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    If you're running Windows, use a Unix-like environment such as Cygwin or

    Make sure you have GNU make, a compiler such as GCC or Clang, and OpenSSL 
    installed (they probably already are).
    Run the make command.


    ut-signing-tool [--exclude-cert] privkey.pem cert.pem in.torrent out.torrent


        announce: ...,
        info: { ... },
        signatures: {
            com.bittorrent (the signing identity): {
                certificate (optional): 0123456789ABCDEF0123456789ABCDEF...,
                info (optional): { ... },
                signature: (SHA1 signed data = info + sig info if present),
    The signature info dict is for extensibility. Allowing this optional dict 
    that is signed, but doesn't change the identity of the torrent allows 
    things like URLs and comments to be added to signatures (and be trusted). 

    The certificate is the DER encoded X.509 certificate. It can be excluded to
    cut down on file size. If it's excluded, the user must already have this 
    certificate stored and trusted.

    If the issuer of the cert is trusted, the cert is also trusted.
    There are no intermediate certificate authorities. There is only a root 


    Create your private key:

        openssl genrsa -des3 -out privkey.pem 2048
    Create a certificate request:
        openssl req -new -key privkey.pem -out cert.csr

        The common name should be a unique identifier for the identity in 
        reverse-dns notation (eg com.bittorrent or com.bittorrent.chris).

    Request your cert from a trusted certificate authority (eg BitTorrent) or 
    sign your own certificate request.

    Don't use these keys for anything other than signing torrents and other 


    Configure OpenSSL to not add any extensions to the certificate. This will 
    make the certificate v1 which drastically reduces its size.
        Comment out the following line in your openssl.cnf:

            x509_extensions = usr_cert      # The extensions to add to the cert

        Common locations of openssl.cnf:
            OSX:      /System/Library/OpenSSL/openssl.cnf 
            Ubuntu:   /etc/ssl/openssl.cnf
            RedHat:   /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf

            Other:    /usr/lib/ssl/openssl.cnf

    Run the following command. The serial number (after -set_serial) MUST be 
    unique for ALL certificates you issue!

        openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in cert.csr -CA cert.pem -CAkey privkey.pem 
         -set_serial 01 -out newcert.pem


    X.509 extensions could potentially be used to place limitations on what 
    certificates can be used for. For example, a certificate could be signed for
    a record label which specifies that only signed MP3, MP4, JPG, and PDF files
    are to be trusted.
    In the future, other algorithms and signature types may be supported. For 
    now we just assume SHA1 / RSA.
    Expiration times on torrent certificates aren't as meaningful as they are in
    SSL. There's no way to tell when a file was actually signed, and no one 
    wants to have to update all their torrent files every year or few years when
    their certificate expires. Instead of invalidating certificates based on 
    expiration date, a CRL may be required (or at least strongly recommended) in 
    the future for trusted authorities. If an expiration date is in the past, 
    the warning should be minimal if not non-existent, and of course, users 
    should be able to have a preference. However, for now since CRLs aren't yet
    implemented, uTorrent checks expiration dates strictly.
    On a related note, excluding certificates from torrents comes with a nice 
    advantage: If a certificate expires, there's no need to update the torrent 
    file, as long as the newer cert uses the same public / private key-pair.
    Certificate chains of any length may be a possibility in the future, but 
    there are a few reasons this functionality isn't currently implemented. They
    could bloat the torrent files by requiring more certificates to be stored 
    within. In the current implementation, there will never be more than one 
    certificate present, which alone can already be a bit big. Downloading all 
    the certificates in the chain on-demand would introduce an entirely new set 
    of problems. Certificate chains also force those that are signing torrents 
    to maintain copies of not only their certificate, but all certificates 
    between theirs and the root certificate. In addition, the basic constraints 
    extension would need to be implemented and v3 certificates would need to be 
    used for security measures. V3 certificates are significantly larger than v1
    certificates so that would even further bloat the torrent files.
    Trusted root certificates inherently have stronger security than trusted 
    non-root certificates. Trusted root certificates are self-signed so you can 
    be sure that the contents have not been tampered with. Trusted non-root 
    certificates can't always be verified because we might not have the issuer's