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Change log for javautil

Version 3.2.0 (22 March, 2017)

  • Now builds with SBT. I'm tired of fighting Gradle.
  • Removed all "test" classes that aren't JUnit tests.
  • Fixed Javadoc problems.
  • Removed copyrights from individual source files.

Version 3.1.3 (22 May, 2016)

  • Updated Gradle build to use Bintray plugin, allowing publishing to Bintray.

Version 3.1.2 (26 August, 2014)

  • Merged change from Shilad Shen (shilad at Handle edge-case NullPointerException errors in ClassFinder.
  • Renamed type-safe version of MultiValueMap.remove() to MultiValueMap.delete(), to get past Java 1.7 compiler complaints.
  • Switched to Gradle build.

Version 3.1.1 (2 April, 2012)

  • Fixed Issue #8: Single hyphen replaced by double hyphen.

Version 3.1.0 (31 March, 2012)

  • Fixed Issue #6: Generate POM lack dependencies. Fixing this problem required a hack to Buildr.
  • Fixed Issue #7: HTMLUtil.textFromHTML() and HTMLUtil.convertCharacterEntities() improperly converted certain HTML entities. The problem stemmed from failing to handled ill-formed entities such as &foobar (i.e., no trailing ";").
  • Added some conversions to HTML.textFromHTML(). Specifically, various space characters now convert to a single space, Unicode joiners convert to nothing, and Unicode hyphens are now handled. NOTE: This change could potentially break expected behavior.
  • Added unit tests for the above.
  • Changed repo to Maven Central, for downloading artifacts.
  • Now uses SLF4J, instead of Log4J, when testing.

Version 3.0.1 (17 September, 2011)

  • Switched to Apache Buildr, because Buildr's Ruby-based build files are more powerful and flexible, and much easier to read and maintain, than Maven's POM files.

Version 3.0 (16 September, 2011)

  • Now builds with Maven.
  • Now published to org.clapper Maven repository. See the web page for details.
  • org.clapper.util.ant has been removed.
  • org.clapper.util.scripting has been removed.

Version 2.5.2 (23 April, 2010)

  • Fixed problem with parsing of boolean flags in configuration files, introduced in previous release.
  • Changed license to a true, new-style BSD license.

Version 2.5.1 (25 October, 2009)

  • org.clapper.util.config.Configuration now permits specification of encoding on the file or URL being loaded.

Version 2.5 (25 October, 2009)

  • Updated to ASM version 3.2. Thanks to Charles Johnson (cj at for suggesting this upgrade and for providing required changes to the org.clapper.util.classutil classes.
  • The build.xml file now honors the value of the ASM_HOME environment variable, to find the location of the ASM bytecode library. If the bytecode library isn't present, the org.clapper.util.classutil package isn't built.
  • org.clapper.util.classutil.ClassInfo now contains information about a class's methods and fields.

Version 2.4.3 (25 July, 2009)

  • org.clapper.util.mail.SMTPEmailTransport now allows you to set the name of the localhost.

  • Fixed an open file leak in org.clapper.util.classutil.ClassFinder. When called with a classpath consisting of a lot of directories (not jar files), it was possible to end up with too many open files, because the files weren't explicitly closed. While they'd eventually be collected and closed by the garbage collector, the files could be opened in rapid succession, leading to many open files before the garbage collector ever ran.

    Thanks to Robert von Burg (eitch at for reporting and diagnosing the bug.

Version 2.4.2 (12 January, 2008)

  • Updated org.clapper.util.ant.JUnitSummaryFormatter to work with Ant 1.7.

  • Fixed a bug in the class: If the file pattern is incorrect, the class throws an exception. However, the exception message used a java.text.MessageFormat format that caused MessageFormat to gag. Thanks to Daniel Carr (daniel.carr at for finding and reporting the bug.

