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/*************************************************
* Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions *
*************************************************/

/* PCRE is a library of functions to support regular expressions whose syntax
and semantics are as close as possible to those of the Perl 5 language.

Written by Philip Hazel
Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

* Neither the name of the University of Cambridge nor the names of its
contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
this software without specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
*/


/* This module contains the external function pcre_compile(), along with
supporting internal functions that are not used by other modules. */


#ifdef HAVE_CONFIG_H
#include "config.h"
#endif

#define NLBLOCK cd /* Block containing newline information */
#define PSSTART start_pattern /* Field containing processed string start */
#define PSEND end_pattern /* Field containing processed string end */

#include "pcre_internal.h"


/* When PCRE_DEBUG is defined, we need the pcre_printint() function, which is
also used by pcretest. PCRE_DEBUG is not defined when building a production
library. */

#ifdef PCRE_DEBUG
#include "pcre_printint.src"
#endif


/* Macro for setting individual bits in class bitmaps. */

#define SETBIT(a,b) a[b/8] |= (1 << (b%8))

/* Maximum length value to check against when making sure that the integer that
holds the compiled pattern length does not overflow. We make it a bit less than
INT_MAX to allow for adding in group terminating bytes, so that we don't have
to check them every time. */

#define OFLOW_MAX (INT_MAX - 20)


/*************************************************
* Code parameters and static tables *
*************************************************/

/* This value specifies the size of stack workspace that is used during the
first pre-compile phase that determines how much memory is required. The regex
is partly compiled into this space, but the compiled parts are discarded as
soon as they can be, so that hopefully there will never be an overrun. The code
does, however, check for an overrun. The largest amount I've seen used is 218,
so this number is very generous.

The same workspace is used during the second, actual compile phase for
remembering forward references to groups so that they can be filled in at the
end. Each entry in this list occupies LINK_SIZE bytes, so even when LINK_SIZE
is 4 there is plenty of room. */

#define COMPILE_WORK_SIZE (4096)

/* The overrun tests check for a slightly smaller size so that they detect the
overrun before it actually does run off the end of the data block. */

#define WORK_SIZE_CHECK (COMPILE_WORK_SIZE - 100)


/* Table for handling escaped characters in the range '0'-'z'. Positive returns
are simple data values; negative values are for special things like \d and so
on. Zero means further processing is needed (for things like \x), or the escape
is invalid. */

#ifndef EBCDIC

/* This is the "normal" table for ASCII systems or for EBCDIC systems running
in UTF-8 mode. */

static const short int escapes[] = {
     0, 0,
     0, 0,
     0, 0,
     0, 0,
     0, 0,
     CHAR_COLON, CHAR_SEMICOLON,
     CHAR_LESS_THAN_SIGN, CHAR_EQUALS_SIGN,
     CHAR_GREATER_THAN_SIGN, CHAR_QUESTION_MARK,
     CHAR_COMMERCIAL_AT, -ESC_A,
     -ESC_B, -ESC_C,
     -ESC_D, -ESC_E,
     0, -ESC_G,
     -ESC_H, 0,
     0, -ESC_K,
     0, 0,
     -ESC_N, 0,
     -ESC_P, -ESC_Q,
     -ESC_R, -ESC_S,
     0, 0,
     -ESC_V, -ESC_W,
     -ESC_X, 0,
     -ESC_Z, CHAR_LEFT_SQUARE_BRACKET,
     CHAR_BACKSLASH, CHAR_RIGHT_SQUARE_BRACKET,
     CHAR_CIRCUMFLEX_ACCENT, CHAR_UNDERSCORE,
     CHAR_GRAVE_ACCENT, 7,
     -ESC_b, 0,
     -ESC_d, ESC_e,
     ESC_f, 0,
     -ESC_h, 0,
     0, -ESC_k,
     0, 0,
     ESC_n, 0,
     -ESC_p, 0,
     ESC_r, -ESC_s,
     ESC_tee, 0,
     -ESC_v, -ESC_w,
     0, 0,
     -ESC_z
};

#else

/* This is the "abnormal" table for EBCDIC systems without UTF-8 support. */

static const short int escapes[] = {
/* 48 */ 0, 0, 0, '.', '<', '(', '+', '|',
/* 50 */ '&', 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
/* 58 */ 0, 0, '!', '$', '*', ')', ';', '~',
/* 60 */ '-', '/', 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
/* 68 */ 0, 0, '|', ',', '%', '_', '>', '?',
/* 70 */ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
/* 78 */ 0, '`', ':', '#', '@', '\'', '=', '"',
/* 80 */ 0, 7, -ESC_b, 0, -ESC_d, ESC_e, ESC_f, 0,
/* 88 */-ESC_h, 0, 0, '{', 0, 0, 0, 0,
/* 90 */ 0, 0, -ESC_k, 'l', 0, ESC_n, 0, -ESC_p,
/* 98 */ 0, ESC_r, 0, '}', 0, 0, 0, 0,
/* A0 */ 0, '~', -ESC_s, ESC_tee, 0,-ESC_v, -ESC_w, 0,
/* A8 */ 0,-ESC_z, 0, 0, 0, '[', 0, 0,
/* B0 */ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
/* B8 */ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, ']', '=', '-',
/* C0 */ '{',-ESC_A, -ESC_B, -ESC_C, -ESC_D,-ESC_E, 0, -ESC_G,
/* C8 */-ESC_H, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
/* D0 */ '}', 0, -ESC_K, 0, 0,-ESC_N, 0, -ESC_P,
/* D8 */-ESC_Q,-ESC_R, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
/* E0 */ '\\', 0, -ESC_S, 0, 0,-ESC_V, -ESC_W, -ESC_X,
/* E8 */ 0,-ESC_Z, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
/* F0 */ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
/* F8 */ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
};
#endif


/* Table of special "verbs" like (*PRUNE). This is a short table, so it is
searched linearly. Put all the names into a single string, in order to reduce
the number of relocations when a shared library is dynamically linked. The
string is built from string macros so that it works in UTF-8 mode on EBCDIC
platforms. */

typedef struct verbitem {
  int len; /* Length of verb name */
  int op; /* Op when no arg, or -1 if arg mandatory */
  int op_arg; /* Op when arg present, or -1 if not allowed */
} verbitem;

static const char verbnames[] =
  "\0" /* Empty name is a shorthand for MARK */
  STRING_MARK0
  STRING_ACCEPT0
  STRING_COMMIT0
  STRING_F0
  STRING_FAIL0
  STRING_PRUNE0
  STRING_SKIP0
  STRING_THEN;

static const verbitem verbs[] = {
  { 0, -1, OP_MARK },
  { 4, -1, OP_MARK },
  { 6, OP_ACCEPT, -1 },
  { 6, OP_COMMIT, -1 },
  { 1, OP_FAIL, -1 },
  { 4, OP_FAIL, -1 },
  { 5, OP_PRUNE, OP_PRUNE_ARG },
  { 4, OP_SKIP, OP_SKIP_ARG },
  { 4, OP_THEN, OP_THEN_ARG }
};

static const int verbcount = sizeof(verbs)/sizeof(verbitem);


/* Tables of names of POSIX character classes and their lengths. The names are
now all in a single string, to reduce the number of relocations when a shared
library is dynamically loaded. The list of lengths is terminated by a zero
length entry. The first three must be alpha, lower, upper, as this is assumed
for handling case independence. */

static const char posix_names[] =
  STRING_alpha0 STRING_lower0 STRING_upper0 STRING_alnum0
  STRING_ascii0 STRING_blank0 STRING_cntrl0 STRING_digit0
  STRING_graph0 STRING_print0 STRING_punct0 STRING_space0
  STRING_word0 STRING_xdigit;

static const uschar posix_name_lengths[] = {
  5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 4, 6, 0 };

/* Table of class bit maps for each POSIX class. Each class is formed from a
base map, with an optional addition or removal of another map. Then, for some
classes, there is some additional tweaking: for [:blank:] the vertical space
characters are removed, and for [:alpha:] and [:alnum:] the underscore
character is removed. The triples in the table consist of the base map offset,
second map offset or -1 if no second map, and a non-negative value for map
addition or a negative value for map subtraction (if there are two maps). The
absolute value of the third field has these meanings: 0 => no tweaking, 1 =>
remove vertical space characters, 2 => remove underscore. */

static const int posix_class_maps[] = {
  cbit_word, cbit_digit, -2, /* alpha */
  cbit_lower, -1, 0, /* lower */
  cbit_upper, -1, 0, /* upper */
  cbit_word, -1, 2, /* alnum - word without underscore */
  cbit_print, cbit_cntrl, 0, /* ascii */
  cbit_space, -1, 1, /* blank - a GNU extension */
  cbit_cntrl, -1, 0, /* cntrl */
  cbit_digit, -1, 0, /* digit */
  cbit_graph, -1, 0, /* graph */
  cbit_print, -1, 0, /* print */
  cbit_punct, -1, 0, /* punct */
  cbit_space, -1, 0, /* space */
  cbit_word, -1, 0, /* word - a Perl extension */
  cbit_xdigit,-1, 0 /* xdigit */
};

/* Table of substitutes for \d etc when PCRE_UCP is set. The POSIX class
substitutes must be in the order of the names, defined above, and there are
both positive and negative cases. NULL means no substitute. */

#ifdef SUPPORT_UCP
static const uschar *substitutes[] = {
  (uschar *)"\\P{Nd}", /* \D */
  (uschar *)"\\p{Nd}", /* \d */
  (uschar *)"\\P{Xsp}", /* \S */ /* NOTE: Xsp is Perl space */
  (uschar *)"\\p{Xsp}", /* \s */
  (uschar *)"\\P{Xwd}", /* \W */
  (uschar *)"\\p{Xwd}" /* \w */
};

static const uschar *posix_substitutes[] = {
  (uschar *)"\\p{L}", /* alpha */
  (uschar *)"\\p{Ll}", /* lower */
  (uschar *)"\\p{Lu}", /* upper */
  (uschar *)"\\p{Xan}", /* alnum */
  NULL, /* ascii */
  (uschar *)"\\h", /* blank */
  NULL, /* cntrl */
  (uschar *)"\\p{Nd}", /* digit */
  NULL, /* graph */
  NULL, /* print */
  NULL, /* punct */
  (uschar *)"\\p{Xps}", /* space */ /* NOTE: Xps is POSIX space */
  (uschar *)"\\p{Xwd}", /* word */
  NULL, /* xdigit */
  /* Negated cases */
  (uschar *)"\\P{L}", /* ^alpha */
  (uschar *)"\\P{Ll}", /* ^lower */
  (uschar *)"\\P{Lu}", /* ^upper */
  (uschar *)"\\P{Xan}", /* ^alnum */
  NULL, /* ^ascii */
  (uschar *)"\\H", /* ^blank */
  NULL, /* ^cntrl */
  (uschar *)"\\P{Nd}", /* ^digit */
  NULL, /* ^graph */
  NULL, /* ^print */
  NULL, /* ^punct */
  (uschar *)"\\P{Xps}", /* ^space */ /* NOTE: Xps is POSIX space */
  (uschar *)"\\P{Xwd}", /* ^word */
  NULL /* ^xdigit */
};
#define POSIX_SUBSIZE (sizeof(posix_substitutes)/sizeof(uschar *))
#endif

#define STRING(a) # a
#define XSTRING(s) STRING(s)

/* The texts of compile-time error messages. These are "char *" because they
are passed to the outside world. Do not ever re-use any error number, because
they are documented. Always add a new error instead. Messages marked DEAD below
are no longer used. This used to be a table of strings, but in order to reduce
the number of relocations needed when a shared library is loaded dynamically,
it is now one long string. We cannot use a table of offsets, because the
lengths of inserts such as XSTRING(MAX_NAME_SIZE) are not known. Instead, we
simply count through to the one we want - this isn't a performance issue
because these strings are used only when there is a compilation error.

Each substring ends with \0 to insert a null character. This includes the final
substring, so that the whole string ends with \0\0, which can be detected when
counting through. */

static const char error_texts[] =
  "no error\0"
  "\\ at end of pattern\0"
  "\\c at end of pattern\0"
  "unrecognized character follows \\\0"
  "numbers out of order in {} quantifier\0"
  /* 5 */
  "number too big in {} quantifier\0"
  "missing terminating ] for character class\0"
  "invalid escape sequence in character class\0"
  "range out of order in character class\0"
  "nothing to repeat\0"
  /* 10 */
  "operand of unlimited repeat could match the empty string\0" /** DEAD **/
  "internal error: unexpected repeat\0"
  "unrecognized character after (? or (?-\0"
  "POSIX named classes are supported only within a class\0"
  "missing )\0"
  /* 15 */
  "reference to non-existent subpattern\0"
  "erroffset passed as NULL\0"
  "unknown option bit(s) set\0"
  "missing ) after comment\0"
  "parentheses nested too deeply\0" /** DEAD **/
  /* 20 */
  "regular expression is too large\0"
  "failed to get memory\0"
  "unmatched parentheses\0"
  "internal error: code overflow\0"
  "unrecognized character after (?<\0"
  /* 25 */
  "lookbehind assertion is not fixed length\0"
  "malformed number or name after (?(\0"
  "conditional group contains more than two branches\0"
  "assertion expected after (?(\0"
  "(?R or (?[+-]digits must be followed by )\0"
  /* 30 */
  "unknown POSIX class name\0"
  "POSIX collating elements are not supported\0"
  "this version of PCRE is not compiled with PCRE_UTF8 support\0"
  "spare error\0" /** DEAD **/
  "character value in \\x{...} sequence is too large\0"
  /* 35 */
  "invalid condition (?(0)\0"
  "\\C not allowed in lookbehind assertion\0"
  "PCRE does not support \\L, \\l, \\N{name}, \\U, or \\u\0"
  "number after (?C is > 255\0"
  "closing ) for (?C expected\0"
  /* 40 */
  "recursive call could loop indefinitely\0"
  "unrecognized character after (?P\0"
  "syntax error in subpattern name (missing terminator)\0"
  "two named subpatterns have the same name\0"
  "invalid UTF-8 string\0"
  /* 45 */
  "support for \\P, \\p, and \\X has not been compiled\0"
  "malformed \\P or \\p sequence\0"
  "unknown property name after \\P or \\p\0"
  "subpattern name is too long (maximum " XSTRING(MAX_NAME_SIZE) " characters)\0"
  "too many named subpatterns (maximum " XSTRING(MAX_NAME_COUNT) ")\0"
  /* 50 */
  "repeated subpattern is too long\0" /** DEAD **/
  "octal value is greater than \\377 (not in UTF-8 mode)\0"
  "internal error: overran compiling workspace\0"
  "internal error: previously-checked referenced subpattern not found\0"
  "DEFINE group contains more than one branch\0"
  /* 55 */
  "repeating a DEFINE group is not allowed\0" /** DEAD **/
  "inconsistent NEWLINE options\0"
  "\\g is not followed by a braced, angle-bracketed, or quoted name/number or by a plain number\0"
  "a numbered reference must not be zero\0"
  "an argument is not allowed for (*ACCEPT), (*FAIL), or (*COMMIT)\0"
  /* 60 */
  "(*VERB) not recognized\0"
  "number is too big\0"
  "subpattern name expected\0"
  "digit expected after (?+\0"
  "] is an invalid data character in JavaScript compatibility mode\0"
  /* 65 */
  "different names for subpatterns of the same number are not allowed\0"
  "(*MARK) must have an argument\0"
  "this version of PCRE is not compiled with PCRE_UCP support\0"
  "\\c must be followed by an ASCII character\0"
  "\\k is not followed by a braced, angle-bracketed, or quoted name\0"
  ;

/* Table to identify digits and hex digits. This is used when compiling
patterns. Note that the tables in chartables are dependent on the locale, and
may mark arbitrary characters as digits - but the PCRE compiling code expects
to handle only 0-9, a-z, and A-Z as digits when compiling. That is why we have
a private table here. It costs 256 bytes, but it is a lot faster than doing
character value tests (at least in some simple cases I timed), and in some
applications one wants PCRE to compile efficiently as well as match
efficiently.

