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Joynr C++ Developer Guide

FAQ

Q1: My code throws "TypeId not known" exceptions when deserializing custom types.

A1: The type registration in C++ is realized through static initalization. This static initialization can be "optimized" away by the linker when you link against a static library containing the generated joynr code for your interfaces.

There are two options:

  1. build a shared library
  2. disable the linker optimization. For ld this can be done through -Wl,--whole-archive <LIB_CONTAINING_GENERATED_CODE> -Wl,--no-whole-archive.

Conversion of Franca entries

Place holders

Note that the following elements in the code examples below must be replaced by actual values from Franca:

// "<Attribute>" the Franca name of the attribute
// "<AttributeType>" the Franca name of the attribute type
// "<broadcast>" the Franca name of the broadcast, starting with a lowercase letter
// "<Broadcast>" the Franca name of the broadcast, starting with capital letter
// "BroadcastFilter<Attribute>" Attribute is the Franca attributes name
// "<Filter>" the Franca name of the broadcast filter
// "<interface>" the Franca interface name, starting with a lowercase letter
// "<Interface>" the Franca interface name, starting with capital letter
// "<method>" the Franca method name, starting with a lowercase letter
// "<Method>" the Franca method name, starting with capital letter
// "<OutputType>" the Franca broadcast output type name
// "<Package>" the Franca package name
// "<ProviderDomain>" the provider domain name used by provider and client
// "<ReturnType>" the Franca return type name

Package name

The Franca <Package> will be transformed to the C++ namespace joynr::<Package>.

Type collection name

The Franca <TypeCollection> will be transformed to the C++ namespace joynr::<Package>::<TypeCollection>.

Complex type name

Any Franca complex type <TypeCollection>.<Type> will result in the creation of a class joynr::<Package>::<TypeCollection>::<Type> (see above).

The same <Type> will be used for all elements in the event that this type is used as an element of other complex types, as a method input or output argument, or as a broadcast output argument.

Getter and Setter methods will be created for any element of a struct type. Also a standard constructor, full arguments constructor and object argument constructor will be created automatically.

Interface name

The Franca <Interface> will be used as a prefix to create the following C++ classes (the names of classes that serve as interfaces like in Java, are prefixed with the capital letter I):

joynr::<Package>::I<Interface>
joynr::<Package>::I<Interface>Async
joynr::<Package>::I<Interface>Base
joynr::<Package>::I<Interface>Connector
joynr::<Package>::I<Interface>Subscription
joynr::<Package>::I<Interface>Sync
joynr::<Package>::<Interface>AbstractProvider
joynr::<Package>::Default<Interface>Provider
joynr::<Package>::<Interface>AsyncProxy
joynr::<Package>::<Interface>InProcessConnector
joynr::<Package>::<Interface>JoynrMessagingConnector
joynr::<Package>::<Interface><Broadcast>BroadcastFilter
joynr::<Package>::<Interface><Broadcast>BroadcastFilterParameters
joynr::<Package>::<Interface>Provider
joynr::<Package>::<Interface>Proxy
joynr::<Package>::<Interface>ProxyBase
joynr::<Package>::<Interface>RequestCaller
joynr::<Package>::<Interface>RequestInterpreter
joynr::<Package>::<Interface>SyncProxy

Configuration Reference

See C++ Configuration Reference for a complete listing of all configuration properties available to use in joynr C++ applications.

Building a C++ consumer application

Required include files

The following base includes are required for a C++ Consumer application:

#include "joynr/JoynrRuntime.h"
#include "joynr/ISubscriptionListener.h"
#include "joynr/SubscriptionListener.h"
#include "joynr/OnChangeWithKeepAliveSubscriptionQos.h"
#include <cassert>
#include <limits>
#include "joynr/JsonSerializer.h

The main program

The main() function in C++ should be structured as follows:

int
main(int argc, char** argv)
{
    // creating the joynr runtime
    // creating the joynr proxy builder
    // creating the proxy / proxies
    // main application logic
    // shutting down
}

Creating the runtime and proxy builder

The main() function must setup the configuration (provider domain etc.) and create the JoynrRuntime instance.

As a prerequisite, the provider and consumer domain need to be defined as shown below.