Version 2.4.1 (13 August, 2007)

  • Added the org.clapper.util.misc.SparseArrayList class.
  • Added new HTMLUtil.escapeHTML() method.
  • Added new org.clapper.util.text.Duration class, which parses and formats strings like "1 day, 5 minutes" and "300 days, 23 hours, 59 minutes".
  • Factored parameter parsing out of the org.clapper.util.cmdline.CommandLineUtility class and into a separate org.clapper.util.cmdline.ParameterParser class, allowing it to be used in other contexts (e.g., within a property value that happens to have a command line option syntax).
  • In the org.clapper.util.config.Configuration class, the getConfigurationTokens() method has been simplified and made more intuitive. Now, it returns the value, split on white space, with quotes honored. (Previously, it only split the value into tokens based on quotes.)
  • In the org.clapper.util.misc.NestedException method (the base class for all exceptions in the library), the getMessages() method is used to get one consolidated string that concatenates the messages of all the nested exceptions. It now suppresses any duplicate messages.
  • Added a new org.clapper.util.text.MultipleMapVariableDereferencer class, to permit VariableSubstituter objects to use multiple maps to resolve variable values.
  • org.clapper.util.misc.BuildInfo now contains some useful print methods.
  • Fixed a bundle string retrieval bug in org.clapper.util.misc.BundleUtil.

Version 2.4 (17 April, 2007)

  • The new org.clapper.util.text.TextUtil method isPrintable() determines whether a character is printable.
  • The new org.clapper.util.text.TextUtil method charToUnicodeEscape() converts a character to a string representing its Java unicode escape sequence.
  • Converted org.clapper.util.text.XStringBufBase (the base class for XStringBuffer and XStringBuilder) to use TextUtil.isPrintable() and TextUtil.charToUnicodeEscape(), instead of doing those things inline.
  • Added more JUnit tests for org.clapper.util.html.HTMLUtil and org.clapper.util.text.TextUtil.
  • The convertCharacterEntities() method in org.clapper.util.html.HTMLUtil handled decimal character entities (e.g., "™") but not hexadecimal ones (e.g., "™"). It does now. Thanks to Arjumand Bonhomme (jumand at for finding the problem and suggesting a fix. (I've adapted his patch.)
  • The makeCharacterEntities() method in org.clapper.util.html.HTMLUtil didn't properly handle some symbolic entities, owing to some mistakes in the properties file it uses for conversion. That's been fixed.

Version 2.3 (29 November, 2006)

  • The graphical installer now renders the license in a more readable, proportional font.

  • Propagated modified license (from 2.2) into source files.

  • Added JUnit infrastructure and various JUnit tests to build.

  • In org.clapper.util.misc.LRUMap, the containsValue() method was broken; a new JUnit test found the bug. Also implemented a proper values() method for LRUMap.

  • In org.clapper.util.misc.MultiIterator, the remove() method was broken; it would throw an IllegalStateException when removing the last item in a contained iterator. A new JUnit test found the bug.

  • Configuration class (in org.clapper.util.config) constructors that actually parse the configuration have been deprecated. They are unsafe, since they invoke methods that could be overridden by a subclass (and thus could be called on an incompletely constructed object). Use the load() methods, instead.

  • TextUtil.stringIsEmpty() is now more efficient and is a good (and faster) alternative to String.trim().isEmpty() for determining whether a string has any non-blank characters. (String.trim() creates a new String instance, just to test its length; TextUtil.stringIsEmpty() does not.)

  • In org.clapper.util.classutil, AndClassFilter and OrClassFilter are now final. This change avoids problems with the (useful) constructors for those classes potentially calling methods that could be overridden.

  • In, AndFileFilter, AndFilenameFilter, OrFileFilter and OrFilenameFilter are now final. This change avoids problems with the (useful) constructors for those classes potentially calling methods that could be overridden.

  • Changes and fixes to the org.clapper.util.config.Configuration class:

    • It how properly handles variable references to the "system", "program" and "env" pseudo-sections when an include file was being processed.
    • It will now abort, by default, if it encounters a reference to a non-existent section or variable in a ${...} variable substitution. Prior to this change, it would simply substitute an empty string; substituting an empty string can lead to runtime errors that are difficult to diagnose. The old behavior can be restored by calling Configuration.setAbortOnUndefinedVariable(true).
    • It now supports ${var?default value} syntax. In that example, if ${var} does not have a value, or has an empty value, the string "default value" will be substituted.
  • In org.clapper.util.misc.FileHashMap:

    • Class was using an exclusive file lock to prevent concurrent modification, but this strategy turns out to cause more problems than it solves (owing to the way Java file locking is implemented); it has been removed.
    • Added delete() method, to force deletion of files.
  • Miscellaneous code cleanup based on output from PMD (

  • The org.clapper.util.misc.ArrayIterator class's next() method would throw a NullPointerException if the wrapped array was null. It now throws a NoSuchElementException.