For convenience, we use the same bit definitions as in chartables:

0x04 decimal digit
0x08 hexadecimal digit

Then we can use ctype_digit and ctype_xdigit in the code. */

#ifndef EBCDIC

/* This is the "normal" case, for ASCII systems, and EBCDIC systems running in
UTF-8 mode. */

static const unsigned char digitab[] =
  {
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 0- 7 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 8- 15 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 16- 23 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 24- 31 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* - ' */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* ( - / */
  0x0c,0x0c,0x0c,0x0c,0x0c,0x0c,0x0c,0x0c, /* 0 - 7 */
  0x0c,0x0c,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 8 - ? */
  0x00,0x08,0x08,0x08,0x08,0x08,0x08,0x00, /* @ - G */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* H - O */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* P - W */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* X - _ */
  0x00,0x08,0x08,0x08,0x08,0x08,0x08,0x00, /* ` - g */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* h - o */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* p - w */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* x -127 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 128-135 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 136-143 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 144-151 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 152-159 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 160-167 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 168-175 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 176-183 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 184-191 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 192-199 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 200-207 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 208-215 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 216-223 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 224-231 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 232-239 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 240-247 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00};/* 248-255 */

#else

/* This is the "abnormal" case, for EBCDIC systems not running in UTF-8 mode. */

static const unsigned char digitab[] =
  {
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 0- 7 0 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 8- 15 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 16- 23 10 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 24- 31 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 32- 39 20 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 40- 47 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 48- 55 30 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 56- 63 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* - 71 40 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 72- | */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* & - 87 50 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 88- 95 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* - -103 60 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 104- ? */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 112-119 70 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 120- " */
  0x00,0x08,0x08,0x08,0x08,0x08,0x08,0x00, /* 128- g 80 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* h -143 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 144- p 90 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* q -159 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 160- x A0 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* y -175 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* ^ -183 B0 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 184-191 */
  0x00,0x08,0x08,0x08,0x08,0x08,0x08,0x00, /* { - G C0 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* H -207 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* } - P D0 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* Q -223 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* \ - X E0 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* Y -239 */
  0x0c,0x0c,0x0c,0x0c,0x0c,0x0c,0x0c,0x0c, /* 0 - 7 F0 */
  0x0c,0x0c,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00};/* 8 -255 */

static const unsigned char ebcdic_chartab[] = { /* chartable partial dup */
  0x80,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x01,0x00,0x00, /* 0- 7 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x01,0x01,0x00,0x00, /* 8- 15 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x01,0x00,0x00, /* 16- 23 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 24- 31 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x01,0x00,0x00, /* 32- 39 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 40- 47 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 48- 55 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 56- 63 */
  0x01,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* - 71 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x80,0x00,0x80,0x80,0x80, /* 72- | */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* & - 87 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x80,0x80,0x80,0x00,0x00, /* 88- 95 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* - -103 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x10,0x00,0x80, /* 104- ? */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 112-119 */
  0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 120- " */
  0x00,0x1a,0x1a,0x1a,0x1a,0x1a,0x1a,0x12, /* 128- g */
  0x12,0x12,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* h -143 */
  0x00,0x12,0x12,0x12,0x12,0x12,0x12,0x12, /* 144- p */
  0x12,0x12,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* q -159 */
  0x00,0x00,0x12,0x12,0x12,0x12,0x12,0x12, /* 160- x */
  0x12,0x12,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* y -175 */
  0x80,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* ^ -183 */
  0x00,0x00,0x80,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* 184-191 */
  0x80,0x1a,0x1a,0x1a,0x1a,0x1a,0x1a,0x12, /* { - G */
  0x12,0x12,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* H -207 */
  0x00,0x12,0x12,0x12,0x12,0x12,0x12,0x12, /* } - P */
  0x12,0x12,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* Q -223 */
  0x00,0x00,0x12,0x12,0x12,0x12,0x12,0x12, /* \ - X */
  0x12,0x12,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00, /* Y -239 */
  0x1c,0x1c,0x1c,0x1c,0x1c,0x1c,0x1c,0x1c, /* 0 - 7 */
  0x1c,0x1c,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00};/* 8 -255 */
#endif


/* Definition to allow mutual recursion */

static BOOL
  compile_regex(int, uschar **, const uschar **, int *, BOOL, BOOL, int, int,
    int *, int *, branch_chain *, compile_data *, int *);



/*************************************************
* Find an error text *
*************************************************/

/* The error texts are now all in one long string, to save on relocations. As
some of the text is of unknown length, we can't use a table of offsets.
Instead, just count through the strings. This is not a performance issue
because it happens only when there has been a compilation error.

Argument: the error number
Returns: pointer to the error string
*/

static const char *
find_error_text(int n)
{
const char *s = error_texts;
for (; n > 0; n--)
  {
  while (*s++ != 0) {};
  if (*s == 0) return "Error text not found (please report)";
  }
return s;
}


/*************************************************
* Check for counted repeat *
*************************************************/

/* This function is called when a '{' is encountered in a place where it might
start a quantifier. It looks ahead to see if it really is a quantifier or not.
It is only a quantifier if it is one of the forms {ddd} {ddd,} or {ddd,ddd}
where the ddds are digits.

Arguments:
p pointer to the first char after '{'

Returns: TRUE or FALSE
*/

static BOOL
is_counted_repeat(const uschar *p)
{
if ((digitab[*p++] & ctype_digit) == 0) return FALSE;
while ((digitab[*p] & ctype_digit) != 0) p++;
if (*p == CHAR_RIGHT_CURLY_BRACKET) return TRUE;

if (*p++ != CHAR_COMMA) return FALSE;
if (*p == CHAR_RIGHT_CURLY_BRACKET) return TRUE;

if ((digitab[*p++] & ctype_digit) == 0) return FALSE;
while ((digitab[*p] & ctype_digit) != 0) p++;

return (*p == CHAR_RIGHT_CURLY_BRACKET);
}



/*************************************************
* Handle escapes *
*************************************************/

/* This function is called when a \ has been encountered. It either returns a
positive value for a simple escape such as \n, or a negative value which
encodes one of the more complicated things such as \d. A backreference to group
n is returned as -(ESC_REF + n); ESC_REF is the highest ESC_xxx macro. When
UTF-8 is enabled, a positive value greater than 255 may be returned. On entry,
ptr is pointing at the \. On exit, it is on the final character of the escape
sequence.

Arguments:
ptrptr points to the pattern position pointer
errorcodeptr points to the errorcode variable
bracount number of previous extracting brackets
options the options bits
isclass TRUE if inside a character class

Returns: zero or positive => a data character
negative => a special escape sequence
on error, errorcodeptr is set
*/

static int
check_escape(const uschar **ptrptr, int *errorcodeptr, int bracount,
  int options, BOOL isclass)
{
BOOL utf8 = (options & PCRE_UTF8) != 0;
const uschar *ptr = *ptrptr + 1;
int c, i;

GETCHARINCTEST(c, ptr); /* Get character value, increment pointer */
ptr--; /* Set pointer back to the last byte */

/* If backslash is at the end of the pattern, it's an error. */

if (c == 0) *errorcodeptr = ERR1;

/* Non-alphanumerics are literals. For digits or letters, do an initial lookup
in a table. A non-zero result is something that can be returned immediately.
Otherwise further processing may be required. */

#ifndef EBCDIC /* ASCII/UTF-8 coding */
else if (c < CHAR_0 || c > CHAR_z) {} /* Not alphanumeric */
else if ((i = escapes[c - CHAR_0]) != 0) c = i;

#else /* EBCDIC coding */
else if (c < 'a' || (ebcdic_chartab[c] & 0x0E) == 0) {} /* Not alphanumeric */
else if ((i = escapes[c - 0x48]) != 0) c = i;
#endif

/* Escapes that need further processing, or are illegal. */

else
  {
  const uschar *oldptr;
  BOOL braced, negated;

  switch (c)
    {
    /* A number of Perl escapes are not handled by PCRE. We give an explicit
error. */

    case CHAR_l:
    case CHAR_L:
    case CHAR_u:
    case CHAR_U:
    *errorcodeptr = ERR37;
    break;

    /* In a character class, \g is just a literal "g". Outside a character
class, \g must be followed by one of a number of specific things:

(1) A number, either plain or braced. If positive, it is an absolute
backreference. If negative, it is a relative backreference. This is a Perl
5.10 feature.

(2) Perl 5.10 also supports \g{name} as a reference to a named group. This
is part of Perl's movement towards a unified syntax for back references. As
this is synonymous with \k{name}, we fudge it up by pretending it really
was \k.

(3) For Oniguruma compatibility we also support \g followed by a name or a
number either in angle brackets or in single quotes. However, these are
(possibly recursive) subroutine calls, _not_ backreferences. Just return
the -ESC_g code (cf \k). */

    case CHAR_g:
    if (isclass) break;
    if (ptr[1] == CHAR_LESS_THAN_SIGN || ptr[1] == CHAR_APOSTROPHE)
      {
      c = -ESC_g;
      break;
      }

    /* Handle the Perl-compatible cases */

    if (ptr[1] == CHAR_LEFT_CURLY_BRACKET)
      {
      const uschar *p;
      for (p = ptr+2; *p != 0 && *p != CHAR_RIGHT_CURLY_BRACKET; p++)
        if (*p != CHAR_MINUS && (digitab[*p] & ctype_digit) == 0) break;
      if (*p != 0 && *p != CHAR_RIGHT_CURLY_BRACKET)
        {
        c = -ESC_k;
        break;
        }
      braced = TRUE;
      ptr++;
      }
    else braced = FALSE;

    if (ptr[1] == CHAR_MINUS)
      {
      negated = TRUE;
      ptr++;
      }
    else negated = FALSE;

    c = 0;
    while ((digitab[ptr[1]] & ctype_digit) != 0)
      c = c * 10 + *(++ptr) - CHAR_0;

    if (c < 0) /* Integer overflow */
      {
      *errorcodeptr = ERR61;
      break;
      }

    if (braced && *(++ptr) != CHAR_RIGHT_CURLY_BRACKET)
      {
      *errorcodeptr = ERR57;
      break;
      }

    if (c == 0)
      {
      *errorcodeptr = ERR58;
      break;
      }

    if (negated)
      {
      if (c > bracount)
        {
        *errorcodeptr = ERR15;
        break;
        }
      c = bracount - (c - 1);
      }

    c = -(ESC_REF + c);
    break;

    /* The handling of escape sequences consisting of a string of digits
starting with one that is not zero is not straightforward. By experiment,
the way Perl works seems to be as follows:

Outside a character class, the digits are read as a decimal number. If the
number is less than 10, or if there are that many previous extracting
left brackets, then it is a back reference. Otherwise, up to three octal
digits are read to form an escaped byte. Thus \123 is likely to be octal
123 (cf \0123, which is octal 012 followed by the literal 3). If the octal
value is greater than 377, the least significant 8 bits are taken. Inside a
character class, \ followed by a digit is always an octal number. */

    case CHAR_1: case CHAR_2: case CHAR_3: case CHAR_4: case CHAR_5:
    case CHAR_6: case CHAR_7: case CHAR_8: case CHAR_9:

    if (!isclass)
      {
      oldptr = ptr;
      c -= CHAR_0;
      while ((digitab[ptr[1]] & ctype_digit) != 0)
        c = c * 10 + *(++ptr) - CHAR_0;
      if (c < 0) /* Integer overflow */
        {
        *errorcodeptr = ERR61;
        break;
        }
      if (c < 10 || c <= bracount)
        {
        c = -(ESC_REF + c);
        break;
        }
      ptr = oldptr; /* Put the pointer back and fall through */
      }

    /* Handle an octal number following \. If the first digit is 8 or 9, Perl
generates a binary zero byte and treats the digit as a following literal.
Thus we have to pull back the pointer by one. */

    if ((c = *ptr) >= CHAR_8)
      {
      ptr--;
      c = 0;
      break;
      }

    /* \0 always starts an octal number, but we may drop through to here with a
larger first octal digit. The original code used just to take the least
significant 8 bits of octal numbers (I think this is what early Perls used
to do). Nowadays we allow for larger numbers in UTF-8 mode, but no more
than 3 octal digits. */

    case CHAR_0:
    c -= CHAR_0;
    while(i++ < 2 && ptr[1] >= CHAR_0 && ptr[1] <= CHAR_7)
        c = c * 8 + *(++ptr) - CHAR_0;
    if (!utf8 && c > 255) *errorcodeptr = ERR51;
    break;

    /* \x is complicated. \x{ddd} is a character number which can be greater
than 0xff in utf8 mode, but only if the ddd are hex digits. If not, { is
treated as a data character. */

    case CHAR_x:
    if (ptr[1] == CHAR_LEFT_CURLY_BRACKET)
      {
      const uschar *pt = ptr + 2;
      int count = 0;

      c = 0;
      while ((digitab[*pt] & ctype_xdigit) != 0)
        {
        register int cc = *pt++;
        if (c == 0 && cc == CHAR_0) continue; /* Leading zeroes */
        count++;

#ifndef EBCDIC /* ASCII/UTF-8 coding */
        if (cc >= CHAR_a) cc -= 32; /* Convert to upper case */
        c = (c << 4) + cc - ((cc < CHAR_A)? CHAR_0 : (CHAR_A - 10));
#else /* EBCDIC coding */
        if (cc >= CHAR_a && cc <= CHAR_z) cc += 64; /* Convert to upper case */
        c = (c << 4) + cc - ((cc >= CHAR_0)? CHAR_0 : (CHAR_A - 10));
#endif
        }

      if (*pt == CHAR_RIGHT_CURLY_BRACKET)
        {
        if (c < 0 || count > (utf8? 8 : 2)) *errorcodeptr = ERR34;
        ptr = pt;
        break;
        }

      /* If the sequence of hex digits does not end with '}', then we don't
recognize this construct; fall through to the normal \x handling. */
      }

    /* Read just a single-byte hex-defined char */

    c = 0;
    while (i++ < 2 && (digitab[ptr[1]] & ctype_xdigit) != 0)
      {
      int cc; /* Some compilers don't like */
      cc = *(++ptr); /* ++ in initializers */
#ifndef EBCDIC /* ASCII/UTF-8 coding */
      if (cc >= CHAR_a) cc -= 32; /* Convert to upper case */
      c = c * 16 + cc - ((cc < CHAR_A)? CHAR_0 : (CHAR_A - 10));
#else /* EBCDIC coding */
      if (cc <= CHAR_z) cc += 64; /* Convert to upper case */
      c = c * 16 + cc - ((cc >= CHAR_0)? CHAR_0 : (CHAR_A - 10));
#endif
      }
    break;

    /* For \c, a following letter is upper-cased; then the 0x40 bit is flipped.
An error is given if the byte following \c is not an ASCII character. This
coding is ASCII-specific, but then the whole concept of \cx is
ASCII-specific. (However, an EBCDIC equivalent has now been added.) */

    case CHAR_c:
    c = *(++ptr);
    if (c == 0)
      {
      *errorcodeptr = ERR2;
      break;
      }
#ifndef EBCDIC /* ASCII/UTF-8 coding */
    if (c > 127) /* Excludes all non-ASCII in either mode */
      {
      *errorcodeptr = ERR68;
      break;
      }
    if (c >= CHAR_a && c <= CHAR_z) c -= 32;
    c ^= 0x40;
#else /* EBCDIC coding */
    if (c >= CHAR_a && c <= CHAR_z) c += 64;
    c ^= 0xC0;
#endif
    break;

    /* PCRE_EXTRA enables extensions to Perl in the matter of escapes. Any
other alphanumeric following \ is an error if PCRE_EXTRA was set;
otherwise, for Perl compatibility, it is a literal. This code looks a bit
odd, but there used to be some cases other than the default, and there may
be again in future, so I haven't "optimized" it. */

    default:
    if ((options & PCRE_EXTRA) != 0) switch(c)
      {
      default:
      *errorcodeptr = ERR3;
      break;
      }
    break;
    }
  }

/* Perl supports \N{name} for character names, as well as plain \N for "not
newline". PCRE does not support \N{name}. However, it does support
quantification such as \N{2,3}. */

if (c == -ESC_N && ptr[1] == CHAR_LEFT_CURLY_BRACKET &&
     !is_counted_repeat(ptr+2))
  *errorcodeptr = ERR37;

/* If PCRE_UCP is set, we change the values for \d etc. */

if ((options & PCRE_UCP) != 0 && c <= -ESC_D && c >= -ESC_w)
  c -= (ESC_DU - ESC_D);

/* Set the pointer to the final character before returning. */

*ptrptr = ptr;
return c;
}



#ifdef SUPPORT_UCP
/*************************************************
* Handle \P and \p *
*************************************************/

/* This function is called after \P or \p has been encountered, provided that
PCRE is compiled with support for Unicode properties. On entry, ptrptr is
pointing at the P or p. On exit, it is pointing at the final character of the
escape sequence.