    // setup providerDomain, pathToMessagingSettings, and optionally pathToMessagingSettings
    std::shared_ptr<JoynrRuntime> runtime =
        JoynrRuntime::createRuntime(pathToLibJoynrSettings[, pathToMessagingSettings]);
    std::shared_ptr<ProxyBuilder<<Package>::<Interface>Proxy>> proxyBuilder =
        runtime->createProxyBuilder<<Package>::<Interface>Proxy>(providerDomain);

Use the createRuntimeAsync static method of JoynrRuntime to create the runtime asynchronously:

    auto onSuccess = []() {
        // this lambda will be called once the runtime is initialized
    };

    auto onError = [](const exceptions::JoynrRuntimeException& exception) {
        // Process the error here
    };

    std::shared_ptr<IKeychain> keychain = createMyKeychain();

    std::shared_ptr<JoynrRuntime> runtime = JoynrRuntime::createRuntimeAsync(
        pathToLibJoynrSettings,
        onSuccess,
        onError,
        pathToMessagingSettings,
        keychain);

The JoynrRuntime instance that is returned by createRuntimeAsync MUST NOT be used before onSuccess is called.

The discovery quality of service

The class DiscoveryQos configures how the search for a provider will be handled. It has the following members:

  • discoveryTimeoutMs Timeout for the discovery process (milliseconds) if no compatible provider was found within the given time. A timeout triggers a DiscoveryException or NoCompatibleProviderFoundException containing the versions of the discovered incompatible providers.
  • retryIntervalMs The time to wait between discovery retries after encountering a discovery error.
  • cacheMaxAgeMs Defines the maximum allowed age of cached entries (milliseconds), only younger entries will be considered. If no suitable providers are found, then depending on the discoveryScope, a remote global lookup may be triggered.
  • arbitrationStrategy The arbitration strategy (details see below)
  • discoveryScope The discovery scope (details see below)
  • providerMustSupportOnChange If set to true, select only providers which support onChange subscriptions (set by the provider in its providerQos settings)
  • customParameters special parameters, that must match, e.g. keyword (see below)

The enumeration DiscoveryScope defines options to decide, whether a suitable provider will be searched in the local capabilities directory or in the global one.

Available values are as follows:

  • LOCAL_ONLY Only entries from local capabilities directory will be searched
  • LOCAL_THEN_GLOBAL Entries will be taken from local capabilities directory, unless no such entries exist, in which case global entries will be looked up at as well.
  • LOCAL_AND_GLOBAL Entries will be taken from local capabilities directory and from global capabilities directory.
  • GLOBAL_ONLY Only the global entries will be looked at.

Default discovery scope: LOCAL_THEN_GLOBAL

Whenever global entries are involved, they are first searched in the local cache. In case no global entries are found in the cache, a remote lookup is triggered.

The enumeration ArbitrationStrategy defines how the results of the scoped lookup will be sorted and / or filtered to select a Provider:

  • LAST_SEEN The participant that was last refreshed (i.e. with the most current last seen date) will be selected
  • HIGHEST_PRIORITY Entries will be considered according to priority
  • KEYWORD Only entries that have a matching keyword will be considered
  • FIXED_PARTICIPANT select provider which matches the participantId provided as custom parameter in DiscoveryQos (see below), if existing
  • LOCAL_ONLY (not implemented yet, will throw DiscoveryException)

Default arbitration strategy: LAST_SEEN

The priority used by the arbitration strategy HighestPriority is set by the provider through the call providerQos.setPriority().

Class DiscoveryQos also provides keys for the key-value pair for the custom Parameters of discoveryScope:

  • KEYWORD_PARAMETER

Example for KEYWORD arbitration strategy:

discoveryQos.addCustomParameter(DiscoveryQos::KEYWORD_PARAMETER(), "keyword");

Example for FIXED_PARTICIPANT arbitration strategy:

discoveryQos.addCustomParameter("fixedParticipantId", "participantId");

Example for the creation of a DiscoveryQos class object:

DiscoveryQos discoveryQos;

discoveryQos.setDiscoveryTimeoutMs(10000); // optional, default 30000
discoveryQos.setRetryIntervalMs(1000); // optional, default 1000
discoveryQos.setCacheMaxAgeMs(0); // optional, default DiscoveryQos::DO_NOT_USE_CACHE (0)
// optional, default LAST_SEEN
discoveryQos.setArbitrationStrategy(DiscoveryQos::ArbitrationStrategy::HIGHEST_PRIORITY);
discoveryQos.setDiscoveryScope(DiscoveryScope::LOCAL_ONLY); // optional, default LOCAL_THEN_GLOBAL
discoveryQos.setProviderMustSupportOnChange(true); // optional, default false
discoveryQos.addCustomParameter(key, value); // optional, default none

The message quality of service

The MesssagingQos class defines the roundtrip timeout in milliseconds for RPC requests (getter/setter/method calls) and unsubscribe requests and it allows definition of additional custom message headers. The ttl for subscription requests is calculated from the expiryDateMs in the SubscriptionQos settings. The ttl of internal joynr messages cannot be changed.

If no specific setting is given, the default roundtrip timeout is 60 seconds. The keys of custom message headers may contain ascii alphanumeric or hyphen. The values of custom message headers may contain alphanumeric, space, semi-colon, colon, comma, plus, ampersand, question mark, hyphen, dot, star, forward slash and back slash. If a key or value is invalid, the API method called to introduce the custom message header throws a std::invalid_argument exception.

