequisites

  • Kubernetes 1.4+ with Beta APIs enabled
  • PV provisioner support in the underlying infrastructure

Installing the Chart

To install the chart with the release name my-release:

$ helm install --name my-release stable/wordpress

The command deploys WordPress on the Kubernetes cluster in the default configuration. The configuration section lists the parameters that can be configured during installation.

Tip: List all releases using helm list

Uninstalling the Chart

To uninstall/delete the my-release deployment:

$ helm delete my-release

The command removes all the Kubernetes components associated with the chart and deletes the release.

Configuration

The following table lists the configurable parameters of the WordPress chart and their default values.

Parameter Description Default
global.imageRegistry Global Docker image registry nil
global.imagePullSecrets Global Docker registry secret names as an array [] (does not add image pull secrets to deployed pods)
image.registry WordPress image registry docker.io
image.repository WordPress image name bitnami/wordpress
image.tag WordPress image tag {TAG_NAME}
image.pullPolicy Image pull policy IfNotPresent
image.pullSecrets Specify docker-registry secret names as an array [] (does not add image pull secrets to deployed pods)
wordpressSkipInstall Skip wizard installation false
wordpressUsername User of the application user
wordpressPassword Application password random 10 character long alphanumeric string
wordpressEmail Admin email user@example.com
wordpressFirstName First name FirstName
wordpressLastName Last name LastName
wordpressBlogName Blog name User's Blog!
wordpressTablePrefix Table prefix wp_
allowEmptyPassword Allow DB blank passwords true
allowOverrideNone Set Apache AllowOverride directive to None false
customHTAccessCM Configmap with custom wordpress-htaccess.conf directives nil
smtpHost SMTP host nil
smtpPort SMTP port nil
smtpUser SMTP user nil
smtpPassword SMTP password nil
smtpUsername User name for SMTP emails nil
smtpProtocol SMTP protocol [tls, ssl, none] nil
replicaCount Number of WordPress Pods to run 1
mariadb.enabled Deploy MariaDB container(s) true
mariadb.rootUser.password MariaDB admin password nil
mariadb.db.name Database name to create bitnami_wordpress
mariadb.db.user Database user to create bn_wordpress
mariadb.db.password Password for the database random 10 character long alphanumeric string
externalDatabase.host Host of the external database localhost
externalDatabase.user Existing username in the external db bn_wordpress
externalDatabase.password Password for the above username nil
externalDatabase.database Name of the existing database bitnami_wordpress
externalDatabase.port Database port number 3306
service.annotations Service annotations {}
service.type Kubernetes Service type LoadBalancer
service.port Service HTTP port 80
service.httpsPort Service HTTPS port 443
service.externalTrafficPolicy Enable client source IP preservation Cluster
service.nodePorts.http Kubernetes http node port ""
service.nodePorts.https Kubernetes https node port ""
service.extraPorts Extra ports to expose in the service (normally used with the sidecar value) nil
healthcheckHttps Use https for liveliness and readiness false
livenessProbeHeaders Headers to use for livenessProbe nil
readinessProbeHeaders Headers to use for readinessProbe nil
ingress.enabled Enable ingress controller resource false
ingress.certManager Add annotations for cert-manager false
ingress.annotations Ingress annotations []
ingress.hosts[0].name Hostname to your Wordpress installation wordpress.local
ingress.hosts[0].path Path within the url structure /
ingress.tls[0].hosts[0] TLS hosts wordpress.local
ingress.tls[0].secretName TLS Secret (certificates) wordpress.local-tls
ingress.secrets[0].name TLS Secret Name nil
ingress.secrets[0].certificate TLS Secret Certificate nil
ingress.secrets[0].key TLS Secret Key nil
schedulerName Name of the alternate scheduler nil
persistence.enabled Enable persistence using PVC true
persistence.existingClaim Enable persistence using an existing PVC nil
persistence.storageClass PVC Storage Class nil (uses alpha storage class annotation)
persistence.accessMode PVC Access Mode ReadWriteOnce
persistence.size PVC Storage Request 10Gi
nodeSelector Node labels for pod assignment {}
tolerations List of node taints to tolerate []
affinity Map of node/pod affinities {}
podAnnotations Pod annotations {}
metrics.enabled Start a side-car prometheus exporter false
metrics.image.registry Apache exporter image registry docker.io
metrics.image.repository Apache exporter image name lusotycoon/apache-exporter
metrics.image.tag Apache exporter image tag v0.5.0
metrics.image.pullPolicy Image pull policy IfNotPresent
metrics.image.pullSecrets Specify docker-registry secret names as an array [] (does not add image pull secrets to deployed pods)
metrics.podAnnotations Additional annotations for Metrics exporter pod {prometheus.io/scrape: "true", prometheus.io/port: "9117"}
metrics.resources Exporter resource requests/limit {}
sidecars Attach additional containers to the pod nil
updateStrategy Set up update strategy RollingUpdate

The above parameters map to the env variables defined in bitnami/wordpress. For more information please refer to the bitnami/wordpress image documentation.