Argument:
ptrptr points to the pattern position pointer
negptr points to a boolean that is set TRUE for negation else FALSE
dptr points to an int that is set to the detailed property value
errorcodeptr points to the error code variable

Returns: type value from ucp_type_table, or -1 for an invalid type
*/

static int
get_ucp(const uschar **ptrptr, BOOL *negptr, int *dptr, int *errorcodeptr)
{
int c, i, bot, top;
const uschar *ptr = *ptrptr;
char name[32];

c = *(++ptr);
if (c == 0) goto ERROR_RETURN;

*negptr = FALSE;

/* \P or \p can be followed by a name in {}, optionally preceded by ^ for
negation. */

if (c == CHAR_LEFT_CURLY_BRACKET)
  {
  if (ptr[1] == CHAR_CIRCUMFLEX_ACCENT)
    {
    *negptr = TRUE;
    ptr++;
    }
  for (i = 0; i < (int)sizeof(name) - 1; i++)
    {
    c = *(++ptr);
    if (c == 0) goto ERROR_RETURN;
    if (c == CHAR_RIGHT_CURLY_BRACKET) break;
    name[i] = c;
    }
  if (c != CHAR_RIGHT_CURLY_BRACKET) goto ERROR_RETURN;
  name[i] = 0;
  }

/* Otherwise there is just one following character */

else
  {
  name[0] = c;
  name[1] = 0;
  }

*ptrptr = ptr;

/* Search for a recognized property name using binary chop */

bot = 0;
top = _pcre_utt_size;

while (bot < top)
  {
  i = (bot + top) >> 1;
  c = strcmp(name, _pcre_utt_names + _pcre_utt[i].name_offset);
  if (c == 0)
    {
    *dptr = _pcre_utt[i].value;
    return _pcre_utt[i].type;
    }
  if (c > 0) bot = i + 1; else top = i;
  }

*errorcodeptr = ERR47;
*ptrptr = ptr;
return -1;

ERROR_RETURN:
*errorcodeptr = ERR46;
*ptrptr = ptr;
return -1;
}
#endif




/*************************************************
* Read repeat counts *
*************************************************/

/* Read an item of the form {n,m} and return the values. This is called only
after is_counted_repeat() has confirmed that a repeat-count quantifier exists,
so the syntax is guaranteed to be correct, but we need to check the values.

Arguments:
p pointer to first char after '{'
minp pointer to int for min
maxp pointer to int for max
returned as -1 if no max
errorcodeptr points to error code variable

Returns: pointer to '}' on success;
current ptr on error, with errorcodeptr set non-zero
*/

static const uschar *
read_repeat_counts(const uschar *p, int *minp, int *maxp, int *errorcodeptr)
{
int min = 0;
int max = -1;

/* Read the minimum value and do a paranoid check: a negative value indicates
an integer overflow. */

while ((digitab[*p] & ctype_digit) != 0) min = min * 10 + *p++ - CHAR_0;
if (min < 0 || min > 65535)
  {
  *errorcodeptr = ERR5;
  return p;
  }

/* Read the maximum value if there is one, and again do a paranoid on its size.
Also, max must not be less than min. */

if (*p == CHAR_RIGHT_CURLY_BRACKET) max = min; else
  {
  if (*(++p) != CHAR_RIGHT_CURLY_BRACKET)
    {
    max = 0;
    while((digitab[*p] & ctype_digit) != 0) max = max * 10 + *p++ - CHAR_0;
    if (max < 0 || max > 65535)
      {
      *errorcodeptr = ERR5;
      return p;
      }
    if (max < min)
      {
      *errorcodeptr = ERR4;
      return p;
      }
    }
  }

/* Fill in the required variables, and pass back the pointer to the terminating
'}'. */

*minp = min;
*maxp = max;
return p;
}



/*************************************************
* Subroutine for finding forward reference *
*************************************************/

/* This recursive function is called only from find_parens() below. The
top-level call starts at the beginning of the pattern. All other calls must
start at a parenthesis. It scans along a pattern's text looking for capturing
subpatterns, and counting them. If it finds a named pattern that matches the
name it is given, it returns its number. Alternatively, if the name is NULL, it
returns when it reaches a given numbered subpattern. Recursion is used to keep
track of subpatterns that reset the capturing group numbers - the (?| feature.

This function was originally called only from the second pass, in which we know
that if (?< or (?' or (?P< is encountered, the name will be correctly
terminated because that is checked in the first pass. There is now one call to
this function in the first pass, to check for a recursive back reference by
name (so that we can make the whole group atomic). In this case, we need check
only up to the current position in the pattern, and that is still OK because
and previous occurrences will have been checked. To make this work, the test
for "end of pattern" is a check against cd->end_pattern in the main loop,
instead of looking for a binary zero. This means that the special first-pass
call can adjust cd->end_pattern temporarily. (Checks for binary zero while
processing items within the loop are OK, because afterwards the main loop will
terminate.)

Arguments:
ptrptr address of the current character pointer (updated)
cd compile background data
name name to seek, or NULL if seeking a numbered subpattern
lorn name length, or subpattern number if name is NULL
xmode TRUE if we are in /x mode
utf8 TRUE if we are in UTF-8 mode
count pointer to the current capturing subpattern number (updated)

Returns: the number of the named subpattern, or -1 if not found
*/

static int
find_parens_sub(uschar **ptrptr, compile_data *cd, const uschar *name, int lorn,
  BOOL xmode, BOOL utf8, int *count)
{
uschar *ptr = *ptrptr;
int start_count = *count;
int hwm_count = start_count;
BOOL dup_parens = FALSE;

/* If the first character is a parenthesis, check on the type of group we are
dealing with. The very first call may not start with a parenthesis. */

if (ptr[0] == CHAR_LEFT_PARENTHESIS)
  {
  /* Handle specials such as (*SKIP) or (*UTF8) etc. */

  if (ptr[1] == CHAR_ASTERISK) ptr += 2;

  /* Handle a normal, unnamed capturing parenthesis. */

  else if (ptr[1] != CHAR_QUESTION_MARK)
    {
    *count += 1;
    if (name == NULL && *count == lorn) return *count;
    ptr++;
    }

  /* All cases now have (? at the start. Remember when we are in a group
where the parenthesis numbers are duplicated. */

  else if (ptr[2] == CHAR_VERTICAL_LINE)
    {
    ptr += 3;
    dup_parens = TRUE;
    }

  /* Handle comments; all characters are allowed until a ket is reached. */

  else if (ptr[2] == CHAR_NUMBER_SIGN)
    {
    for (ptr += 3; *ptr != 0; ptr++) if (*ptr == CHAR_RIGHT_PARENTHESIS) break;
    goto FAIL_EXIT;
    }

  /* Handle a condition. If it is an assertion, just carry on so that it
is processed as normal. If not, skip to the closing parenthesis of the
condition (there can't be any nested parens). */

  else if (ptr[2] == CHAR_LEFT_PARENTHESIS)
    {
    ptr += 2;
    if (ptr[1] != CHAR_QUESTION_MARK)
      {
      while (*ptr != 0 && *ptr != CHAR_RIGHT_PARENTHESIS) ptr++;
      if (*ptr != 0) ptr++;
      }
    }

  /* Start with (? but not a condition. */

  else
    {
    ptr += 2;
    if (*ptr == CHAR_P) ptr++; /* Allow optional P */

    /* We have to disambiguate (?<! and (?<= from (?<name> for named groups */

    if ((*ptr == CHAR_LESS_THAN_SIGN && ptr[1] != CHAR_EXCLAMATION_MARK &&
        ptr[1] != CHAR_EQUALS_SIGN) || *ptr == CHAR_APOSTROPHE)
      {
      int term;
      const uschar *thisname;
      *count += 1;
      if (name == NULL && *count == lorn) return *count;
      term = *ptr++;
      if (term == CHAR_LESS_THAN_SIGN) term = CHAR_GREATER_THAN_SIGN;
      thisname = ptr;
      while (*ptr != term) ptr++;
      if (name != NULL && lorn == ptr - thisname &&
          strncmp((const char *)name, (const char *)thisname, lorn) == 0)
        return *count;
      term++;
      }
    }
  }

/* Past any initial parenthesis handling, scan for parentheses or vertical
bars. Stop if we get to cd->end_pattern. Note that this is important for the
first-pass call when this value is temporarily adjusted to stop at the current
position. So DO NOT change this to a test for binary zero. */

for (; ptr < cd->end_pattern; ptr++)
  {
  /* Skip over backslashed characters and also entire \Q...\E */

  if (*ptr == CHAR_BACKSLASH)
    {
    if (*(++ptr) == 0) goto FAIL_EXIT;
    if (*ptr == CHAR_Q) for (;;)
      {
      while (*(++ptr) != 0 && *ptr != CHAR_BACKSLASH) {};
      if (*ptr == 0) goto FAIL_EXIT;
      if (*(++ptr) == CHAR_E) break;
      }
    continue;
    }

  /* Skip over character classes; this logic must be similar to the way they
are handled for real. If the first character is '^', skip it. Also, if the
first few characters (either before or after ^) are \Q\E or \E we skip them
too. This makes for compatibility with Perl. Note the use of STR macros to
encode "Q\\E" so that it works in UTF-8 on EBCDIC platforms. */

  if (*ptr == CHAR_LEFT_SQUARE_BRACKET)
    {
    BOOL negate_class = FALSE;
    for (;;)
      {
      if (ptr[1] == CHAR_BACKSLASH)
        {
        if (ptr[2] == CHAR_E)
          ptr+= 2;
        else if (strncmp((const char *)ptr+2,
                 STR_Q STR_BACKSLASH STR_E, 3) == 0)
          ptr += 4;
        else
          break;
        }
      else if (!negate_class && ptr[1] == CHAR_CIRCUMFLEX_ACCENT)
        {
        negate_class = TRUE;
        ptr++;
        }
      else break;
      }

    /* If the next character is ']', it is a data character that must be
skipped, except in JavaScript compatibility mode. */

    if (ptr[1] == CHAR_RIGHT_SQUARE_BRACKET &&
        (cd->external_options & PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT) == 0)
      ptr++;

    while (*(++ptr) != CHAR_RIGHT_SQUARE_BRACKET)
      {
      if (*ptr == 0) return -1;
      if (*ptr == CHAR_BACKSLASH)
        {
        if (*(++ptr) == 0) goto FAIL_EXIT;
        if (*ptr == CHAR_Q) for (;;)
          {
          while (*(++ptr) != 0 && *ptr != CHAR_BACKSLASH) {};
          if (*ptr == 0) goto FAIL_EXIT;
          if (*(++ptr) == CHAR_E) break;
          }
        continue;
        }
      }
    continue;
    }

  /* Skip comments in /x mode */

  if (xmode && *ptr == CHAR_NUMBER_SIGN)
    {
    ptr++;
    while (*ptr != 0)
      {
      if (IS_NEWLINE(ptr)) { ptr += cd->nllen - 1; break; }
      ptr++;
#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
      if (utf8) while ((*ptr & 0xc0) == 0x80) ptr++;
#endif
      }
    if (*ptr == 0) goto FAIL_EXIT;
    continue;
    }

  /* Check for the special metacharacters */

  if (*ptr == CHAR_LEFT_PARENTHESIS)
    {
    int rc = find_parens_sub(&ptr, cd, name, lorn, xmode, utf8, count);
    if (rc > 0) return rc;
    if (*ptr == 0) goto FAIL_EXIT;
    }

  else if (*ptr == CHAR_RIGHT_PARENTHESIS)
    {
    if (dup_parens && *count < hwm_count) *count = hwm_count;
    goto FAIL_EXIT;
    }

  else if (*ptr == CHAR_VERTICAL_LINE && dup_parens)
    {
    if (*count > hwm_count) hwm_count = *count;
    *count = start_count;
    }
  }

FAIL_EXIT:
*ptrptr = ptr;
return -1;
}




/*************************************************
* Find forward referenced subpattern *
*************************************************/

/* This function scans along a pattern's text looking for capturing
subpatterns, and counting them. If it finds a named pattern that matches the
name it is given, it returns its number. Alternatively, if the name is NULL, it
returns when it reaches a given numbered subpattern. This is used for forward
references to subpatterns. We used to be able to start this scan from the
current compiling point, using the current count value from cd->bracount, and
do it all in a single loop, but the addition of the possibility of duplicate
subpattern numbers means that we have to scan from the very start, in order to
take account of such duplicates, and to use a recursive function to keep track
of the different types of group.

Arguments:
cd compile background data
name name to seek, or NULL if seeking a numbered subpattern
lorn name length, or subpattern number if name is NULL
xmode TRUE if we are in /x mode
utf8 TRUE if we are in UTF-8 mode

Returns: the number of the found subpattern, or -1 if not found
*/

static int
find_parens(compile_data *cd, const uschar *name, int lorn, BOOL xmode,
  BOOL utf8)
{
uschar *ptr = (uschar *)cd->start_pattern;
int count = 0;
int rc;

/* If the pattern does not start with an opening parenthesis, the first call
to find_parens_sub() will scan right to the end (if necessary). However, if it
does start with a parenthesis, find_parens_sub() will return when it hits the
matching closing parens. That is why we have to have a loop. */

for (;;)
  {
  rc = find_parens_sub(&ptr, cd, name, lorn, xmode, utf8, &count);
  if (rc > 0 || *ptr++ == 0) break;
  }

return rc;
}




/*************************************************
* Find first significant op code *
*************************************************/

/* This is called by several functions that scan a compiled expression looking
for a fixed first character, or an anchoring op code etc. It skips over things
that do not influence this. For some calls, it makes sense to skip negative
forward and all backward assertions, and also the \b assertion; for others it
does not.

Arguments:
code pointer to the start of the group
skipassert TRUE if certain assertions are to be skipped

Returns: pointer to the first significant opcode
*/

static const uschar*
first_significant_code(const uschar *code, BOOL skipassert)
{
for (;;)
  {
  switch ((int)*code)
    {
    case OP_ASSERT_NOT:
    case OP_ASSERTBACK:
    case OP_ASSERTBACK_NOT:
    if (!skipassert) return code;
    do code += GET(code, 1); while (*code == OP_ALT);
    code += _pcre_OP_lengths[*code];
    break;

    case OP_WORD_BOUNDARY:
    case OP_NOT_WORD_BOUNDARY:
    if (!skipassert) return code;
    /* Fall through */

    case OP_CALLOUT:
    case OP_CREF:
    case OP_NCREF:
    case OP_RREF:
    case OP_NRREF:
    case OP_DEF:
    code += _pcre_OP_lengths[*code];
    break;

    default:
    return code;
    }
  }
/* Control never reaches here */
}




/*************************************************
* Find the fixed length of a branch *
*************************************************/

/* Scan a branch and compute the fixed length of subject that will match it,
if the length is fixed. This is needed for dealing with backward assertions.
In UTF8 mode, the result is in characters rather than bytes. The branch is
temporarily terminated with OP_END when this function is called.

This function is called when a backward assertion is encountered, so that if it
fails, the error message can point to the correct place in the pattern.
However, we cannot do this when the assertion contains subroutine calls,
because they can be forward references. We solve this by remembering this case
and doing the check at the end; a flag specifies which mode we are running in.