  • The org.clapper.util.text.UnixShellVariableSubstituter class has been extended:

    • It now supports a ${var?default value} syntax. In that example, if ${var} does not have a value, or has an empty value, the string "default value" will be substituted.
    • It can be configured to abort when a variable is undefined, rather than substituting an empty string.
    • It can be configured to abort on syntax error (e.g., an unclosed }), rather than simply passing the bad variable reference through.
    • The version of substitute() that takes an allowEscapes parameter has been deprecated. The same capability is now available by setting the "honor escapes" flag via the new setHonorEscapes() method.
  • The org.clapper.util.text.WindowsShellVariableSubstituter class has been extended:

    • It can be configured to abort when a variable is undefined, rather than substituting an empty string.
    • It can be configured to abort on syntax error (e.g., an unclosed "%"), rather than simply passing the bad variable reference through.
  • Added a new org.clapper.util.scripting package, containing a simplified front-end to both the Apache Jakarta Bean Scripting Framework and the Java 6 javax.script (a.k.a., JSR 223) scripting framework. This package allows code to use one API to interact with either (or both) framework.

  • Added a new generics-aware org.clapper.util.misc.MultiValueMap class. This class is very similar to the MultiValueMap in the Jakarta Commons Collections API, except that it uses Java generics.

  • org.clapper.util.classutil.ClassUtil now has an instantiateClass() convenience method.

  • The HTMLUtil class has been moved from the org.clapper.util.text package to new org.clapper.util.html package. A deprecated version of HTMLUtil remains in the org.clapper.util.text package (for now), but its methods merely invoke the corresponding methods in org.clapper.util.html.HTMLUtil.

  • In org.clapper.util.text.TextUtil:

    • Added various hexadecimal conversion routines.
    • Added romanNumeralsForNumber() method.

Version 2.2 (4 July, 2006)

  • org.clapper.util.logging API is now implemented in terms of Jakarta Commons Logging, rather than java.util.logging.
  • Added new, a complement to the class. Like DirectoryFilter, FileOnlyFilter implements and can be used to filter files.
  • Deprecated MultipleRegexFilenameFilter, CombinationFilenameFilter and CombinationFileFilter classes in package in favor of new, simpler filters that can be combined more easily.
  • Created new package with some class-related classes.
  • Added new org.clapper.util.misc.XDate class, a subclass of java.util.Date. XDate contains some utility methods to aid in time zone conversion.
  • org.clapper.util.misc.BuildInfo now produces build info properties files with a build ID (consisting of the date and time, with milliseconds, in UTC).
  • The CommandLineUtility and UsageInfo classes (in org.clapper.util.cmdline) now permit an option to be specified with a null explanation, denoting a "hidden" option that isn't shown in the usage display. This is useful, for instance, when you've deprecated an option but are retaining it for backward compatibility.
  • The UsageInfo class now permits the caller to set the command name, which is then displayed in the usage message instead of "java full-class-name". If not set, then "java full-class-name" is used, as before.
  • Added new class, a front-end to the library that makes creating zip files easier.

Version 2.1.3 (5 February, 2006)

  • Fixed a bug in the class: When writing a new line (i.e., when the last thing written was a newline character), if the first token to be written exceeded the line length, the WordWrapWriter.flushBuffer() method would put out a spurious newline before writing the token. That is, it did not properly recognize that the line was already wrapped, since the last thing it had written was a newline.
  • The org.clapper.util.config.Configuration class now honors double quoted fields in a configuration file. Double quotes can be used to escape the special meaning of white space, while still permitting metacharacters and variable references to be expanded. (Metacharacter and variable references are not expanded between single quotes.) When retrieving a variable's value via Configuration.getConfigurationValue(), a program will not be able to tell whether double quotes were used or not, since getConfigurationValue() returns the "cooked" value as a single string. There's a new Configuration.getConfigurationTokens() method that programs can call to retrieve the parsed tokens that comprise a configuration value. Double- and single-quoted strings are returned as individual tokens. See the javadocs for the Configuration class for additional details.
  • Added two new versions of the TextUtil.join() method that allow the caller to specify a starting array index and length.
  • RollingFileWriter was mistakenly treating embedded backslashes in its file patterns as Unix-style escapes. This led to problems on Windows systems. Specifically, embedded file separators (backslash characters) were being swallowed when they should not have been.

