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deep-transformations.cabal

README.md

Deep transformations

An abstract syntax tree of a realistic programming language will generally contain more than one node type. In other words, its type will involve several mutually recursive data types: the usual suspects would be expression, declaration, type, statement, and module.

This library, deep-transformations, provides a solution to the problem of traversing and transforming such heterogenous trees. It is not the only solution by far. The venerable multiplate has long offered a very approachable way to traverse and fold heterogenous trees, without even depending on any extension to standard Haskell. Multiplate is not as expressive as the present library, but if it satisfies your needs go with it. If not, be aware that deep-transformations relies on quite a number of extensions:

{-# LANGUAGE FlexibleContexts, FlexibleInstances, UndecidableInstances, MultiParamTypeClasses,
             StandaloneDeriving, TypeFamilies, TypeOperators #-}
module README where

It will also require several imports.

import Control.Applicative
import Data.Coerce (coerce)
import Data.Functor.Const
import Data.Functor.Identity
import qualified Rank2
import Transformation (Transformation, At)
import qualified Transformation
import qualified Transformation.AG as AG
import qualified Transformation.Deep as Deep
import qualified Transformation.Full as Full
import qualified Transformation.Shallow as Shallow

Let us start with the same example handled by Multiplate. It's a relatively simple set of two mutually recursive data types.

data Expr = Con Int
          | Add Expr Expr
          | Mul Expr Expr
          | EVar Var
          | Let Decl Expr

data Decl = Var := Expr
          | Seq Decl Decl

type Var = String

This kind of tree is not something that deep-transformations can handle. Before you can use this library, you must parameterize every data type and wrap every recursive field of every constructor as follows:

data Expr d s = Con Int
              | Add (s (Expr d d)) (s (Expr d d))
              | Mul (s (Expr d d)) (s (Expr d d))
              | EVar Var
              | Let (s (Decl d d)) (s (Expr d d))

data Decl d s = Var := s (Expr d d)
              | Seq (s (Decl d d)) (s (Decl d d))

type Var = String

The parameters d and s stand for the deep and shallow type constructor. A typical occurrence of the tree will instantiate the same type for both parameters. While it may look ugly and annoying, this kind of parameterization carries benefits beyond this library's use. The parameters may vary from Identity, equivalent to the original simple formulation, via (,) LexicalInfo to store the source code position and white-space and comments for every node, or [] if you need some ambiguity, to attribute grammar semantics.

Now, let's declare all the class instances. First make the tree Show.

deriving instance (Show (f (Expr f' f')), Show (f (Decl f' f'))) => Show (Expr f' f)
deriving instance (Show (f (Expr f' f')), Show (f (Decl f' f'))) => Show (Decl f' f)

The shallow parameter comes last so that every data type can have instances of rank2classes. The instances below are written manually, but they can be generated automatically using the Template Haskell imports from Rank2.TH.

instance Rank2.Functor (Decl f') where
  f <$> (v := e) = (v := f e)
  f <$> Seq x y  = Seq (f x) (f y)

instance Rank2.Functor (Expr f') where
  f <$> Con n   = Con n
  f <$> Add x y = Add (f x) (f y)
  f <$> Mul x y = Mul (f x) (f y)
  f <$> Let d e = Let (f d) (f e)
  f <$> EVar v  = EVar v

instance Rank2.Foldable (Decl f') where
  f `foldMap` (v := e) = f e
  f `foldMap` Seq x y  = f x <> f y

instance Rank2.Foldable (Expr f') where
  f `foldMap` Con n   = mempty
  f `foldMap` Add x y = f x <> f y
  f `foldMap` Mul x y = f x <> f y
  f `foldMap` Let d e = f d <> f e
  f `foldMap` EVar v  = mempty

While the methods declared above can be handy, they are limited in requiring that the function argument f must be polymorphic in the wrapped field type. In other words, it cannot behave one way for an Expr and another for a Decl. That can be a severe handicap.