Arguments:
code points to the start of the pattern (the bracket)
utf8 TRUE in UTF-8 mode
atend TRUE if called when the pattern is complete
cd the "compile data" structure

Returns: the fixed length,
or -1 if there is no fixed length,
or -2 if \C was encountered
or -3 if an OP_RECURSE item was encountered and atend is FALSE
*/

static int
find_fixedlength(uschar *code, BOOL utf8, BOOL atend, compile_data *cd)
{
int length = -1;

register int branchlength = 0;
register uschar *cc = code + 1 + LINK_SIZE;

/* Scan along the opcodes for this branch. If we get to the end of the
branch, check the length against that of the other branches. */

for (;;)
  {
  int d;
  uschar *ce, *cs;
  register int op = *cc;
  switch (op)
    {
    /* We only need to continue for OP_CBRA (normal capturing bracket) and
OP_BRA (normal non-capturing bracket) because the other variants of these
opcodes are all concerned with unlimited repeated groups, which of course
are not of fixed length. They will cause a -1 response from the default
case of this switch. */

    case OP_CBRA:
    case OP_BRA:
    case OP_ONCE:
    case OP_COND:
    d = find_fixedlength(cc + ((op == OP_CBRA)? 2:0), utf8, atend, cd);
    if (d < 0) return d;
    branchlength += d;
    do cc += GET(cc, 1); while (*cc == OP_ALT);
    cc += 1 + LINK_SIZE;
    break;

    /* Reached end of a branch; if it's a ket it is the end of a nested
call. If it's ALT it is an alternation in a nested call. If it is
END it's the end of the outer call. All can be handled by the same code.
Note that we must not include the OP_KETRxxx opcodes here, because they
all imply an unlimited repeat. */

    case OP_ALT:
    case OP_KET:
    case OP_END:
    if (length < 0) length = branchlength;
      else if (length != branchlength) return -1;
    if (*cc != OP_ALT) return length;
    cc += 1 + LINK_SIZE;
    branchlength = 0;
    break;

    /* A true recursion implies not fixed length, but a subroutine call may
be OK. If the subroutine is a forward reference, we can't deal with
it until the end of the pattern, so return -3. */

    case OP_RECURSE:
    if (!atend) return -3;
    cs = ce = (uschar *)cd->start_code + GET(cc, 1); /* Start subpattern */
    do ce += GET(ce, 1); while (*ce == OP_ALT); /* End subpattern */
    if (cc > cs && cc < ce) return -1; /* Recursion */
    d = find_fixedlength(cs + 2, utf8, atend, cd);
    if (d < 0) return d;
    branchlength += d;
    cc += 1 + LINK_SIZE;
    break;

    /* Skip over assertive subpatterns */

    case OP_ASSERT:
    case OP_ASSERT_NOT:
    case OP_ASSERTBACK:
    case OP_ASSERTBACK_NOT:
    do cc += GET(cc, 1); while (*cc == OP_ALT);
    /* Fall through */

    /* Skip over things that don't match chars */

    case OP_REVERSE:
    case OP_CREF:
    case OP_NCREF:
    case OP_RREF:
    case OP_NRREF:
    case OP_DEF:
    case OP_CALLOUT:
    case OP_SOD:
    case OP_SOM:
    case OP_SET_SOM:
    case OP_EOD:
    case OP_EODN:
    case OP_CIRC:
    case OP_CIRCM:
    case OP_DOLL:
    case OP_DOLLM:
    case OP_NOT_WORD_BOUNDARY:
    case OP_WORD_BOUNDARY:
    cc += _pcre_OP_lengths[*cc];
    break;

    /* Handle literal characters */

    case OP_CHAR:
    case OP_CHARI:
    case OP_NOT:
    case OP_NOTI:
    branchlength++;
    cc += 2;
#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
    if (utf8 && cc[-1] >= 0xc0) cc += _pcre_utf8_table4[cc[-1] & 0x3f];
#endif
    break;

    /* Handle exact repetitions. The count is already in characters, but we
need to skip over a multibyte character in UTF8 mode. */

    case OP_EXACT:
    branchlength += GET2(cc,1);
    cc += 4;
#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
    if (utf8 && cc[-1] >= 0xc0) cc += _pcre_utf8_table4[cc[-1] & 0x3f];
#endif
    break;

    case OP_TYPEEXACT:
    branchlength += GET2(cc,1);
    if (cc[3] == OP_PROP || cc[3] == OP_NOTPROP) cc += 2;
    cc += 4;
    break;

    /* Handle single-char matchers */

    case OP_PROP:
    case OP_NOTPROP:
    cc += 2;
    /* Fall through */

    case OP_NOT_DIGIT:
    case OP_DIGIT:
    case OP_NOT_WHITESPACE:
    case OP_WHITESPACE:
    case OP_NOT_WORDCHAR:
    case OP_WORDCHAR:
    case OP_ANY:
    case OP_ALLANY:
    branchlength++;
    cc++;
    break;

    /* The single-byte matcher isn't allowed */

    case OP_ANYBYTE:
    return -2;

    /* Check a class for variable quantification */

#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
    case OP_XCLASS:
    cc += GET(cc, 1) - 33;
    /* Fall through */
#endif

    case OP_CLASS:
    case OP_NCLASS:
    cc += 33;

    switch (*cc)
      {
      case OP_CRSTAR:
      case OP_CRMINSTAR:
      case OP_CRQUERY:
      case OP_CRMINQUERY:
      return -1;

      case OP_CRRANGE:
      case OP_CRMINRANGE:
      if (GET2(cc,1) != GET2(cc,3)) return -1;
      branchlength += GET2(cc,1);
      cc += 5;
      break;

      default:
      branchlength++;
      }
    break;

    /* Anything else is variable length */

    default:
    return -1;
    }
  }
/* Control never gets here */
}




/*************************************************
* Scan compiled regex for specific bracket *
*************************************************/

/* This little function scans through a compiled pattern until it finds a
capturing bracket with the given number, or, if the number is negative, an
instance of OP_REVERSE for a lookbehind. The function is global in the C sense
so that it can be called from pcre_study() when finding the minimum matching
length.

Arguments:
code points to start of expression
utf8 TRUE in UTF-8 mode
number the required bracket number or negative to find a lookbehind

Returns: pointer to the opcode for the bracket, or NULL if not found
*/

const uschar *
_pcre_find_bracket(const uschar *code, BOOL utf8, int number)
{
for (;;)
  {
  register int c = *code;

  if (c == OP_END) return NULL;

  /* XCLASS is used for classes that cannot be represented just by a bit
map. This includes negated single high-valued characters. The length in
the table is zero; the actual length is stored in the compiled code. */

  if (c == OP_XCLASS) code += GET(code, 1);

  /* Handle recursion */

  else if (c == OP_REVERSE)
    {
    if (number < 0) return (uschar *)code;
    code += _pcre_OP_lengths[c];
    }

  /* Handle capturing bracket */

  else if (c == OP_CBRA || c == OP_SCBRA ||
           c == OP_CBRAPOS || c == OP_SCBRAPOS)
    {
    int n = GET2(code, 1+LINK_SIZE);
    if (n == number) return (uschar *)code;
    code += _pcre_OP_lengths[c];
    }

  /* Otherwise, we can get the item's length from the table, except that for
repeated character types, we have to test for \p and \P, which have an extra
two bytes of parameters, and for MARK/PRUNE/SKIP/THEN with an argument, we
must add in its length. */

  else
    {
    switch(c)
      {
      case OP_TYPESTAR:
      case OP_TYPEMINSTAR:
      case OP_TYPEPLUS:
      case OP_TYPEMINPLUS:
      case OP_TYPEQUERY:
      case OP_TYPEMINQUERY:
      case OP_TYPEPOSSTAR:
      case OP_TYPEPOSPLUS:
      case OP_TYPEPOSQUERY:
      if (code[1] == OP_PROP || code[1] == OP_NOTPROP) code += 2;
      break;

      case OP_TYPEUPTO:
      case OP_TYPEMINUPTO:
      case OP_TYPEEXACT:
      case OP_TYPEPOSUPTO:
      if (code[3] == OP_PROP || code[3] == OP_NOTPROP) code += 2;
      break;

      case OP_MARK:
      case OP_PRUNE_ARG:
      case OP_SKIP_ARG:
      code += code[1];
      break;

      case OP_THEN_ARG:
      code += code[1+LINK_SIZE];
      break;
      }

    /* Add in the fixed length from the table */

    code += _pcre_OP_lengths[c];

  /* In UTF-8 mode, opcodes that are followed by a character may be followed by
a multi-byte character. The length in the table is a minimum, so we have to
arrange to skip the extra bytes. */

#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
    if (utf8) switch(c)
      {
      case OP_CHAR:
      case OP_CHARI:
      case OP_EXACT:
      case OP_EXACTI:
      case OP_UPTO:
      case OP_UPTOI:
      case OP_MINUPTO:
      case OP_MINUPTOI:
      case OP_POSUPTO:
      case OP_POSUPTOI:
      case OP_STAR:
      case OP_STARI:
      case OP_MINSTAR:
      case OP_MINSTARI:
      case OP_POSSTAR:
      case OP_POSSTARI:
      case OP_PLUS:
      case OP_PLUSI:
      case OP_MINPLUS:
      case OP_MINPLUSI:
      case OP_POSPLUS:
      case OP_POSPLUSI:
      case OP_QUERY:
      case OP_QUERYI:
      case OP_MINQUERY:
      case OP_MINQUERYI:
      case OP_POSQUERY:
      case OP_POSQUERYI:
      if (code[-1] >= 0xc0) code += _pcre_utf8_table4[code[-1] & 0x3f];
      break;
      }
#else
    (void)(utf8); /* Keep compiler happy by referencing function argument */
#endif
    }
  }
}



/*************************************************
* Scan compiled regex for recursion reference *
*************************************************/

/* This little function scans through a compiled pattern until it finds an
instance of OP_RECURSE.

Arguments:
code points to start of expression
utf8 TRUE in UTF-8 mode

Returns: pointer to the opcode for OP_RECURSE, or NULL if not found
*/

static const uschar *
find_recurse(const uschar *code, BOOL utf8)
{
for (;;)
  {
  register int c = *code;
  if (c == OP_END) return NULL;
  if (c == OP_RECURSE) return code;

  /* XCLASS is used for classes that cannot be represented just by a bit
map. This includes negated single high-valued characters. The length in
the table is zero; the actual length is stored in the compiled code. */

  if (c == OP_XCLASS) code += GET(code, 1);

  /* Otherwise, we can get the item's length from the table, except that for
repeated character types, we have to test for \p and \P, which have an extra
two bytes of parameters, and for MARK/PRUNE/SKIP/THEN with an argument, we
must add in its length. */

  else
    {
    switch(c)
      {
      case OP_TYPESTAR:
      case OP_TYPEMINSTAR:
      case OP_TYPEPLUS:
      case OP_TYPEMINPLUS:
      case OP_TYPEQUERY:
      case OP_TYPEMINQUERY:
      case OP_TYPEPOSSTAR:
      case OP_TYPEPOSPLUS:
      case OP_TYPEPOSQUERY:
      if (code[1] == OP_PROP || code[1] == OP_NOTPROP) code += 2;
      break;

      case OP_TYPEPOSUPTO:
      case OP_TYPEUPTO:
      case OP_TYPEMINUPTO:
      case OP_TYPEEXACT:
      if (code[3] == OP_PROP || code[3] == OP_NOTPROP) code += 2;
      break;

      case OP_MARK:
      case OP_PRUNE_ARG:
      case OP_SKIP_ARG:
      code += code[1];
      break;

      case OP_THEN_ARG:
      code += code[1+LINK_SIZE];
      break;
      }

    /* Add in the fixed length from the table */

    code += _pcre_OP_lengths[c];

    /* In UTF-8 mode, opcodes that are followed by a character may be followed
by a multi-byte character. The length in the table is a minimum, so we have
to arrange to skip the extra bytes. */

#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
    if (utf8) switch(c)
      {
      case OP_CHAR:
      case OP_CHARI:
      case OP_EXACT:
      case OP_EXACTI:
      case OP_UPTO:
      case OP_UPTOI:
      case OP_MINUPTO:
      case OP_MINUPTOI:
      case OP_POSUPTO:
      case OP_POSUPTOI:
      case OP_STAR:
      case OP_STARI:
      case OP_MINSTAR:
      case OP_MINSTARI:
      case OP_POSSTAR:
      case OP_POSSTARI:
      case OP_PLUS:
      case OP_PLUSI:
      case OP_MINPLUS:
      case OP_MINPLUSI:
      case OP_POSPLUS:
      case OP_POSPLUSI:
      case OP_QUERY:
      case OP_QUERYI:
      case OP_MINQUERY:
      case OP_MINQUERYI:
      case OP_POSQUERY:
      case OP_POSQUERYI:
      if (code[-1] >= 0xc0) code += _pcre_utf8_table4[code[-1] & 0x3f];
      break;
      }
#else
    (void)(utf8); /* Keep compiler happy by referencing function argument */
#endif
    }
  }
}



/*************************************************
* Scan compiled branch for non-emptiness *
*************************************************/

/* This function scans through a branch of a compiled pattern to see whether it
can match the empty string or not. It is called from could_be_empty()
below and from compile_branch() when checking for an unlimited repeat of a
group that can match nothing. Note that first_significant_code() skips over
backward and negative forward assertions when its final argument is TRUE. If we
hit an unclosed bracket, we return "empty" - this means we've struck an inner
bracket whose current branch will already have been scanned.

Arguments:
code points to start of search
endcode points to where to stop
utf8 TRUE if in UTF8 mode
cd contains pointers to tables etc.

Returns: TRUE if what is matched could be empty
*/

static BOOL
could_be_empty_branch(const uschar *code, const uschar *endcode, BOOL utf8,
  compile_data *cd)
{
register int c;
for (code = first_significant_code(code + _pcre_OP_lengths[*code], TRUE);
     code < endcode;
     code = first_significant_code(code + _pcre_OP_lengths[c], TRUE))
  {
  const uschar *ccode;

  c = *code;

  /* Skip over forward assertions; the other assertions are skipped by
first_significant_code() with a TRUE final argument. */

  if (c == OP_ASSERT)
    {
    do code += GET(code, 1); while (*code == OP_ALT);
    c = *code;
    continue;
    }

  /* For a recursion/subroutine call, if its end has been reached, which
implies a backward reference subroutine call, we can scan it. If it's a
forward reference subroutine call, we can't. To detect forward reference
we have to scan up the list that is kept in the workspace. This function is
called only when doing the real compile, not during the pre-compile that
measures the size of the compiled pattern. */

  if (c == OP_RECURSE)
    {
    const uschar *scode;
    BOOL empty_branch;

    /* Test for forward reference */

    for (scode = cd->start_workspace; scode < cd->hwm; scode += LINK_SIZE)
      if (GET(scode, 0) == code + 1 - cd->start_code) return TRUE;

    /* Not a forward reference, test for completed backward reference */

    empty_branch = FALSE;
    scode = cd->start_code + GET(code, 1);
    if (GET(scode, 1) == 0) return TRUE; /* Unclosed */

    /* Completed backwards reference */

    do
      {
      if (could_be_empty_branch(scode, endcode, utf8, cd))
        {
        empty_branch = TRUE;
        break;
        }
      scode += GET(scode, 1);
      }
    while (*scode == OP_ALT);

    if (!empty_branch) return FALSE; /* All branches are non-empty */
    continue;
    }

  /* Groups with zero repeats can of course be empty; skip them. */

  if (c == OP_BRAZERO || c == OP_BRAMINZERO || c == OP_SKIPZERO ||
      c == OP_BRAPOSZERO)
    {
    code += _pcre_OP_lengths[c];
    do code += GET(code, 1); while (*code == OP_ALT);
    c = *code;
    continue;
    }

  /* A nested group that is already marked as "could be empty" can just be
skipped. */

  if (c == OP_SBRA || c == OP_SBRAPOS ||
      c == OP_SCBRA || c == OP_SCBRAPOS)
    {
    do code += GET(code, 1); while (*code == OP_ALT);
    c = *code;
    continue;
    }

  /* For other groups, scan the branches. */

  if (c == OP_BRA || c == OP_BRAPOS ||
      c == OP_CBRA || c == OP_CBRAPOS ||
      c == OP_ONCE || c == OP_COND)
    {
    BOOL empty_branch;
    if (GET(code, 1) == 0) return TRUE; /* Hit unclosed bracket */

    /* If a conditional group has only one branch, there is a second, implied,
empty branch, so just skip over the conditional, because it could be empty.
Otherwise, scan the individual branches of the group. */

    if (c == OP_COND && code[GET(code, 1)] != OP_ALT)
      code += GET(code, 1);
    else
      {
      empty_branch = FALSE;
      do
        {
        if (!empty_branch && could_be_empty_branch(code, endcode, utf8, cd))
          empty_branch = TRUE;
        code += GET(code, 1);
        }
      while (*code == OP_ALT);
      if (!empty_branch) return FALSE; /* All branches are non-empty */
      }

    c = *code;
    continue;
    }

  /* Handle the other opcodes */

  switch (c)
    {
    /* Check for quantifiers after a class. XCLASS is used for classes that
cannot be represented just by a bit map. This includes negated single
high-valued characters. The length in _pcre_OP_lengths[] is zero; the
actual length is stored in the compiled code, so we must update "code"
here. */

#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
    case OP_XCLASS:
    ccode = code += GET(code, 1);
    goto CHECK_CLASS_REPEAT;
#endif

    case OP_CLASS:
    case OP_NCLASS:
    ccode = code + 33;