Specify each parameter using the --set key=value[,key=value] argument to helm install. For example,

$ helm install --name my-release \
  --set wordpressUsername=admin,wordpressPassword=password,mariadb.mariadbRootPassword=secretpassword \
    stable/wordpress

The above command sets the WordPress administrator account username and password to admin and password respectively. Additionally, it sets the MariaDB root user password to secretpassword.

Alternatively, a YAML file that specifies the values for the above parameters can be provided while installing the chart. For example,

$ helm install --name my-release -f values.yaml stable/wordpress

Tip: You can use the default values.yaml

Production configuration

This chart includes a values-production.yaml file where you can find some parameters oriented to production configuration in comparison to the regular values.yaml.

$ helm install --name my-release -f ./values-production.yaml stable/wordpress
  • Set Apache AllowOverride directive to None:
- allowOverrideNone: false
+ allowOverrideNone: true
  • Number of WordPress Pods to run
- replicaCount: 1
+ replicaCount: 3
  • Kubernetes Service type:
- service.type: LoadBalancer
+ service.type: ClusterIP
  • Enable client source IP preservation:
- service.externalTrafficPolicy: Cluster
+ service.externalTrafficPolicy: Local
  • PVC Access Mode:
- persistence.accessMode: ReadWriteOnce
+ ##
+ ## To use the /admin portal and to ensure you can scale wordpress you need to provide a
+ ## ReadWriteMany PVC, if you dont have a provisioner for this type of storage
+ ## We recommend that you install the nfs provisioner and map it to a RWO volume
+ ## helm install stable/nfs-server-provisioner --set persistence.enabled=true,persistence.size=10Gi
+ persistence.accessMode: ReadWriteMany
  • Start a side-car prometheus exporter:
- metrics.enabled: false
+ metrics.enabled: true

Note that values-production.yaml includes a replicaCount of 3, so there will be 3 WordPress pods. As a result, to use the /admin portal and to ensure you can scale wordpress you need to provide a ReadWriteMany PVC, if you don't have a provisioner for this type of storage, we recommend that you install the nfs provisioner and map it to a RWO volume.

$ helm install stable/nfs-server-provisioner --set persistence.enabled=true,persistence.size=10Gi
$ helm install --name my-release -f values-production.yaml --set persistence.storageClass=nfs stable/wordpress --set mariadb.master.persistence.storageClass=nfs

Rolling VS Immutable tags

It is strongly recommended to use immutable tags in a production environment. This ensures your deployment does not change automatically if the same tag is updated with a different image.

Bitnami will release a new chart updating its containers if a new version of the main container, significant changes, or critical vulnerabilities exist.

Sidecars

If you have a need for additional containers to run within the same pod as WordPress (e.g. an additional metrics or logging exporter), you can do so via the sidecars config parameter. Simply define your container according to the Kubernetes container spec.

sidecars:
- name: your-image-name
  image: your-image
  imagePullPolicy: Always
  ports:
  - name: portname
   containerPort: 1234

