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#!/usr/bin/env python3
import argparse
import subprocess
import re
def hexstring_to_list(hexstr):
"""Converts a hex string line 'ff 12 34' to a list of integers."""
return [int(x, 16) for x in hexstr.split()]
def bits_to_bytes(bitlist):
"""Convert a list of booleans into a byte string"""
# Round down to multiples of 8
num_bytes = (len(bitlist) + 7) // 8
bl = [0]*num_bytes
for pos in range(len(bitlist)):
bl[pos // 8] |= (1 if bitlist[pos] else 0) << (pos % 8)
return bytes([b for b in bl if b != 0])
def bits_to_string(bitlist):
"""Convert a list of booleans into a string"""
return bits_to_bytes(bitlist).decode()
if __name__ == '__main__':
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description='Embed messages into object files')
parser.add_argument('binary', help='The ELF binary from which to extract a message')
args = parser.parse_args()
instr_bytes_re = re.compile(r"[0-9a-f]+:\s+(([0-9a-f]{2} )+)\s+\S")
# group(1) contains a hex string
short_opc = [0x35]
long_opc = [0x81, 0xf0]
disassembly =["objdump", "-d", args.binary], capture_output=True, check=True).stdout.decode('ascii')
recovered_bits = []
for line in disassembly.split('\n'):
m =, line)
if not m:
byte_list = hexstring_to_list(
if byte_list[:1] == short_opc or byte_list[:2] == long_opc:
assert len(byte_list) in [5, 6]
recovered_bits.append(byte_list[:2] == long_opc)