#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
    CHECK_CLASS_REPEAT:
#endif

    switch (*ccode)
      {
      case OP_CRSTAR: /* These could be empty; continue */
      case OP_CRMINSTAR:
      case OP_CRQUERY:
      case OP_CRMINQUERY:
      break;

      default: /* Non-repeat => class must match */
      case OP_CRPLUS: /* These repeats aren't empty */
      case OP_CRMINPLUS:
      return FALSE;

      case OP_CRRANGE:
      case OP_CRMINRANGE:
      if (GET2(ccode, 1) > 0) return FALSE; /* Minimum > 0 */
      break;
      }
    break;

    /* Opcodes that must match a character */

    case OP_PROP:
    case OP_NOTPROP:
    case OP_EXTUNI:
    case OP_NOT_DIGIT:
    case OP_DIGIT:
    case OP_NOT_WHITESPACE:
    case OP_WHITESPACE:
    case OP_NOT_WORDCHAR:
    case OP_WORDCHAR:
    case OP_ANY:
    case OP_ALLANY:
    case OP_ANYBYTE:
    case OP_CHAR:
    case OP_CHARI:
    case OP_NOT:
    case OP_NOTI:
    case OP_PLUS:
    case OP_MINPLUS:
    case OP_POSPLUS:
    case OP_EXACT:
    case OP_NOTPLUS:
    case OP_NOTMINPLUS:
    case OP_NOTPOSPLUS:
    case OP_NOTEXACT:
    case OP_TYPEPLUS:
    case OP_TYPEMINPLUS:
    case OP_TYPEPOSPLUS:
    case OP_TYPEEXACT:
    return FALSE;

    /* These are going to continue, as they may be empty, but we have to
fudge the length for the \p and \P cases. */

    case OP_TYPESTAR:
    case OP_TYPEMINSTAR:
    case OP_TYPEPOSSTAR:
    case OP_TYPEQUERY:
    case OP_TYPEMINQUERY:
    case OP_TYPEPOSQUERY:
    if (code[1] == OP_PROP || code[1] == OP_NOTPROP) code += 2;
    break;

    /* Same for these */

    case OP_TYPEUPTO:
    case OP_TYPEMINUPTO:
    case OP_TYPEPOSUPTO:
    if (code[3] == OP_PROP || code[3] == OP_NOTPROP) code += 2;
    break;

    /* End of branch */

    case OP_KET:
    case OP_KETRMAX:
    case OP_KETRMIN:
    case OP_KETRPOS:
    case OP_ALT:
    return TRUE;

    /* In UTF-8 mode, STAR, MINSTAR, POSSTAR, QUERY, MINQUERY, POSQUERY, UPTO,
MINUPTO, and POSUPTO may be followed by a multibyte character */

#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
    case OP_STAR:
    case OP_STARI:
    case OP_MINSTAR:
    case OP_MINSTARI:
    case OP_POSSTAR:
    case OP_POSSTARI:
    case OP_QUERY:
    case OP_QUERYI:
    case OP_MINQUERY:
    case OP_MINQUERYI:
    case OP_POSQUERY:
    case OP_POSQUERYI:
    if (utf8 && code[1] >= 0xc0) code += _pcre_utf8_table4[code[1] & 0x3f];
    break;

    case OP_UPTO:
    case OP_UPTOI:
    case OP_MINUPTO:
    case OP_MINUPTOI:
    case OP_POSUPTO:
    case OP_POSUPTOI:
    if (utf8 && code[3] >= 0xc0) code += _pcre_utf8_table4[code[3] & 0x3f];
    break;
#endif

    /* MARK, and PRUNE/SKIP/THEN with an argument must skip over the argument
string. */

    case OP_MARK:
    case OP_PRUNE_ARG:
    case OP_SKIP_ARG:
    code += code[1];
    break;

    case OP_THEN_ARG:
    code += code[1+LINK_SIZE];
    break;

    /* None of the remaining opcodes are required to match a character. */

    default:
    break;
    }
  }

return TRUE;
}



/*************************************************
* Scan compiled regex for non-emptiness *
*************************************************/

/* This function is called to check for left recursive calls. We want to check
the current branch of the current pattern to see if it could match the empty
string. If it could, we must look outwards for branches at other levels,
stopping when we pass beyond the bracket which is the subject of the recursion.
This function is called only during the real compile, not during the
pre-compile.

Arguments:
code points to start of the recursion
endcode points to where to stop (current RECURSE item)
bcptr points to the chain of current (unclosed) branch starts
utf8 TRUE if in UTF-8 mode
cd pointers to tables etc

Returns: TRUE if what is matched could be empty
*/

static BOOL
could_be_empty(const uschar *code, const uschar *endcode, branch_chain *bcptr,
  BOOL utf8, compile_data *cd)
{
while (bcptr != NULL && bcptr->current_branch >= code)
  {
  if (!could_be_empty_branch(bcptr->current_branch, endcode, utf8, cd))
    return FALSE;
  bcptr = bcptr->outer;
  }
return TRUE;
}



/*************************************************
* Check for POSIX class syntax *
*************************************************/

/* This function is called when the sequence "[:" or "[." or "[=" is
encountered in a character class. It checks whether this is followed by a
sequence of characters terminated by a matching ":]" or ".]" or "=]". If we
reach an unescaped ']' without the special preceding character, return FALSE.

Originally, this function only recognized a sequence of letters between the
terminators, but it seems that Perl recognizes any sequence of characters,
though of course unknown POSIX names are subsequently rejected. Perl gives an
"Unknown POSIX class" error for [:f\oo:] for example, where previously PCRE
didn't consider this to be a POSIX class. Likewise for [:1234:].

The problem in trying to be exactly like Perl is in the handling of escapes. We
have to be sure that [abc[:x\]pqr] is *not* treated as containing a POSIX
class, but [abc[:x\]pqr:]] is (so that an error can be generated). The code
below handles the special case of \], but does not try to do any other escape
processing. This makes it different from Perl for cases such as [:l\ower:]
where Perl recognizes it as the POSIX class "lower" but PCRE does not recognize
"l\ower". This is a lesser evil that not diagnosing bad classes when Perl does,
I think.

A user pointed out that PCRE was rejecting [:a[:digit:]] whereas Perl was not.
It seems that the appearance of a nested POSIX class supersedes an apparent
external class. For example, [:a[:digit:]b:] matches "a", "b", ":", or
a digit. Also, unescaped square brackets may also appear as part of class
names. For example, [:a[:abc]b:] gives unknown class "[:abc]b:]"in Perl.

Arguments:
ptr pointer to the initial [
endptr where to return the end pointer

Returns: TRUE or FALSE
*/

static BOOL
check_posix_syntax(const uschar *ptr, const uschar **endptr)
{
int terminator; /* Don't combine these lines; the Solaris cc */
terminator = *(++ptr); /* compiler warns about "non-constant" initializer. */
for (++ptr; *ptr != 0; ptr++)
  {
  if (*ptr == CHAR_BACKSLASH && ptr[1] == CHAR_RIGHT_SQUARE_BRACKET)
    ptr++;
  else
    {
    if (*ptr == terminator && ptr[1] == CHAR_RIGHT_SQUARE_BRACKET)
      {
      *endptr = ptr;
      return TRUE;
      }
    if (*ptr == CHAR_LEFT_SQUARE_BRACKET &&
         (ptr[1] == CHAR_COLON || ptr[1] == CHAR_DOT ||
          ptr[1] == CHAR_EQUALS_SIGN) &&
        check_posix_syntax(ptr, endptr))
      return FALSE;
    }
  }
return FALSE;
}




/*************************************************
* Check POSIX class name *
*************************************************/

/* This function is called to check the name given in a POSIX-style class entry
such as [:alnum:].

Arguments:
ptr points to the first letter
len the length of the name

Returns: a value representing the name, or -1 if unknown
*/

static int
check_posix_name(const uschar *ptr, int len)
{
const char *pn = posix_names;
register int yield = 0;
while (posix_name_lengths[yield] != 0)
  {
  if (len == posix_name_lengths[yield] &&
    strncmp((const char *)ptr, pn, len) == 0) return yield;
  pn += posix_name_lengths[yield] + 1;
  yield++;
  }
return -1;
}


/*************************************************
* Adjust OP_RECURSE items in repeated group *
*************************************************/

/* OP_RECURSE items contain an offset from the start of the regex to the group
that is referenced. This means that groups can be replicated for fixed
repetition simply by copying (because the recursion is allowed to refer to
earlier groups that are outside the current group). However, when a group is
optional (i.e. the minimum quantifier is zero), OP_BRAZERO or OP_SKIPZERO is
inserted before it, after it has been compiled. This means that any OP_RECURSE
items within it that refer to the group itself or any contained groups have to
have their offsets adjusted. That one of the jobs of this function. Before it
is called, the partially compiled regex must be temporarily terminated with
OP_END.

This function has been extended with the possibility of forward references for
recursions and subroutine calls. It must also check the list of such references
for the group we are dealing with. If it finds that one of the recursions in
the current group is on this list, it adjusts the offset in the list, not the
value in the reference (which is a group number).

Arguments:
group points to the start of the group
adjust the amount by which the group is to be moved
utf8 TRUE in UTF-8 mode
cd contains pointers to tables etc.
save_hwm the hwm forward reference pointer at the start of the group

Returns: nothing
*/

static void
adjust_recurse(uschar *group, int adjust, BOOL utf8, compile_data *cd,
  uschar *save_hwm)
{
uschar *ptr = group;

while ((ptr = (uschar *)find_recurse(ptr, utf8)) != NULL)
  {
  int offset;
  uschar *hc;

  /* See if this recursion is on the forward reference list. If so, adjust the
reference. */

  for (hc = save_hwm; hc < cd->hwm; hc += LINK_SIZE)
    {
    offset = GET(hc, 0);
    if (cd->start_code + offset == ptr + 1)
      {
      PUT(hc, 0, offset + adjust);
      break;
      }
    }

  /* Otherwise, adjust the recursion offset if it's after the start of this
group. */

  if (hc >= cd->hwm)
    {
    offset = GET(ptr, 1);
    if (cd->start_code + offset >= group) PUT(ptr, 1, offset + adjust);
    }

  ptr += 1 + LINK_SIZE;
  }
}



/*************************************************
* Insert an automatic callout point *
*************************************************/

/* This function is called when the PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT option is set, to insert
callout points before each pattern item.

Arguments:
code current code pointer
ptr current pattern pointer
cd pointers to tables etc

Returns: new code pointer
*/

static uschar *
auto_callout(uschar *code, const uschar *ptr, compile_data *cd)
{
*code++ = OP_CALLOUT;
*code++ = 255;
PUT(code, 0, (int)(ptr - cd->start_pattern)); /* Pattern offset */
PUT(code, LINK_SIZE, 0); /* Default length */
return code + 2*LINK_SIZE;
}



/*************************************************
* Complete a callout item *
*************************************************/

/* A callout item contains the length of the next item in the pattern, which
we can't fill in till after we have reached the relevant point. This is used
for both automatic and manual callouts.

Arguments:
previous_callout points to previous callout item
ptr current pattern pointer
cd pointers to tables etc

Returns: nothing
*/

static void
complete_callout(uschar *previous_callout, const uschar *ptr, compile_data *cd)
{
int length = (int)(ptr - cd->start_pattern - GET(previous_callout, 2));
PUT(previous_callout, 2 + LINK_SIZE, length);
}



#ifdef SUPPORT_UCP
/*************************************************
* Get othercase range *
*************************************************/

/* This function is passed the start and end of a class range, in UTF-8 mode
with UCP support. It searches up the characters, looking for internal ranges of
characters in the "other" case. Each call returns the next one, updating the
start address.

Arguments:
cptr points to starting character value; updated
d end value
ocptr where to put start of othercase range
odptr where to put end of othercase range

Yield: TRUE when range returned; FALSE when no more
*/

static BOOL
get_othercase_range(unsigned int *cptr, unsigned int d, unsigned int *ocptr,
  unsigned int *odptr)
{
unsigned int c, othercase, next;

for (c = *cptr; c <= d; c++)
  { if ((othercase = UCD_OTHERCASE(c)) != c) break; }

if (c > d) return FALSE;

*ocptr = othercase;
next = othercase + 1;

for (++c; c <= d; c++)
  {
  if (UCD_OTHERCASE(c) != next) break;
  next++;
  }

*odptr = next - 1;
*cptr = c;

return TRUE;
}



/*************************************************
* Check a character and a property *
*************************************************/

/* This function is called by check_auto_possessive() when a property item
is adjacent to a fixed character.

Arguments:
c the character
ptype the property type
pdata the data for the type
negated TRUE if it's a negated property (\P or \p{^)

Returns: TRUE if auto-possessifying is OK
*/

static BOOL
check_char_prop(int c, int ptype, int pdata, BOOL negated)
{
const ucd_record *prop = GET_UCD(c);
switch(ptype)
  {
  case PT_LAMP:
  return (prop->chartype == ucp_Lu ||
          prop->chartype == ucp_Ll ||
          prop->chartype == ucp_Lt) == negated;

  case PT_GC:
  return (pdata == _pcre_ucp_gentype[prop->chartype]) == negated;

  case PT_PC:
  return (pdata == prop->chartype) == negated;

  case PT_SC:
  return (pdata == prop->script) == negated;

  /* These are specials */

  case PT_ALNUM:
  return (_pcre_ucp_gentype[prop->chartype] == ucp_L ||
          _pcre_ucp_gentype[prop->chartype] == ucp_N) == negated;

  case PT_SPACE: /* Perl space */
  return (_pcre_ucp_gentype[prop->chartype] == ucp_Z ||
          c == CHAR_HT || c == CHAR_NL || c == CHAR_FF || c == CHAR_CR)
          == negated;

  case PT_PXSPACE: /* POSIX space */
  return (_pcre_ucp_gentype[prop->chartype] == ucp_Z ||
          c == CHAR_HT || c == CHAR_NL || c == CHAR_VT ||
          c == CHAR_FF || c == CHAR_CR)
          == negated;

  case PT_WORD:
  return (_pcre_ucp_gentype[prop->chartype] == ucp_L ||
          _pcre_ucp_gentype[prop->chartype] == ucp_N ||
          c == CHAR_UNDERSCORE) == negated;
  }
return FALSE;
}
#endif /* SUPPORT_UCP */



/*************************************************
* Check if auto-possessifying is possible *
*************************************************/

/* This function is called for unlimited repeats of certain items, to see
whether the next thing could possibly match the repeated item. If not, it makes
sense to automatically possessify the repeated item.

Arguments:
previous pointer to the repeated opcode
utf8 TRUE in UTF-8 mode
ptr next character in pattern
options options bits
cd contains pointers to tables etc.