If these sidecars export extra ports, you can add extra port definitions using the `service.extraPorts` value:

```yaml
service:
...
  extraPorts:
  - name: extraPort
    port: 11311
    targetPort: 11311

Persistence

The Bitnami WordPress image stores the WordPress data and configurations at the /bitnami path of the container.

Persistent Volume Claims are used to keep the data across deployments. This is known to work in GCE, AWS, and minikube. See the Configuration section to configure the PVC or to disable persistence.

Using an external database

Sometimes you may want to have Wordpress connect to an external database rather than installing one inside your cluster, e.g. to use a managed database service, or use run a single database server for all your applications. To do this, the chart allows you to specify credentials for an external database under the externalDatabase parameter. You should also disable the MariaDB installation with the mariadb.enabled option. For example:

$ helm install stable/wordpress \
    --set mariadb.enabled=false,externalDatabase.host=myexternalhost,externalDatabase.user=myuser,externalDatabase.password=mypassword,externalDatabase.database=mydatabase,externalDatabase.port=3306

Note also if you disable MariaDB per above you MUST supply values for the externalDatabase connection.

Ingress

This chart provides support for ingress resources. If you have an ingress controller installed on your cluster, such as nginx-ingress or traefik you can utilize the ingress controller to serve your WordPress application.

To enable ingress integration, please set ingress.enabled to true

Hosts

Most likely you will only want to have one hostname that maps to this WordPress installation, however, it is possible to have more than one host. To facilitate this, the ingress.hosts object is an array.

For each item, please indicate a name, tls, tlsSecret, and any annotations that you may want the ingress controller to know about.

Indicating TLS will cause WordPress to generate HTTPS URLs, and WordPress will be connected to at port 443. The actual secret that tlsSecret references do not have to be generated by this chart. However, please note that if TLS is enabled, the ingress record will not work until this secret exists.

For annotations, please see this document. Not all annotations are supported by all ingress controllers, but this document does a good job of indicating which annotation is supported by many popular ingress controllers.

TLS Secrets

This chart will facilitate the creation of TLS secrets for use with the ingress controller, however, this is not required. There are three common use cases:

  • helm generates/manages certificate secrets
  • user generates/manages certificates separately
  • an additional tool (like kube-lego) manages the secrets for the application

In the first two cases, one will need a certificate and a key. We would expect them to look like this:

  • certificate files should look like (and there can be more than one certificate if there is a certificate chain)
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
MIID6TCCAtGgAwIBAgIJAIaCwivkeB5EMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAMFYxCzAJBgNV
...
jScrvkiBO65F46KioCL9h5tDvomdU1aqpI/CBzhvZn1c0ZTf87tGQR8NK7v7
-----END CERTIFICATE-----
  • keys should look like:
-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
MIIEogIBAAKCAQEAvLYcyu8f3skuRyUgeeNpeDvYBCDcgq+LsWap6zbX5f8oLqp4
...
wrj2wDbCDCFmfqnSJ+dKI3vFLlEz44sAV8jX/kd4Y6ZTQhlLbYc=
-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

If you are going to use Helm to manage the certificates, please copy these values into the certificate and key values for a given ingress.secrets entry.

If you are going to manage TLS secrets outside of Helm, please know that you can create a TLS secret by doing the following:

kubectl create secret tls wordpress.local-tls --key /path/to/key.key --cert /path/to/cert.crt

Please see this example for more information.

Ingress-terminated https

In cases where HTTPS/TLS is terminated on the ingress, you may run into an issue where non-https liveness and readiness probes result in a 302 (redirect from HTTP to HTTPS) and are interpreted by Kubernetes as not-live/not-ready. (See Kubernetes issue #47893 on GitHub for further details about 302 not being interpreted as "successful".) To work around this problem, use livenessProbeHeaders and readinessProbeHeaders to pass the same headers that your ingress would pass in order to get an HTTP 200 status result. For example (where the following is in a --values-referenced file):

livenessProbeHeaders:
- name: X-Forwarded-Proto
  value: https
readinessProbeHeaders:
- name: X-Forwarded-Proto
  value: https

Any number of name/value pairs may be specified; they are all copied into the liveness or readiness probe definition.

Disabling .htaccess

For performance and security reasons, it is a good practice to configure Apache with AllowOverride None. Instead of using .htaccess files, Apache will load the same dircetives at boot time. These directives are located in /opt/bitnami/wordpress/wordpress-htaccess.conf. The container image includes by default these directives all of the default .htaccess files in WordPress (together with the default plugins). To enable this feature, install the chart with the following value:

helm install stable/wordpress --set allowOverrideNone=yes

However, some plugins may include .htaccess directives that will not be loaded when AllowOverride is set to None. A way to make them work would be to create your own wordpress-htaccess.conf file with all the required dircectives to make the plugin work. After creating it, then create a ConfigMap with it.

kubectl create cm custom-htaccess --from-file=/path/to/wordpress-htaccess.conf

Then, install the chart:

helm install stable/wordpress --set allowOverrideNone=yes --set customHTAccessCM=custom-htaccess

Upgrading

To 3.0.0

Backwards compatibility is not guaranteed unless you modify the labels used on the chart's deployments. Use the workaround below to upgrade from versions previous to 3.0.0. The following example assumes that the release name is wordpress:

$ kubectl patch deployment wordpress-wordpress --type=json -p='[{"op": "remove", "path": "/spec/selector/matchLabels/chart"}]'
$ kubectl delete statefulset wordpress-mariadb --cascade=false
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