Version 2.1.2 (2 January, 2006)

  • The library can now be installed (along with all dependent jars, documentation, sources, and a wrapper shell or BAT script) via a graphical installer. The graphical installer is based on the IzPack installer framework (
  • The Ant build.xml file wasn't properly constructing the source zip file. In particular, it was omitting properties files.
  • Fixed bug in TextUtil.join() method taking a java.util.Collection: No longer craps out with a NullPointerException if it encounters a null entry in the Collection.

Version 2.1.1 (13 December, 2005)

  • Added makeCharacterEntities() method to org.clapper.util.text.HTMLUtil class.

  • Fixed a constructor that was ignoring the specified character set name (i.e., the encoding) and using the default encoding of the VM.

Version 2.1 (25 November, 2005)

  • Added new RollingFileWriter class. Works like a FileWriter, but rolls files when they get too big.
  • Some minor changes to some exception error messages.
  • Added method.
  • Fixed formatting bug in usage output in CommandLineUtility class.
  • Fixed getFileNameNoExtension() and getFileNameExtension() methods in to look for the last "." in the file name, not the first.

Version 2.0.3 (19 August, 2005)

  • Some additional Java 5.0 (a.k.a., JDK 1.5) changes, specifically:
    • org.clapper.util.logging.LogLevel is now an enum
    • is now an enum
    • org.clapper.util.misc.Semaphore and org.clapper.util.misc.ObjectLockSemaphore are now deprecated, in favor of the java.util.concurrent.Semaphore class provided with J2SE 5.0 (a.k.a., Java 1.5)

Version 2.0.2 (10 August, 2005)

  • Add versions of TextUtil.join() that take variable arguments.

Version 2.0.1 (29 July, 2005)

  • Some minor changes to the org.clapper.util.mail.EmailMessage class:
    • The clear() method now explicitly deletes any temporary files that were created to handle attachments. As before, the the finalizer also performs that explicit deletion, and the files are marked for deletion when the VM exits. But the application can now force that cleanup itself.
    • Added some new versions of the setText() and addAttachment() methods, permitting use of a object while still setting an explicit attachment name that isn't necessarily derived from the actual file name.

Version 2.0 (22 April, 2005)

  • Now requires Java 1.5.0 JDK/JRE.

  • Converted various classes to use JDK 1.5 generics.

  • The org.clapper.util.text.XStringBuffer class now implements java.lang.Appendable and java.lang.CharSequence.

  • New class org.clapper.util.text.XStringBuilder provides similar functionality to XStringBuffer, except that it wraps a StringBuilder. Functionality common to XStringBuffer and XStringBuilder is in a new XStringBufBase class.

  • org.clapper.util.config.Configuration class now supports an "env" pseudosection, to interpolate the values of environment variables into a configuration. (The 1.5 JDK has re-established support for environment variables.) See the javadocs for the Configuration class for details.

  • now uses (new) enum to specify the justification style (CENTER, LEFT_JUSTIFY, RIGHT_JUSTIFY), instead of an "int". Unfortunately, this change is not backward-compatible with previous versions of this library.

  • org.clapper.util.MultipleRegexFilenameFilter now uses enums for the match type values:

    • MultipleRegexFilenameFilter.MATCH_FILENAME becomes MultipleRegexFilenameFilter.MatchType.FILENAME
    • MultipleRegexFilenameFilter.MATCH_PATH becomes MultipleRegexFilenameFilter.MatchType.PATH
  • org.clapper.util.text.MapVariableDereferencer now expects a java.util.Map<String,String> object, not just a Map object.

  • To make it easier to use a java.util.Properties object with the org.clapper.util.text.VariableSubstituter class, there's now a type-safe org.clapper.util.misc.PropertiesMap wrapper for java.util.Properties.

  • Add new (simple) class, used to write XML output.


  • Some minor changes to the org.clapper.util.mail.EmailMessage class:
    • The clear() method now explicitly deletes any temporary files that were created to handle attachments. As before, the the finalizer also performs that explicit deletion, and the files are marked for deletion when the VM exits. But the application can now force that cleanup itself.
    • Added some new versions of the setText() and addAttachment() methods, permitting use of a object while still setting an explicit attachment name that isn't necessarily derived from the actual file name.

Version 1.1.8 (21 April, 2005)

  • Fixed bug in org.clapper.util.cmdline.CommandLineUtility class: Default version processPostOptionCommandLine() threw an unconditional exception. It should've thrown an exception only if the iterator still had something in it. This bug led to an erroneous usage message with utilities that expected no parameters and thus did not override the processPostOptionCommandLine() method. (Branch version fix.)