Returns: TRUE if possessifying is wanted
*/

static BOOL
check_auto_possessive(const uschar *previous, BOOL utf8, const uschar *ptr,
  int options, compile_data *cd)
{
int c, next;
int op_code = *previous++;

/* Skip whitespace and comments in extended mode */

if ((options & PCRE_EXTENDED) != 0)
  {
  for (;;)
    {
    while ((cd->ctypes[*ptr] & ctype_space) != 0) ptr++;
    if (*ptr == CHAR_NUMBER_SIGN)
      {
      ptr++;
      while (*ptr != 0)
        {
        if (IS_NEWLINE(ptr)) { ptr += cd->nllen; break; }
        ptr++;
#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
        if (utf8) while ((*ptr & 0xc0) == 0x80) ptr++;
#endif
        }
      }
    else break;
    }
  }

/* If the next item is one that we can handle, get its value. A non-negative
value is a character, a negative value is an escape value. */

if (*ptr == CHAR_BACKSLASH)
  {
  int temperrorcode = 0;
  next = check_escape(&ptr, &temperrorcode, cd->bracount, options, FALSE);
  if (temperrorcode != 0) return FALSE;
  ptr++; /* Point after the escape sequence */
  }

else if ((cd->ctypes[*ptr] & ctype_meta) == 0)
  {
#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
  if (utf8) { GETCHARINC(next, ptr); } else
#endif
  next = *ptr++;
  }

else return FALSE;

/* Skip whitespace and comments in extended mode */

if ((options & PCRE_EXTENDED) != 0)
  {
  for (;;)
    {
    while ((cd->ctypes[*ptr] & ctype_space) != 0) ptr++;
    if (*ptr == CHAR_NUMBER_SIGN)
      {
      ptr++;
      while (*ptr != 0)
        {
        if (IS_NEWLINE(ptr)) { ptr += cd->nllen; break; }
        ptr++;
#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
        if (utf8) while ((*ptr & 0xc0) == 0x80) ptr++;
#endif
        }
      }
    else break;
    }
  }

/* If the next thing is itself optional, we have to give up. */

if (*ptr == CHAR_ASTERISK || *ptr == CHAR_QUESTION_MARK ||
  strncmp((char *)ptr, STR_LEFT_CURLY_BRACKET STR_0 STR_COMMA, 3) == 0)
    return FALSE;

/* Now compare the next item with the previous opcode. First, handle cases when
the next item is a character. */

if (next >= 0) switch(op_code)
  {
  case OP_CHAR:
#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
  GETCHARTEST(c, previous);
#else
  c = *previous;
#endif
  return c != next;

  /* For CHARI (caseless character) we must check the other case. If we have
Unicode property support, we can use it to test the other case of
high-valued characters. */

  case OP_CHARI:
#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
  GETCHARTEST(c, previous);
#else
  c = *previous;
#endif
  if (c == next) return FALSE;
#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
  if (utf8)
    {
    unsigned int othercase;
    if (next < 128) othercase = cd->fcc[next]; else
#ifdef SUPPORT_UCP
    othercase = UCD_OTHERCASE((unsigned int)next);
#else
    othercase = NOTACHAR;
#endif
    return (unsigned int)c != othercase;
    }
  else
#endif /* SUPPORT_UTF8 */
  return (c != cd->fcc[next]); /* Non-UTF-8 mode */

  /* For OP_NOT and OP_NOTI, the data is always a single-byte character. These
opcodes are not used for multi-byte characters, because they are coded using
an XCLASS instead. */

  case OP_NOT:
  return (c = *previous) == next;

  case OP_NOTI:
  if ((c = *previous) == next) return TRUE;
#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
  if (utf8)
    {
    unsigned int othercase;
    if (next < 128) othercase = cd->fcc[next]; else
#ifdef SUPPORT_UCP
    othercase = UCD_OTHERCASE(next);
#else
    othercase = NOTACHAR;
#endif
    return (unsigned int)c == othercase;
    }
  else
#endif /* SUPPORT_UTF8 */
  return (c == cd->fcc[next]); /* Non-UTF-8 mode */

  /* Note that OP_DIGIT etc. are generated only when PCRE_UCP is *not* set.
When it is set, \d etc. are converted into OP_(NOT_)PROP codes. */

  case OP_DIGIT:
  return next > 127 || (cd->ctypes[next] & ctype_digit) == 0;

  case OP_NOT_DIGIT:
  return next <= 127 && (cd->ctypes[next] & ctype_digit) != 0;

  case OP_WHITESPACE:
  return next > 127 || (cd->ctypes[next] & ctype_space) == 0;

  case OP_NOT_WHITESPACE:
  return next <= 127 && (cd->ctypes[next] & ctype_space) != 0;

  case OP_WORDCHAR:
  return next > 127 || (cd->ctypes[next] & ctype_word) == 0;

  case OP_NOT_WORDCHAR:
  return next <= 127 && (cd->ctypes[next] & ctype_word) != 0;

  case OP_HSPACE:
  case OP_NOT_HSPACE:
  switch(next)
    {
    case 0x09:
    case 0x20:
    case 0xa0:
    case 0x1680:
    case 0x180e:
    case 0x2000:
    case 0x2001:
    case 0x2002:
    case 0x2003:
    case 0x2004:
    case 0x2005:
    case 0x2006:
    case 0x2007:
    case 0x2008:
    case 0x2009:
    case 0x200A:
    case 0x202f:
    case 0x205f:
    case 0x3000:
    return op_code == OP_NOT_HSPACE;
    default:
    return op_code != OP_NOT_HSPACE;
    }

  case OP_ANYNL:
  case OP_VSPACE:
  case OP_NOT_VSPACE:
  switch(next)
    {
    case 0x0a:
    case 0x0b:
    case 0x0c:
    case 0x0d:
    case 0x85:
    case 0x2028:
    case 0x2029:
    return op_code == OP_NOT_VSPACE;
    default:
    return op_code != OP_NOT_VSPACE;
    }

#ifdef SUPPORT_UCP
  case OP_PROP:
  return check_char_prop(next, previous[0], previous[1], FALSE);

  case OP_NOTPROP:
  return check_char_prop(next, previous[0], previous[1], TRUE);
#endif

  default:
  return FALSE;
  }


/* Handle the case when the next item is \d, \s, etc. Note that when PCRE_UCP
is set, \d turns into ESC_du rather than ESC_d, etc., so ESC_d etc. are
generated only when PCRE_UCP is *not* set, that is, when only ASCII
characteristics are recognized. Similarly, the opcodes OP_DIGIT etc. are
replaced by OP_PROP codes when PCRE_UCP is set. */

switch(op_code)
  {
  case OP_CHAR:
  case OP_CHARI:
#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
  GETCHARTEST(c, previous);
#else
  c = *previous;
#endif
  switch(-next)
    {
    case ESC_d:
    return c > 127 || (cd->ctypes[c] & ctype_digit) == 0;

    case ESC_D:
    return c <= 127 && (cd->ctypes[c] & ctype_digit) != 0;

    case ESC_s:
    return c > 127 || (cd->ctypes[c] & ctype_space) == 0;

    case ESC_S:
    return c <= 127 && (cd->ctypes[c] & ctype_space) != 0;

    case ESC_w:
    return c > 127 || (cd->ctypes[c] & ctype_word) == 0;

    case ESC_W:
    return c <= 127 && (cd->ctypes[c] & ctype_word) != 0;

    case ESC_h:
    case ESC_H:
    switch(c)
      {
      case 0x09:
      case 0x20:
      case 0xa0:
      case 0x1680:
      case 0x180e:
      case 0x2000:
      case 0x2001:
      case 0x2002:
      case 0x2003:
      case 0x2004:
      case 0x2005:
      case 0x2006:
      case 0x2007:
      case 0x2008:
      case 0x2009:
      case 0x200A:
      case 0x202f:
      case 0x205f:
      case 0x3000:
      return -next != ESC_h;
      default:
      return -next == ESC_h;
      }

    case ESC_v:
    case ESC_V:
    switch(c)
      {
      case 0x0a:
      case 0x0b:
      case 0x0c:
      case 0x0d:
      case 0x85:
      case 0x2028:
      case 0x2029:
      return -next != ESC_v;
      default:
      return -next == ESC_v;
      }

    /* When PCRE_UCP is set, these values get generated for \d etc. Find
their substitutions and process them. The result will always be either
-ESC_p or -ESC_P. Then fall through to process those values. */

#ifdef SUPPORT_UCP
    case ESC_du:
    case ESC_DU:
    case ESC_wu:
    case ESC_WU:
    case ESC_su:
    case ESC_SU:
      {
      int temperrorcode = 0;
      ptr = substitutes[-next - ESC_DU];
      next = check_escape(&ptr, &temperrorcode, 0, options, FALSE);
      if (temperrorcode != 0) return FALSE;
      ptr++; /* For compatibility */
      }
    /* Fall through */

    case ESC_p:
    case ESC_P:
      {
      int ptype, pdata, errorcodeptr;
      BOOL negated;

      ptr--; /* Make ptr point at the p or P */
      ptype = get_ucp(&ptr, &negated, &pdata, &errorcodeptr);
      if (ptype < 0) return FALSE;
      ptr++; /* Point past the final curly ket */

      /* If the property item is optional, we have to give up. (When generated
from \d etc by PCRE_UCP, this test will have been applied much earlier,
to the original \d etc. At this point, ptr will point to a zero byte. */

      if (*ptr == CHAR_ASTERISK || *ptr == CHAR_QUESTION_MARK ||
        strncmp((char *)ptr, STR_LEFT_CURLY_BRACKET STR_0 STR_COMMA, 3) == 0)
          return FALSE;

      /* Do the property check. */

      return check_char_prop(c, ptype, pdata, (next == -ESC_P) != negated);
      }
#endif

    default:
    return FALSE;
    }

  /* In principle, support for Unicode properties should be integrated here as
well. It means re-organizing the above code so as to get hold of the property
values before switching on the op-code. However, I wonder how many patterns
combine ASCII \d etc with Unicode properties? (Note that if PCRE_UCP is set,
these op-codes are never generated.) */

  case OP_DIGIT:
  return next == -ESC_D || next == -ESC_s || next == -ESC_W ||
         next == -ESC_h || next == -ESC_v || next == -ESC_R;

  case OP_NOT_DIGIT:
  return next == -ESC_d;

  case OP_WHITESPACE:
  return next == -ESC_S || next == -ESC_d || next == -ESC_w || next == -ESC_R;

  case OP_NOT_WHITESPACE:
  return next == -ESC_s || next == -ESC_h || next == -ESC_v;

  case OP_HSPACE:
  return next == -ESC_S || next == -ESC_H || next == -ESC_d ||
         next == -ESC_w || next == -ESC_v || next == -ESC_R;

  case OP_NOT_HSPACE:
  return next == -ESC_h;

  /* Can't have \S in here because VT matches \S (Perl anomaly) */
  case OP_ANYNL:
  case OP_VSPACE:
  return next == -ESC_V || next == -ESC_d || next == -ESC_w;

  case OP_NOT_VSPACE:
  return next == -ESC_v || next == -ESC_R;

  case OP_WORDCHAR:
  return next == -ESC_W || next == -ESC_s || next == -ESC_h ||
         next == -ESC_v || next == -ESC_R;

  case OP_NOT_WORDCHAR:
  return next == -ESC_w || next == -ESC_d;

  default:
  return FALSE;
  }

/* Control does not reach here */
}



/*************************************************
* Compile one branch *
*************************************************/

/* Scan the pattern, compiling it into the a vector. If the options are
changed during the branch, the pointer is used to change the external options
bits. This function is used during the pre-compile phase when we are trying
to find out the amount of memory needed, as well as during the real compile
phase. The value of lengthptr distinguishes the two phases.

Arguments:
optionsptr pointer to the option bits
codeptr points to the pointer to the current code point
ptrptr points to the current pattern pointer
errorcodeptr points to error code variable
firstbyteptr set to initial literal character, or < 0 (REQ_UNSET, REQ_NONE)
reqbyteptr set to the last literal character required, else < 0
bcptr points to current branch chain
cond_depth conditional nesting depth
cd contains pointers to tables etc.
lengthptr NULL during the real compile phase
points to length accumulator during pre-compile phase

Returns: TRUE on success
FALSE, with *errorcodeptr set non-zero on error
*/

static BOOL
compile_branch(int *optionsptr, uschar **codeptr, const uschar **ptrptr,
  int *errorcodeptr, int *firstbyteptr, int *reqbyteptr, branch_chain *bcptr,
  int cond_depth, compile_data *cd, int *lengthptr)
{
int repeat_type, op_type;
int repeat_min = 0, repeat_max = 0; /* To please picky compilers */
int bravalue = 0;
int greedy_default, greedy_non_default;
int firstbyte, reqbyte;
int zeroreqbyte, zerofirstbyte;
int req_caseopt, reqvary, tempreqvary;
int options = *optionsptr; /* May change dynamically */
int after_manual_callout = 0;
int length_prevgroup = 0;
register int c;
register uschar *code = *codeptr;
uschar *last_code = code;
uschar *orig_code = code;
uschar *tempcode;
BOOL inescq = FALSE;
BOOL groupsetfirstbyte = FALSE;
const uschar *ptr = *ptrptr;
const uschar *tempptr;
const uschar *nestptr = NULL;
uschar *previous = NULL;
uschar *previous_callout = NULL;
uschar *save_hwm = NULL;
uschar classbits[32];

/* We can fish out the UTF-8 setting once and for all into a BOOL, but we
must not do this for other options (e.g. PCRE_EXTENDED) because they may change
dynamically as we process the pattern. */

#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
BOOL class_utf8;
BOOL utf8 = (options & PCRE_UTF8) != 0;
uschar *class_utf8data;
uschar *class_utf8data_base;
uschar utf8_char[6];
#else
BOOL utf8 = FALSE;
uschar *utf8_char = NULL;
#endif

#ifdef PCRE_DEBUG
if (lengthptr != NULL) DPRINTF((">> start branch\n"));
#endif

/* Set up the default and non-default settings for greediness */

greedy_default = ((options & PCRE_UNGREEDY) != 0);
greedy_non_default = greedy_default ^ 1;

/* Initialize no first byte, no required byte. REQ_UNSET means "no char
matching encountered yet". It gets changed to REQ_NONE if we hit something that
matches a non-fixed char first char; reqbyte just remains unset if we never
find one.

When we hit a repeat whose minimum is zero, we may have to adjust these values
to take the zero repeat into account. This is implemented by setting them to
zerofirstbyte and zeroreqbyte when such a repeat is encountered. The individual
item types that can be repeated set these backoff variables appropriately. */

firstbyte = reqbyte = zerofirstbyte = zeroreqbyte = REQ_UNSET;

/* The variable req_caseopt contains either the REQ_CASELESS value or zero,
according to the current setting of the caseless flag. REQ_CASELESS is a bit
value > 255. It is added into the firstbyte or reqbyte variables to record the
case status of the value. This is used only for ASCII characters. */

req_caseopt = ((options & PCRE_CASELESS) != 0)? REQ_CASELESS : 0;

/* Switch on next character until the end of the branch */

for (;; ptr++)
  {
  BOOL negate_class;
  BOOL should_flip_negation;
  BOOL possessive_quantifier;
  BOOL is_quantifier;
  BOOL is_recurse;
  BOOL reset_bracount;
  int class_charcount;
  int class_lastchar;
  int newoptions;
  int recno;
  int refsign;
  int skipbytes;
  int subreqbyte;
  int subfirstbyte;
  int terminator;
  int mclength;
  uschar mcbuffer[8];

  /* Get next byte in the pattern */

  c = *ptr;

  /* If we are at the end of a nested substitution, revert to the outer level
string. Nesting only happens one level deep. */

  if (c == 0 && nestptr != NULL)
    {
    ptr = nestptr;
    nestptr = NULL;
    c = *ptr;
    }

  /* If we are in the pre-compile phase, accumulate the length used for the
previous cycle of this loop. */

  if (lengthptr != NULL)
    {
#ifdef PCRE_DEBUG
    if (code > cd->hwm) cd->hwm = code; /* High water info */
#endif
    if (code > cd->start_workspace + WORK_SIZE_CHECK) /* Check for overrun */
      {
      *errorcodeptr = ERR52;
      goto FAILED;
      }

    /* There is at least one situation where code goes backwards: this is the
case of a zero quantifier after a class (e.g. [ab]{0}). At compile time,
the class is simply eliminated. However, it is created first, so we have to
allow memory for it. Therefore, don't ever reduce the length at this point.
*/

    if (code < last_code) code = last_code;

    /* Paranoid check for integer overflow */

    if (OFLOW_MAX - *lengthptr < code - last_code)
      {
      *errorcodeptr = ERR20;
      goto FAILED;
      }

    *lengthptr += (int)(code - last_code);
    DPRINTF(("length=%d added %d c=%c\n", *lengthptr, code - last_code, c));

    /* If "previous" is set and it is not at the start of the work space, move
it back to there, in order to avoid filling up the work space. Otherwise,
if "previous" is NULL, reset the current code pointer to the start. */

    if (previous != NULL)
      {
      if (previous > orig_code)
        {
        memmove(orig_code, previous, code - previous);
        code -= previous - orig_code;
        previous = orig_code;
        }
      }
    else code = orig_code;

    /* Remember where this code item starts so we can pick up the length
next time round. */

    last_code = code;
    }

  /* In the real compile phase, just check the workspace used by the forward
reference list. */

  else if (cd->hwm > cd->start_workspace + WORK_SIZE_CHECK)
    {
    *errorcodeptr = ERR52;
    goto FAILED;
    }

  /* If in \Q...\E, check for the end; if not, we have a literal */

  if (inescq && c != 0)
    {
    if (c == CHAR_BACKSLASH && ptr[1] == CHAR_E)
      {
      inescq = FALSE;
      ptr++;
      continue;
      }
    else
      {
      if (previous_callout != NULL)
        {
        if (lengthptr == NULL) /* Don't attempt in pre-compile phase */
          complete_callout(previous_callout, ptr, cd);
        previous_callout = NULL;
        }
      if ((options & PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT) != 0)
        {
        previous_callout = code;
        code = auto_callout(code, ptr, cd);
        }
      goto NORMAL_CHAR;
      }
    }