The class methods exported by deep-transformations therefore work not with polymorphic functions but with tranformations. The instances of these classes are similar to the instances above. Also as above, they can be generated automatically with Template Haskell functions from Transformation.Deep.TH.

instance (Transformation t, Full.Functor t Decl, Full.Functor t Expr) => Deep.Functor t Decl where
  t <$> (v := e)   = (v := (t Full.<$> e))
  t <$> Seq x y = Seq (t Full.<$> x) (t Full.<$> y)

instance (Transformation t, Full.Functor t Decl, Full.Functor t Expr) => Deep.Functor t Expr where
  t <$> Con n   = Con n
  t <$> Add x y = Add (t Full.<$> x) (t Full.<$> y)
  t <$> Mul x y = Mul (t Full.<$> x) (t Full.<$> y)
  t <$> Let d e = Let (t Full.<$> d) (t Full.<$> e)
  t <$> EVar v  = EVar v

instance (Transformation t, Full.Foldable t Decl, Full.Foldable t Expr) => Deep.Foldable t Decl where
  t `foldMap` (v := e) = t `Full.foldMap` e
  t `foldMap` Seq x y  = t `Full.foldMap` x <> t `Full.foldMap` y

instance (Transformation t, Full.Foldable t Decl, Full.Foldable t Expr) => Deep.Foldable t Expr where
  t `foldMap` Con n   = mempty
  t `foldMap` Add x y = t `Full.foldMap` x <> t `Full.foldMap` y
  t `foldMap` Mul x y = t `Full.foldMap` x <> t `Full.foldMap` y
  t `foldMap` Let d e = t `Full.foldMap` d <> t `Full.foldMap` e
  t `foldMap` EVar v  = mempty
instance (Full.Traversable t Decl, Full.Traversable t Expr) => Deep.Traversable t Decl where
  t `traverse` (v := e)   = (v := (t `Full.traverse` e))
  t `traverse` Seq x y = Seq (t `Full.traverse` x) (t `Full.traverse` y)

instance (Full.Traversable t Decl, Full.Traversable t Expr) => Deep.Traversable t Expr where
  t `traverse` Con n   = pure (Con n)
  t `traverse` Add x y = Add <$> t `Full.traverse` x <*> t `Full.traverse` y
  t `traverse` Mul x y = Mul <$> t `Full.traverse` x <*> t `Full.traverse` y
  t `traverse` Let d e = Let <$> t `Full.traverse` d <*> t `Full.traverse` e
  t `traverse` EVar v  = pure (EVar v)

Once the above boilerplate code is written or generated, no further boilerplate code need be written.

Generic Programing with deep-transformations

Folding

Suppose we we want to get a list of all variables used in an expression. To do this we would decalre the appropriate Transformation instance for an arbitrary data type. We'll give this data type an evocative name.

data GetVariables = GetVariables

instance Transformation GetVariables where
  type Domain GetVariables = Identity
  type Codomain GetVariables = Const [Var]

The Transformation instance for GetVariables converts the Identity wrapper of a given node into a constant list of variables contained within it. To do that, it must behave differently for Expr and for Decl:

instance GetVariables `At` Expr Identity Identity where
  GetVariables $ Identity (EVar v) = Const [v]
  GetVariables $ x = mempty

instance GetVariables `At` Decl Identity Identity where
  GetVariables $ x = mempty

There is one last decision to make on our transformation: is it a pre-order or a post-order fold? In this case it doesn't matter, so let's pick pre-order:

instance Full.Foldable GetVariables Decl where
  foldMap = Full.foldMapDownDefault

instance Full.Foldable GetVariables Expr where
  foldMap = Full.foldMapDownDefault

Now the transformation is ready. We'll try it on this example:

e1 :: Expr Identity Identity
e1 = bin Let ("x" := Identity (Con 42)) (bin Add (EVar "x") (EVar "y"))

with the help of a little combinator to shorten the construction of binary nodes:

bin f a b = f (Identity a) (Identity b)

Folding the entire expression tree is as simple as applying Deep.foldMap at its root:

-- |
-- >>> Deep.foldMap GetVariables e1
-- ["x","y"]

Traversing

Suppose we want to recursively evaluate constant expressions in the language. We define another data type with a Transformation instance for the purpose. This time Domain and Codomain are both Identity, since the simplification doesn't change the tree type.