Version 1.1.7 (08 April, 2005)

  • Miscellaneous Javadoc clarifications

Version 1.1.6 (09 February, 2005)

  • Added TextUtil.split() methods that permit preserving empty strings. By default, the split() methods parse through adjacent empty tokens. e.g., Given the string "a🅱️:c" and delimiter ":", the split() methods used to return the array ["a", "b", "c"], since the adjacent "::" delimiters were treated as one delimiter. Now, that behavior can be controlled by passing in a boolean, so that split() can return the array ["a", "b", "", "c"].

  • Modified RegexUtil.substitute() to properly handle substitutions of the empty string. Strings like this were previously rejected as syntactically incorrect: s/foo// They are now permitted and processed properly.

  • build.xml no longer hard-codes jikes compiler.

  • build.xml corrected so it no longer unconditionally recompiles everything.

  • Serializable classes now provide their own serialVersionUID variable, per recommendations in the JDK 1.5 docs and in jikes 1.22 warnings.

Version 1.1.5 (02 December, 2004)

  • Added getOptionalCardinalValue() and getRequiredCardinalValue() utility methods to org.clapper.util.config.Configuration class.

Version 1.1.4 (10 November, 2004)

  • Added new methods in the org.clapper.util.mail.EmailAddress, allowing specification of a file name to setText() and addAttachment() methods. The file name is used to specify the suggested file name in the MIME headers. Also fixed some bugs relating to the assignment of file names and determination of MIME types for attachments.

  • Added MIMETypeUtil class, with enhanced methods to map from a file name or extension to a MIME type (similar to what the JDK provides), and to map from a MIME type to a preferred extension (which the JDK does not provide).

Version 1.1.3 (30 October, 2004)

  • Added org.clapper.util.misc.FileHashMap class, a Map that keeps the keys in memory, but stores the values as serialized objects in a random access disk file.

  • Added message() method to org.clapper.util.logging.Logger class.

Version 1.1.2 (20 October, 2004)

  • Moved org.clapper.util.misc.JDK14TextLogFormatter and org.clapper.util.misc.Logger classes to the org.clapper.util.logging package. Renamed JDK14TextLogFormatter to JavaUtilLoggingTextFormatter.

  • org.clapper.util.logging.Logger is now implemented directly in terms of java.util.logging, eliminating another third-party dependency. Consult the javadocs for org.clapper.logging.Logger for complete rationale.

Version 1.1.1 (12 October, 2004)

  • Added org.clapper.util.misc.JDK14TextLogFormatter class, a simple text log formatter for the 1.4 JDK java.util.logging infrastructure.

  • Simplified loading of API version, in build.xml. Instead of loading version from Version.class, it now loads the version from a properties file. The Version class uses the same properties file, as a resource bundle.

Version 1.1 (07 October, 2004):

  • Now requires JDK 1.4 or better. JDK 1.3 is no longer supported.

  • Converted code that used Jakarta ORO to use the JDK 1.4 java.util.regexp classes. Includes introduction of new org.clapper.util.regex.RegexUtil class, which provides a substitute() method that takes the place of the org.apache.oro.text.perl.Perl5Util substitute() method.

  • Added new org.clapper.util.misc.LRUMap class, which implements a simple least recently used map.

  • org.clapper.util.misc.NestedException is now implemented in terms of the built-in exception chaining in the 1.4 JDK. NestedException is retained for backward compatibility and because it provides support for localizing exception messages.

  • Added parseIntParameter(), parseIntOptionArgument(), parseFloatParameter(), parseFloatOptionArgument(), etc., parameter parsing helper methods to CommandLineUtility class.

  • Overhauled build.xml to make compilations more efficient. Requires a newer version of Jikes (if compiling with Jikes).

  • Cleaned up a lot of unnecessary imports. Addressed minor issues that Jikes warned about.

  • Minor javadoc changes and adjustments.

Version 1.0.2 (24 September, 2004):

  • Drastically simplified word-wrapping logic in
  • Added rightJustifyString(), leftJustifyString() and centerString() methods to org.clapper.util.text.TextUtil.
  • Added class.

Version 1.0.1 (16 September, 2004):

  • New methods (copyTextFile(), copyReader(), etc.) in copyTextFile() explicitly handles character set conversion.
  • FileUtil copy methods no longer do their own buffering. They use the appropriate* classes, instead.
  • Miscellaneous javadocs enhancements.

Version 1.0 (29 August, 2004):

  • First version posted to the web.