  /* Fill in length of a previous callout, except when the next thing is
a quantifier. */

  is_quantifier =
    c == CHAR_ASTERISK || c == CHAR_PLUS || c == CHAR_QUESTION_MARK ||
    (c == CHAR_LEFT_CURLY_BRACKET && is_counted_repeat(ptr+1));

  if (!is_quantifier && previous_callout != NULL &&
       after_manual_callout-- <= 0)
    {
    if (lengthptr == NULL) /* Don't attempt in pre-compile phase */
      complete_callout(previous_callout, ptr, cd);
    previous_callout = NULL;
    }

  /* In extended mode, skip white space and comments. */

  if ((options & PCRE_EXTENDED) != 0)
    {
    if ((cd->ctypes[c] & ctype_space) != 0) continue;
    if (c == CHAR_NUMBER_SIGN)
      {
      ptr++;
      while (*ptr != 0)
        {
        if (IS_NEWLINE(ptr)) { ptr += cd->nllen - 1; break; }
        ptr++;
#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
        if (utf8) while ((*ptr & 0xc0) == 0x80) ptr++;
#endif
        }
      if (*ptr != 0) continue;

      /* Else fall through to handle end of string */
      c = 0;
      }
    }

  /* No auto callout for quantifiers. */

  if ((options & PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT) != 0 && !is_quantifier)
    {
    previous_callout = code;
    code = auto_callout(code, ptr, cd);
    }

  switch(c)
    {
    /* ===================================================================*/
    case 0: /* The branch terminates at string end */
    case CHAR_VERTICAL_LINE: /* or | or ) */
    case CHAR_RIGHT_PARENTHESIS:
    *firstbyteptr = firstbyte;
    *reqbyteptr = reqbyte;
    *codeptr = code;
    *ptrptr = ptr;
    if (lengthptr != NULL)
      {
      if (OFLOW_MAX - *lengthptr < code - last_code)
        {
        *errorcodeptr = ERR20;
        goto FAILED;
        }
      *lengthptr += (int)(code - last_code); /* To include callout length */
      DPRINTF((">> end branch\n"));
      }
    return TRUE;


    /* ===================================================================*/
    /* Handle single-character metacharacters. In multiline mode, ^ disables
the setting of any following char as a first character. */

    case CHAR_CIRCUMFLEX_ACCENT:
    previous = NULL;
    if ((options & PCRE_MULTILINE) != 0)
      {
      if (firstbyte == REQ_UNSET) firstbyte = REQ_NONE;
      *code++ = OP_CIRCM;
      }
    else *code++ = OP_CIRC;
    break;

    case CHAR_DOLLAR_SIGN:
    previous = NULL;
    *code++ = ((options & PCRE_MULTILINE) != 0)? OP_DOLLM : OP_DOLL;
    break;

    /* There can never be a first char if '.' is first, whatever happens about
repeats. The value of reqbyte doesn't change either. */

    case CHAR_DOT:
    if (firstbyte == REQ_UNSET) firstbyte = REQ_NONE;
    zerofirstbyte = firstbyte;
    zeroreqbyte = reqbyte;
    previous = code;
    *code++ = ((options & PCRE_DOTALL) != 0)? OP_ALLANY: OP_ANY;
    break;


    /* ===================================================================*/
    /* Character classes. If the included characters are all < 256, we build a
32-byte bitmap of the permitted characters, except in the special case
where there is only one such character. For negated classes, we build the
map as usual, then invert it at the end. However, we use a different opcode
so that data characters > 255 can be handled correctly.

If the class contains characters outside the 0-255 range, a different
opcode is compiled. It may optionally have a bit map for characters < 256,
but those above are are explicitly listed afterwards. A flag byte tells
whether the bitmap is present, and whether this is a negated class or not.

In JavaScript compatibility mode, an isolated ']' causes an error. In
default (Perl) mode, it is treated as a data character. */

    case CHAR_RIGHT_SQUARE_BRACKET:
    if ((cd->external_options & PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT) != 0)
      {
      *errorcodeptr = ERR64;
      goto FAILED;
      }
    goto NORMAL_CHAR;

    case CHAR_LEFT_SQUARE_BRACKET:
    previous = code;

    /* PCRE supports POSIX class stuff inside a class. Perl gives an error if
they are encountered at the top level, so we'll do that too. */

    if ((ptr[1] == CHAR_COLON || ptr[1] == CHAR_DOT ||
         ptr[1] == CHAR_EQUALS_SIGN) &&
        check_posix_syntax(ptr, &tempptr))
      {
      *errorcodeptr = (ptr[1] == CHAR_COLON)? ERR13 : ERR31;
      goto FAILED;
      }

    /* If the first character is '^', set the negation flag and skip it. Also,
if the first few characters (either before or after ^) are \Q\E or \E we
skip them too. This makes for compatibility with Perl. */

    negate_class = FALSE;
    for (;;)
      {
      c = *(++ptr);
      if (c == CHAR_BACKSLASH)
        {
        if (ptr[1] == CHAR_E)
          ptr++;
        else if (strncmp((const char *)ptr+1,
                          STR_Q STR_BACKSLASH STR_E, 3) == 0)
          ptr += 3;
        else
          break;
        }
      else if (!negate_class && c == CHAR_CIRCUMFLEX_ACCENT)
        negate_class = TRUE;
      else break;
      }

    /* Empty classes are allowed in JavaScript compatibility mode. Otherwise,
an initial ']' is taken as a data character -- the code below handles
that. In JS mode, [] must always fail, so generate OP_FAIL, whereas
[^] must match any character, so generate OP_ALLANY. */

    if (c == CHAR_RIGHT_SQUARE_BRACKET &&
        (cd->external_options & PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT) != 0)
      {
      *code++ = negate_class? OP_ALLANY : OP_FAIL;
      if (firstbyte == REQ_UNSET) firstbyte = REQ_NONE;
      zerofirstbyte = firstbyte;
      break;
      }

    /* If a class contains a negative special such as \S, we need to flip the
negation flag at the end, so that support for characters > 255 works
correctly (they are all included in the class). */

    should_flip_negation = FALSE;

    /* Keep a count of chars with values < 256 so that we can optimize the case
of just a single character (as long as it's < 256). However, For higher
valued UTF-8 characters, we don't yet do any optimization. */

    class_charcount = 0;
    class_lastchar = -1;

    /* Initialize the 32-char bit map to all zeros. We build the map in a
temporary bit of memory, in case the class contains only 1 character (less
than 256), because in that case the compiled code doesn't use the bit map.
*/

    memset(classbits, 0, 32 * sizeof(uschar));

#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
    class_utf8 = FALSE; /* No chars >= 256 */
    class_utf8data = code + LINK_SIZE + 2; /* For UTF-8 items */
    class_utf8data_base = class_utf8data; /* For resetting in pass 1 */
#endif

    /* Process characters until ] is reached. By writing this as a "do" it
means that an initial ] is taken as a data character. At the start of the
loop, c contains the first byte of the character. */

    if (c != 0) do
      {
      const uschar *oldptr;

#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
      if (utf8 && c > 127)
        { /* Braces are required because the */
        GETCHARLEN(c, ptr, ptr); /* macro generates multiple statements */
        }

      /* In the pre-compile phase, accumulate the length of any UTF-8 extra
data and reset the pointer. This is so that very large classes that
contain a zillion UTF-8 characters no longer overwrite the work space
(which is on the stack). */

      if (lengthptr != NULL)
        {
        *lengthptr += class_utf8data - class_utf8data_base;
        class_utf8data = class_utf8data_base;
        }

#endif

      /* Inside \Q...\E everything is literal except \E */

      if (inescq)
        {
        if (c == CHAR_BACKSLASH && ptr[1] == CHAR_E) /* If we are at \E */
          {
          inescq = FALSE; /* Reset literal state */
          ptr++; /* Skip the 'E' */
          continue; /* Carry on with next */
          }
        goto CHECK_RANGE; /* Could be range if \E follows */
        }

      /* Handle POSIX class names. Perl allows a negation extension of the
form [:^name:]. A square bracket that doesn't match the syntax is
treated as a literal. We also recognize the POSIX constructions
[.ch.] and [=ch=] ("collating elements") and fault them, as Perl
5.6 and 5.8 do. */

      if (c == CHAR_LEFT_SQUARE_BRACKET &&
          (ptr[1] == CHAR_COLON || ptr[1] == CHAR_DOT ||
           ptr[1] == CHAR_EQUALS_SIGN) && check_posix_syntax(ptr, &tempptr))
        {
        BOOL local_negate = FALSE;
        int posix_class, taboffset, tabopt;
        register const uschar *cbits = cd->cbits;
        uschar pbits[32];

        if (ptr[1] != CHAR_COLON)
          {
          *errorcodeptr = ERR31;
          goto FAILED;
          }

        ptr += 2;
        if (*ptr == CHAR_CIRCUMFLEX_ACCENT)
          {
          local_negate = TRUE;
          should_flip_negation = TRUE; /* Note negative special */
          ptr++;
          }

        posix_class = check_posix_name(ptr, (int)(tempptr - ptr));
        if (posix_class < 0)
          {
          *errorcodeptr = ERR30;
          goto FAILED;
          }

        /* If matching is caseless, upper and lower are converted to
alpha. This relies on the fact that the class table starts with
alpha, lower, upper as the first 3 entries. */

        if ((options & PCRE_CASELESS) != 0 && posix_class <= 2)
          posix_class = 0;

        /* When PCRE_UCP is set, some of the POSIX classes are converted to
different escape sequences that use Unicode properties. */

#ifdef SUPPORT_UCP
        if ((options & PCRE_UCP) != 0)
          {
          int pc = posix_class + ((local_negate)? POSIX_SUBSIZE/2 : 0);
          if (posix_substitutes[pc] != NULL)
            {
            nestptr = tempptr + 1;
            ptr = posix_substitutes[pc] - 1;
            continue;
            }
          }
#endif
        /* In the non-UCP case, we build the bit map for the POSIX class in a
chunk of local store because we may be adding and subtracting from it,
and we don't want to subtract bits that may be in the main map already.
At the end we or the result into the bit map that is being built. */

        posix_class *= 3;

        /* Copy in the first table (always present) */

        memcpy(pbits, cbits + posix_class_maps[posix_class],
          32 * sizeof(uschar));

        /* If there is a second table, add or remove it as required. */

        taboffset = posix_class_maps[posix_class + 1];
        tabopt = posix_class_maps[posix_class + 2];

        if (taboffset >= 0)
          {
          if (tabopt >= 0)
            for (c = 0; c < 32; c++) pbits[c] |= cbits[c + taboffset];
          else
            for (c = 0; c < 32; c++) pbits[c] &= ~cbits[c + taboffset];
          }

        /* Not see if we need to remove any special characters. An option
value of 1 removes vertical space and 2 removes underscore. */

        if (tabopt < 0) tabopt = -tabopt;
        if (tabopt == 1) pbits[1] &= ~0x3c;
          else if (tabopt == 2) pbits[11] &= 0x7f;

        /* Add the POSIX table or its complement into the main table that is
being built and we are done. */

        if (local_negate)
          for (c = 0; c < 32; c++) classbits[c] |= ~pbits[c];
        else
          for (c = 0; c < 32; c++) classbits[c] |= pbits[c];

        ptr = tempptr + 1;
        class_charcount = 10; /* Set > 1; assumes more than 1 per class */
        continue; /* End of POSIX syntax handling */
        }

      /* Backslash may introduce a single character, or it may introduce one
of the specials, which just set a flag. The sequence \b is a special
case. Inside a class (and only there) it is treated as backspace. We
assume that other escapes have more than one character in them, so set
class_charcount bigger than one. Unrecognized escapes fall through and
are either treated as literal characters (by default), or are faulted if
PCRE_EXTRA is set. */

      if (c == CHAR_BACKSLASH)
        {
        c = check_escape(&ptr, errorcodeptr, cd->bracount, options, TRUE);
        if (*errorcodeptr != 0) goto FAILED;

        if (-c == ESC_b) c = CHAR_BS; /* \b is backspace in a class */
        else if (-c == ESC_Q) /* Handle start of quoted string */
          {
          if (ptr[1] == CHAR_BACKSLASH && ptr[2] == CHAR_E)
            {
            ptr += 2; /* avoid empty string */
            }
          else inescq = TRUE;
          continue;
          }
        else if (-c == ESC_E) continue; /* Ignore orphan \E */

        if (c < 0)
          {
          register const uschar *cbits = cd->cbits;
          class_charcount += 2; /* Greater than 1 is what matters */

          switch (-c)
            {
#ifdef SUPPORT_UCP
            case ESC_du: /* These are the values given for \d etc */
            case ESC_DU: /* when PCRE_UCP is set. We replace the */
            case ESC_wu: /* escape sequence with an appropriate \p */
            case ESC_WU: /* or \P to test Unicode properties instead */
            case ESC_su: /* of the default ASCII testing. */
            case ESC_SU:
            nestptr = ptr;
            ptr = substitutes[-c - ESC_DU] - 1; /* Just before substitute */
            class_charcount -= 2; /* Undo! */
            continue;
#endif
            case ESC_d:
            for (c = 0; c < 32; c++) classbits[c] |= cbits[c+cbit_digit];
            continue;

            case ESC_D:
            should_flip_negation = TRUE;
            for (c = 0; c < 32; c++) classbits[c] |= ~cbits[c+cbit_digit];
            continue;

            case ESC_w:
            for (c = 0; c < 32; c++) classbits[c] |= cbits[c+cbit_word];
            continue;

            case ESC_W:
            should_flip_negation = TRUE;
            for (c = 0; c < 32; c++) classbits[c] |= ~cbits[c+cbit_word];
            continue;

            /* Perl 5.004 onwards omits VT from \s, but we must preserve it
if it was previously set by something earlier in the character
class. */

            case ESC_s:
            classbits[0] |= cbits[cbit_space];
            classbits[1] |= cbits[cbit_space+1] & ~0x08;
            for (c = 2; c < 32; c++) classbits[c] |= cbits[c+cbit_space];
            continue;

            case ESC_S:
            should_flip_negation = TRUE;
            for (c = 0; c < 32; c++) classbits[c] |= ~cbits[c+cbit_space];
            classbits[1] |= 0x08; /* Perl 5.004 onwards omits VT from \s */
            continue;

            case ESC_h:
            SETBIT(classbits, 0x09); /* VT */
            SETBIT(classbits, 0x20); /* SPACE */
            SETBIT(classbits, 0xa0); /* NSBP */
#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
            if (utf8)
              {
              class_utf8 = TRUE;
              *class_utf8data++ = XCL_SINGLE;
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x1680, class_utf8data);
              *class_utf8data++ = XCL_SINGLE;
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x180e, class_utf8data);
              *class_utf8data++ = XCL_RANGE;
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x2000, class_utf8data);
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x200A, class_utf8data);
              *class_utf8data++ = XCL_SINGLE;
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x202f, class_utf8data);
              *class_utf8data++ = XCL_SINGLE;
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x205f, class_utf8data);
              *class_utf8data++ = XCL_SINGLE;
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x3000, class_utf8data);
              }
#endif
            continue;

            case ESC_H:
            for (c = 0; c < 32; c++)
              {
              int x = 0xff;
              switch (c)
                {
                case 0x09/8: x ^= 1 << (0x09%8); break;
                case 0x20/8: x ^= 1 << (0x20%8); break;
                case 0xa0/8: x ^= 1 << (0xa0%8); break;
                default: break;
                }
              classbits[c] |= x;
              }

#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
            if (utf8)
              {
              class_utf8 = TRUE;
              *class_utf8data++ = XCL_RANGE;
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x0100, class_utf8data);
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x167f, class_utf8data);
              *class_utf8data++ = XCL_RANGE;
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x1681, class_utf8data);
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x180d, class_utf8data);
              *class_utf8data++ = XCL_RANGE;
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x180f, class_utf8data);
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x1fff, class_utf8data);
              *class_utf8data++ = XCL_RANGE;
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x200B, class_utf8data);
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x202e, class_utf8data);
              *class_utf8data++ = XCL_RANGE;
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x2030, class_utf8data);
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x205e, class_utf8data);
              *class_utf8data++ = XCL_RANGE;
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x2060, class_utf8data);
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x2fff, class_utf8data);
              *class_utf8data++ = XCL_RANGE;
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x3001, class_utf8data);
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x7fffffff, class_utf8data);
              }
#endif
            continue;

            case ESC_v:
            SETBIT(classbits, 0x0a); /* LF */
            SETBIT(classbits, 0x0b); /* VT */
            SETBIT(classbits, 0x0c); /* FF */
            SETBIT(classbits, 0x0d); /* CR */
            SETBIT(classbits, 0x85); /* NEL */
#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
            if (utf8)
              {
              class_utf8 = TRUE;
              *class_utf8data++ = XCL_RANGE;
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x2028, class_utf8data);
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x2029, class_utf8data);
              }
#endif
            continue;

            case ESC_V:
            for (c = 0; c < 32; c++)
              {
              int x = 0xff;
              switch (c)
                {
                case 0x0a/8: x ^= 1 << (0x0a%8);
                             x ^= 1 << (0x0b%8);
                             x ^= 1 << (0x0c%8);
                             x ^= 1 << (0x0d%8);
                             break;
                case 0x85/8: x ^= 1 << (0x85%8); break;
                default: break;
                }
              classbits[c] |= x;
              }