data ConstantFold = ConstantFold

instance Transformation ConstantFold where
  type Domain ConstantFold = Identity
  type Codomain ConstantFold = Identity

instance ConstantFold `At` Expr Identity Identity where
  ConstantFold $ Identity (Add (Identity (Con x)) (Identity (Con y))) = Identity (Con (x + y))
  ConstantFold $ Identity (Mul (Identity (Con x)) (Identity (Con y))) = Identity (Con (x * y))
  ConstantFold $ Identity x = Identity x

instance ConstantFold `At` Decl Identity Identity where
  ConstantFold $ Identity x = Identity x

This transformation has to work bottom-up, so we declare

instance Full.Functor ConstantFold Decl where
  (<$>) = Full.mapUpDefault

instance Full.Functor ConstantFold Expr where
  (<$>) = Full.mapUpDefault

Let's build a declaration to test.

d1 :: Decl Identity Identity
d1 = "y" := Identity (bin Add (bin Mul (Con 42) (Con 68)) (Con 7))

As we're keeping the tree this time, instead of Deep.foldMap we can use Deep.fmap:

-- |
-- >>> Deep.fmap ConstantFold d1
-- "y" := Identity (Con 2863)

Attribute Grammars

All right, can we do something more complicated? How about inlining all constant let bindings? And while we're at it, removing all unused declarations - also known as dead code elimination?

When it comes to complex transformations like this, the best tool in compiler writer's belt is an attribute grammar. We can build one with the tools from Transformation.AG.

First we declare another transformation, just like before. Its Codomain will now be something called the attribute grammar semantics, and it performs bottom-up.

data DeadCodeEliminator = DeadCodeEliminator

type Sem = AG.Semantics DeadCodeEliminator

instance Transformation DeadCodeEliminator where
   type Domain DeadCodeEliminator = Identity
   type Codomain DeadCodeEliminator = AG.Semantics DeadCodeEliminator

instance Full.Functor DeadCodeEliminator Decl where
  (<$>) = AG.fullMapDefault runIdentity

instance Full.Functor DeadCodeEliminator Expr where
  (<$>) = AG.fullMapDefault runIdentity

We also need another bit of a boilerplate instance that can be generated

instance Rank2.Apply (Decl f') where
  (v := e1) <*> ~(_ := e2) = v := (Rank2.apply e1 e2)
  Seq x1 y1 <*> ~(Seq x2 y2) = Seq (Rank2.apply x1 x2) (Rank2.apply y1 y2)

instance Rank2.Apply (Expr f') where
  Con n <*> _  = Con n
  EVar v <*> _ = EVar v
  Let d1 e1 <*> ~(Let d2 e2) = Let (Rank2.apply d1 d2) (Rank2.apply e1 e2)
  Add x1 y1 <*> ~(Add x2 y2) = Add (Rank2.apply x1 x2) (Rank2.apply y1 y2)
  Mul x1 y1 <*> ~(Mul x2 y2) = Mul (Rank2.apply x1 x2) (Rank2.apply y1 y2)

Every type of node can have different inherited and synthesized attributes, so we need to declare what they are. Since we want to inline the constant bindings declared in outer scopes, we must keep track of all visible bindings. This kind of environment is a typical example of an inherited attribute. It is also the only attribute inherited by an expression.

type Env = Var -> Maybe (Expr Identity Identity)
type instance AG.Atts (AG.Inherited DeadCodeEliminator) (Expr _ _) = Env

A declaration will also need to inherit the environment, if only to pass it on to the nested expressions. It will also need to know the list of variables that are used at all, so it can discard useless assignments.

type instance AG.Atts (AG.Inherited DeadCodeEliminator) (Decl _ _) = (Env, [Var])

A Decl needs to synthesize the environment of constant bindings it generates itself, as well as a modified declaration without useless assignments. To cover the case where the whole of synthesized declaration is useless, we need to wrap it in a Maybe.

type instance AG.Atts (AG.Synthesized DeadCodeEliminator) (Decl _ _) = (Env, Maybe (Decl Identity Identity))

All declarations inside an Expr need to be trimmed, so the Expr itself may be simplified but never completely eliminated. The simplified exression is our one synthesized attribute. The only other thing we need to know about an Expr is the list of variables it uses. We could make the used variable list its synthesized attribute, but it's easier to reuse the existing GetVariables transformation.

