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Odo migrates between many formats. These include in-memory structures like list, pd.DataFrame and np.ndarray and also data outside of Python like CSV/JSON/HDF5 files, SQL databases, data on remote machines, and the Hadoop File System.

The odo function

odo takes two arguments, a source and a target for a data transfer.

>>> from odo import odo
>>> odo(source, target)  # load source into target

It efficiently migrates data from the source to the target.

The target and source can take on the following forms

Source Target Example
Object Object An instance of a DataFrame or list
String String Type 'file.csv', 'postgresql://hostname::tablename' list, DataFrame

So the following lines would be valid inputs to odo

>>> odo(df, list)  # create new list from Pandas DataFrame
>>> odo(df, [])  # append onto existing list
>>> odo(df, 'myfile.json')  # Dump dataframe to line-delimited JSON
>>> odo('myfiles.*.csv', Iterator) # Stream through many CSV files
>>> odo(df, 'postgresql://hostname::tablename')  # Migrate dataframe to Postgres
>>> odo('myfile.*.csv', 'postgresql://hostname::tablename')  # Load CSVs to Postgres
>>> odo('postgresql://hostname::tablename', 'myfile.json') # Dump Postgres to JSON
>>> odo('mongodb://hostname/db::collection', pd.DataFrame) # Dump Mongo to DataFrame


If the target in odo(source, target) already exists, it must be of a type that supports in-place append.

>>> odo('myfile.csv', df) # this will raise TypeError because DataFrame is not appendable

Enabling Conversions

Odo is dependent on external libraries for many of its conversions. Since most users will only use a small subset of conversions, Odo does not install most external libraries.

If you try to use a supported conversion and that conversion is not installed, you may get the following error:

NotImplementedError: Unable to parse uri to data resource...

To install various subsystems of odo you can use extra install targets like:

pip install odo[postgres]
pip install odo[bcolz]

There are a lot of these, but two special extras targets are odo[all] and odo[ci]. odo[all] will install all of the subsystems. odo[ci] will install the versions of packages we used to run the full test suite for the release. This can be helpful if you are seeing an issue that you suspect may be due to an incomptatible library version.

Network Effects

To convert data any pair of formats odo.odo relies on a network of pairwise conversions. We visualize that network below

odo network of conversions

Each node represents a data format. Each directed edge represents a function to transform data between two formats. A single call to odo may traverse multiple edges and multiple intermediate formats. Red nodes support larger-than-memory data.

A single call to odo may traverse several intermediate formats calling on several conversion functions. These functions are chosen because they are fast, often far faster than converting through a central serialization format.