#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
            if (utf8)
              {
              class_utf8 = TRUE;
              *class_utf8data++ = XCL_RANGE;
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x0100, class_utf8data);
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x2027, class_utf8data);
              *class_utf8data++ = XCL_RANGE;
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x2029, class_utf8data);
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(0x7fffffff, class_utf8data);
              }
#endif
            continue;

#ifdef SUPPORT_UCP
            case ESC_p:
            case ESC_P:
              {
              BOOL negated;
              int pdata;
              int ptype = get_ucp(&ptr, &negated, &pdata, errorcodeptr);
              if (ptype < 0) goto FAILED;
              class_utf8 = TRUE;
              *class_utf8data++ = ((-c == ESC_p) != negated)?
                XCL_PROP : XCL_NOTPROP;
              *class_utf8data++ = ptype;
              *class_utf8data++ = pdata;
              class_charcount -= 2; /* Not a < 256 character */
              continue;
              }
#endif
            /* Unrecognized escapes are faulted if PCRE is running in its
strict mode. By default, for compatibility with Perl, they are
treated as literals. */

            default:
            if ((options & PCRE_EXTRA) != 0)
              {
              *errorcodeptr = ERR7;
              goto FAILED;
              }
            class_charcount -= 2; /* Undo the default count from above */
            c = *ptr; /* Get the final character and fall through */
            break;
            }
          }

        /* Fall through if we have a single character (c >= 0). This may be
greater than 256 in UTF-8 mode. */

        } /* End of backslash handling */

      /* A single character may be followed by '-' to form a range. However,
Perl does not permit ']' to be the end of the range. A '-' character
at the end is treated as a literal. Perl ignores orphaned \E sequences
entirely. The code for handling \Q and \E is messy. */

      CHECK_RANGE:
      while (ptr[1] == CHAR_BACKSLASH && ptr[2] == CHAR_E)
        {
        inescq = FALSE;
        ptr += 2;
        }

      oldptr = ptr;

      /* Remember \r or \n */

      if (c == CHAR_CR || c == CHAR_NL) cd->external_flags |= PCRE_HASCRORLF;

      /* Check for range */

      if (!inescq && ptr[1] == CHAR_MINUS)
        {
        int d;
        ptr += 2;
        while (*ptr == CHAR_BACKSLASH && ptr[1] == CHAR_E) ptr += 2;

        /* If we hit \Q (not followed by \E) at this point, go into escaped
mode. */

        while (*ptr == CHAR_BACKSLASH && ptr[1] == CHAR_Q)
          {
          ptr += 2;
          if (*ptr == CHAR_BACKSLASH && ptr[1] == CHAR_E)
            { ptr += 2; continue; }
          inescq = TRUE;
          break;
          }

        if (*ptr == 0 || (!inescq && *ptr == CHAR_RIGHT_SQUARE_BRACKET))
          {
          ptr = oldptr;
          goto LONE_SINGLE_CHARACTER;
          }

#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
        if (utf8)
          { /* Braces are required because the */
          GETCHARLEN(d, ptr, ptr); /* macro generates multiple statements */
          }
        else
#endif
        d = *ptr; /* Not UTF-8 mode */

        /* The second part of a range can be a single-character escape, but
not any of the other escapes. Perl 5.6 treats a hyphen as a literal
in such circumstances. */

        if (!inescq && d == CHAR_BACKSLASH)
          {
          d = check_escape(&ptr, errorcodeptr, cd->bracount, options, TRUE);
          if (*errorcodeptr != 0) goto FAILED;

          /* \b is backspace; any other special means the '-' was literal */

          if (d < 0)
            {
            if (d == -ESC_b) d = CHAR_BS; else
              {
              ptr = oldptr;
              goto LONE_SINGLE_CHARACTER; /* A few lines below */
              }
            }
          }

        /* Check that the two values are in the correct order. Optimize
one-character ranges */

        if (d < c)
          {
          *errorcodeptr = ERR8;
          goto FAILED;
          }

        if (d == c) goto LONE_SINGLE_CHARACTER; /* A few lines below */

        /* Remember \r or \n */

        if (d == CHAR_CR || d == CHAR_NL) cd->external_flags |= PCRE_HASCRORLF;

        /* In UTF-8 mode, if the upper limit is > 255, or > 127 for caseless
matching, we have to use an XCLASS with extra data items. Caseless
matching for characters > 127 is available only if UCP support is
available. */

#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
        if (utf8 && (d > 255 || ((options & PCRE_CASELESS) != 0 && d > 127)))
          {
          class_utf8 = TRUE;

          /* With UCP support, we can find the other case equivalents of
the relevant characters. There may be several ranges. Optimize how
they fit with the basic range. */

#ifdef SUPPORT_UCP
          if ((options & PCRE_CASELESS) != 0)
            {
            unsigned int occ, ocd;
            unsigned int cc = c;
            unsigned int origd = d;
            while (get_othercase_range(&cc, origd, &occ, &ocd))
              {
              if (occ >= (unsigned int)c &&
                  ocd <= (unsigned int)d)
                continue; /* Skip embedded ranges */

              if (occ < (unsigned int)c &&
                  ocd >= (unsigned int)c - 1) /* Extend the basic range */
                { /* if there is overlap, */
                c = occ; /* noting that if occ < c */
                continue; /* we can't have ocd > d */
                } /* because a subrange is */
              if (ocd > (unsigned int)d &&
                  occ <= (unsigned int)d + 1) /* always shorter than */
                { /* the basic range. */
                d = ocd;
                continue;
                }

              if (occ == ocd)
                {
                *class_utf8data++ = XCL_SINGLE;
                }
              else
                {
                *class_utf8data++ = XCL_RANGE;
                class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(occ, class_utf8data);
                }
              class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(ocd, class_utf8data);
              }
            }
#endif /* SUPPORT_UCP */

          /* Now record the original range, possibly modified for UCP caseless
overlapping ranges. */

          *class_utf8data++ = XCL_RANGE;
          class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(c, class_utf8data);
          class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(d, class_utf8data);

          /* With UCP support, we are done. Without UCP support, there is no
caseless matching for UTF-8 characters > 127; we can use the bit map
for the smaller ones. */

#ifdef SUPPORT_UCP
          continue; /* With next character in the class */
#else
          if ((options & PCRE_CASELESS) == 0 || c > 127) continue;

          /* Adjust upper limit and fall through to set up the map */

          d = 127;

#endif /* SUPPORT_UCP */
          }
#endif /* SUPPORT_UTF8 */

        /* We use the bit map for all cases when not in UTF-8 mode; else
ranges that lie entirely within 0-127 when there is UCP support; else
for partial ranges without UCP support. */

        class_charcount += d - c + 1;
        class_lastchar = d;

        /* We can save a bit of time by skipping this in the pre-compile. */

        if (lengthptr == NULL) for (; c <= d; c++)
          {
          classbits[c/8] |= (1 << (c&7));
          if ((options & PCRE_CASELESS) != 0)
            {
            int uc = cd->fcc[c]; /* flip case */
            classbits[uc/8] |= (1 << (uc&7));
            }
          }

        continue; /* Go get the next char in the class */
        }

      /* Handle a lone single character - we can get here for a normal
non-escape char, or after \ that introduces a single character or for an
apparent range that isn't. */

      LONE_SINGLE_CHARACTER:

      /* Handle a character that cannot go in the bit map */

#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
      if (utf8 && (c > 255 || ((options & PCRE_CASELESS) != 0 && c > 127)))
        {
        class_utf8 = TRUE;
        *class_utf8data++ = XCL_SINGLE;
        class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(c, class_utf8data);

#ifdef SUPPORT_UCP
        if ((options & PCRE_CASELESS) != 0)
          {
          unsigned int othercase;
          if ((othercase = UCD_OTHERCASE(c)) != c)
            {
            *class_utf8data++ = XCL_SINGLE;
            class_utf8data += _pcre_ord2utf8(othercase, class_utf8data);
            }
          }
#endif /* SUPPORT_UCP */

        }
      else
#endif /* SUPPORT_UTF8 */

      /* Handle a single-byte character */
        {
        classbits[c/8] |= (1 << (c&7));
        if ((options & PCRE_CASELESS) != 0)
          {
          c = cd->fcc[c]; /* flip case */
          classbits[c/8] |= (1 << (c&7));
          }
        class_charcount++;
        class_lastchar = c;
        }
      }

    /* Loop until ']' reached. This "while" is the end of the "do" far above.
If we are at the end of an internal nested string, revert to the outer
string. */

    while (((c = *(++ptr)) != 0 ||
           (nestptr != NULL &&
             (ptr = nestptr, nestptr = NULL, c = *(++ptr)) != 0)) &&
           (c != CHAR_RIGHT_SQUARE_BRACKET || inescq));

    /* Check for missing terminating ']' */

    if (c == 0)
      {
      *errorcodeptr = ERR6;
      goto FAILED;
      }

    /* If class_charcount is 1, we saw precisely one character whose value is
less than 256. As long as there were no characters >= 128 and there was no
use of \p or \P, in other words, no use of any XCLASS features, we can
optimize.

In UTF-8 mode, we can optimize the negative case only if there were no
characters >= 128 because OP_NOT and the related opcodes like OP_NOTSTAR
operate on single-bytes characters only. This is an historical hangover.
Maybe one day we can tidy these opcodes to handle multi-byte characters.

The optimization throws away the bit map. We turn the item into a
1-character OP_CHAR[I] if it's positive, or OP_NOT[I] if it's negative.
Note that OP_NOT[I] does not support multibyte characters. In the positive
case, it can cause firstbyte to be set. Otherwise, there can be no first
char if this item is first, whatever repeat count may follow. In the case
of reqbyte, save the previous value for reinstating. */

#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
    if (class_charcount == 1 && !class_utf8 &&
      (!utf8 || !negate_class || class_lastchar < 128))
#else
    if (class_charcount == 1)
#endif
      {
      zeroreqbyte = reqbyte;

      /* The OP_NOT[I] opcodes work on one-byte characters only. */

      if (negate_class)
        {
        if (firstbyte == REQ_UNSET) firstbyte = REQ_NONE;
        zerofirstbyte = firstbyte;
        *code++ = ((options & PCRE_CASELESS) != 0)? OP_NOTI: OP_NOT;
        *code++ = class_lastchar;
        break;
        }

      /* For a single, positive character, get the value into mcbuffer, and
then we can handle this with the normal one-character code. */

#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
      if (utf8 && class_lastchar > 127)
        mclength = _pcre_ord2utf8(class_lastchar, mcbuffer);
      else
#endif
        {
        mcbuffer[0] = class_lastchar;
        mclength = 1;
        }
      goto ONE_CHAR;
      } /* End of 1-char optimization */

    /* The general case - not the one-char optimization. If this is the first
thing in the branch, there can be no first char setting, whatever the
repeat count. Any reqbyte setting must remain unchanged after any kind of
repeat. */

    if (firstbyte == REQ_UNSET) firstbyte = REQ_NONE;
    zerofirstbyte = firstbyte;
    zeroreqbyte = reqbyte;

    /* If there are characters with values > 255, we have to compile an
extended class, with its own opcode, unless there was a negated special
such as \S in the class, and PCRE_UCP is not set, because in that case all
characters > 255 are in the class, so any that were explicitly given as
well can be ignored. If (when there are explicit characters > 255 that must
be listed) there are no characters < 256, we can omit the bitmap in the
actual compiled code. */

#ifdef SUPPORT_UTF8
    if (class_utf8 && (!should_flip_negation || (options & PCRE_UCP) != 0))
      {
      *class_utf8data++ = XCL_END; /* Marks the end of extra data */
      *code++ = OP_XCLASS;
      code += LINK_SIZE;
      *code = negate_class? XCL_NOT : 0;

      /* If the map is required, move up the extra data to make room for it;
otherwise just move the code pointer to the end of the extra data. */

      if (class_charcount > 0)
        {
        *code++ |= XCL_MAP;
        memmove(code + 32, code, class_utf8data - code);
        memcpy(code, classbits, 32);
        code = class_utf8data + 32;
        }
      else code = class_utf8data;

      /* Now fill in the complete length of the item */

      PUT(previous, 1, code - previous);
      break; /* End of class handling */
      }
#endif

    /* If there are no characters > 255, or they are all to be included or
excluded, set the opcode to OP_CLASS or OP_NCLASS, depending on whether the
whole class was negated and whether there were negative specials such as \S
(non-UCP) in the class. Then copy the 32-byte map into the code vector,
negating it if necessary. */

    *code++ = (negate_class == should_flip_negation) ? OP_CLASS : OP_NCLASS;
    if (negate_class)
      {
      if (lengthptr == NULL) /* Save time in the pre-compile phase */
        for (c = 0; c < 32; c++) code[c] = ~classbits[c];
      }
    else
      {
      memcpy(code, classbits, 32);
      }
    code += 32;
    break;


    /* ===================================================================*/
    /* Various kinds of repeat; '{' is not necessarily a quantifier, but this
has been tested above. */

    case CHAR_LEFT_CURLY_BRACKET:
    if (!is_quantifier) goto NORMAL_CHAR;
    ptr = read_repeat_counts(ptr+1, &repeat_min, &repeat_max, errorcodeptr);
    if (*errorcodeptr != 0) goto FAILED;
    goto REPEAT;

    case CHAR_ASTERISK:
    repeat_min = 0;
    repeat_max = -1;
    goto REPEAT;

    case CHAR_PLUS:
    repeat_min = 1;
    repeat_max = -1;
    goto REPEAT;

    case CHAR_QUESTION_MARK:
    repeat_min = 0;
    repeat_max = 1;

    REPEAT:
    if (previous == NULL)
      {
      *errorcodeptr = ERR9;
      goto FAILED;
      }

    if (repeat_min == 0)
      {
      firstbyte = zerofirstbyte; /* Adjust for zero repeat */
      reqbyte = zeroreqbyte; /* Ditto */
      }

    /* Remember whether this is a variable length repeat */

    reqvary = (repeat_min == repeat_max)? 0 : REQ_VARY;

    op_type = 0; /* Default single-char op codes */
    possessive_quantifier = FALSE; /* Default not possessive quantifier */

    /* Save start of previous item, in case we have to move it up in order to
insert something before it. */

    tempcode = previous;

    /* If the next character is '+', we have a possessive quantifier. This
implies greediness, whatever the setting of the PCRE_UNGREEDY option.
If the next character is '?' this is a minimizing repeat, by default,
but if PCRE_UNGREEDY is set, it works the other way round. We change the
repeat type to the non-default. */

    if (ptr[1] == CHAR_PLUS)
      {
      repeat_type = 0; /* Force greedy */
      possessive_quantifier = TRUE;
      ptr++;
      }
    else if (ptr[1] == CHAR_QUESTION_MARK)
      {
      repeat_type = greedy_non_default;
      ptr++;
      }
    else repeat_type = greedy_default;

    /* If previous was a recursion call, wrap it in atomic brackets so that
previous becomes the atomic group. All recursions were so wrapped in the
past, but it no longer happens for non-repeated recursions. In fact, the
repeated ones could be re-implemented independently so as not to need this,
but for the moment we rely on the code for repeating groups. */

    if (*previous == OP_RECURSE)
      {
      memmove(previous + 1 + LINK_SIZE, previous, 1 + LINK_SIZE);
      *previous = OP_ONCE;
      PUT(previous, 1, 2 + 2*LINK_SIZE);
      previous[2 + 2*LINK_SIZE] = OP_KET;
      PUT(previous, 3 + 2*LINK_SIZE, 2 + 2*LINK_SIZE);
      code += 2