type instance AG.Atts (AG.Synthesized DeadCodeEliminator) (Expr _ _) = Expr Identity Identity

Now we need to describe how to calculate the attributes, by declaring Attribution instances of the node types. The method attribution takes as arguments: the transformation - in this case DeadCodeEliminator, the node, the node's inherited attributes, and the synthesized attributes of all the node's children grouped under the node constructor. The last two inputs are grouped in a pair for symmetry with the function result, which is a pair of the node's synthesized attributes and the inherited attributes for all the node's children grouped under the node constructor. Perhaps this can be more succintly illustrated by the method's type signature:

class Attribution t g deep shallow where
   attribution :: sem ~ Inherited t Rank2.~> Synthesized t
               => t -> shallow (g deep deep)
               -> (Inherited   t (g sem sem), g sem (Synthesized t))
               -> (Synthesized t (g sem sem), g sem (Inherited t))

Let's see a few simple attribution rules first. The rules for leaf nodes can ignore their childrens' attributes because they don't have any children.

instance AG.Attribution DeadCodeEliminator Expr Identity Identity where
  attribution DeadCodeEliminator (Identity e@(EVar v)) (AG.Inherited env, _) = (AG.Synthesized (maybe e id $ env v), EVar v)
  attribution DeadCodeEliminator (Identity e@(Con n)) (AG.Inherited env, _) = (AG.Synthesized e, Con n)

The Add and Mul nodes' rules need only to pass their inheritance down and to re-join the synthesized child expressions.

  attribution DeadCodeEliminator (Identity Add{}) (inh, (Add (AG.Synthesized e1') (AG.Synthesized e2'))) =
    (AG.Synthesized (bin Add e1' e2'),
     Add inh inh)
  attribution DeadCodeEliminator (Identity Mul{}) (inh, Mul (AG.Synthesized e1') (AG.Synthesized e2')) =
    (AG.Synthesized (bin Mul e1' e2'),
     Mul inh inh)

The only non-trivial rule is for the Let node. It needs to pass the list of variables used in its expression child as an inherited attribute of its declaration child. Furthermore, in case its declaration is useless the Let node should disappear from the synthesized expression.

  attribution DeadCodeEliminator (Identity (Let _decl expr))
              (AG.Inherited env, (Let (AG.Synthesized ~(env', decl')) (AG.Synthesized expr'))) =
    (AG.Synthesized (maybe id (bin Let) decl' expr'),
     Let (AG.Inherited (env, Full.foldMap GetVariables expr)) (AG.Inherited $ \v-> maybe (env v) Just (env' v)))

The rules for Decl are a bit more involved.

instance AG.Attribution DeadCodeEliminator Decl Identity Identity where
  attribution DeadCodeEliminator (Identity (v := e)) (AG.Inherited ~(env, used), (_ := AG.Synthesized e')) =
    (AG.Synthesized (if null (Deep.foldMap GetVariables e')
                     then (\var-> if var == v then Just e' else Nothing, Nothing)  -- constant binding
                     else (const Nothing, if v `elem` used
                                          then Just (v := Identity e')             -- used binding
                                          else Nothing)),                          -- unused binding
     v := AG.Inherited env)
  attribution DeadCodeEliminator (Identity Seq{}) (inh, (Seq (AG.Synthesized (env1, d1')) (AG.Synthesized (env2, d2')))) =
    (AG.Synthesized (\v-> maybe (env2 v) Just (env1 v),
                     bin Seq <$> d1' <*> d2' <|> d1' <|> d2'),
     Seq inh inh)
-- |
-- >>> let s = Full.fmap DeadCodeEliminator (Identity $ bin Let d1 e1) `Rank2.apply` AG.Inherited (const Nothing)
-- >>> s
-- Synthesized {syn = Add (Identity (Con 42)) (Identity (Add (Identity (Mul (Identity (Con 42)) (Identity (Con 68)))) (Identity (Con 7))))}
-- >>> Full.fmap ConstantFold $ Identity $ AG.syn s
-- Identity (Con 2905)
main = print $ Full.fmap ConstantFold $ Identity $ AG.syn
     $ Full.fmap DeadCodeEliminator (Identity $ bin Let d1 e1) Rank2.$ AG.Inherited (const Nothing)
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