Example:

long ttl_ms = 60000;
MessagingQos messagingQos(ttl_ms);
// optional custom headers
std::unordered_map<std::string, std::string> customHeaders;
customHeaders.emplace("key1", "value1");
...
customHeaders.emplace("keyN", "valueN");
messagingQos.putAllCustomMessageHeaders(customHeaders);
...
std::string anotherKey("anotherKey");
std::string anotherValue("anotherValue");
messagingQos.putCustomMessageHeader(anotherKey, anotherValue);

Creating a proxy

The consumer application instance must create one proxy per used Franca interface in order to be able to

  • call its methods (RPC) either synchronously or asynchronously
  • subscribe or unsubscribe to its attributes or update a subscription
  • subscribe or unsubscribe to its broadcasts or update a subscription

The ProxyBuilder requires the provider's domain. Optionally, messagingQos and discoveryQos settings can be specified if the default settings are not suitable.

In case no suitable provider can be found during discovery, a DiscoveryException or NoCompatibleProviderFoundException is thrown.

    DiscoveryQos discoveryQos;
    MessagingQos messagingQos;

    // setup discoveryQos, messagingQos attributes

    std::shared_ptr<ProxyBuilder<<Package>::<Interface>Proxy>> proxyBuilder =
        runtime->createProxyBuilder<<Package>::<Interface>Proxy>(providerDomain);

    try {
        std::shared_ptr<<Package>::<Interface>Proxy> proxy = proxyBuilder
            ->setMessagingQos(messagingQos) // optional
            ->setDiscoveryQos(discoveryQos) // optional
            ->build();

        // call methods, subscribe to broadcasts etc.
        // enter some event loop
    } catch(joynr::exceptions::DiscoveryException& e) {
        // error handling
    }

Use the buildAsync method of ProxyBuilder to create a proxy asynchronously:

    auto onSuccess = [](std::shared_ptr<<Package>::<Interface>Proxy> proxy) {
        // Process the created proxy here
    }

    auto onError = [](const exceptions::DiscoveryException& exception) {
        // Handle the exception here
    }

    proxyBuilder->setMessagingQos(messagingQos) // optional
                ->setDiscoveryQos(discoveryQos) // optional
                ->buildAsync(onSuccess, onError);

Synchronous Remote procedure calls

While the provider executes the call asynchronously in any case, the consumer will wait until the call is finished, i.e. the thread will be blocked. Note that the message order on Joynr RPCs will not be preserved.

// for any Franca type named "<Type>" used
#include "joynr/<Package>/<TypeCollection>/<Type>.h"

    try {
        <ReturnType1> retval1;
        ...
        <ReturnTypeN> retvalN;

        // optionally, a MessagingQos can be specified per request
        std::int64_t ttl_ms = 10000 ;
        MessagingQos messagingQos(ttl_ms);
        <interface>Proxy-><method>([retval1, ..., retvalN,][inputVal1, ..., inputValN], [messagingQos]);
    } catch (joynr::exceptions::JoynrRuntimeException& e) {
        // error handling
    } catch (joynr::exceptions::ApplicationException& e) {
        // If error enumerations are defined for the called method, ApplicationExceptions must also
        // be caught. The ApplicationException serves as container for the actual error enumeration
        // which can be retrieved by calling e.getError().
    }

Asynchronous Remote Procedure calls

Using asynchronous method calls allows the current thread to continue its work. For this purpose a callback has to be provided for the API call in order to receive the result and error respectively. Note the current thread will still be blocked until the Joynr message is internally set up and serialized. It will then be enqueued and handled by a Joynr Middleware thread. The message order on Joynr RPCs will not be preserved.

#include "joynr/<Package>/<TypeCollection>/<Type>.h"

<ReturnType1> retval1;
...
<ReturnTypeN> retvalN;

// optionally, a MessagingQos can be specified per request
std::int64_t ttl_ms = 10000 ;
MessagingQos messagingQos(ttl_ms);

// optional callback functions
std::function<void(const <ReturnType1> retval1 [, ..., const <ReturnTypeN> retvalN])> onSuccess =
    [] (const <ReturnType1> retval1 [, ..., const <ReturnTypeN> retvalN]) {
        // special handling
    };
std::function<void(const joynr::exceptions::JoynrException&)> onError =
    [] (const joynr::exceptions::JoynrException& error) {
        // error handling
    };

auto future = <interface>Proxy-><method>(... arguments ..., [onSuccess [, onError] [, messagingQos]]);
try {
    std::uint16_t optionalTimeoutMs = 500;
    future->get([optionalTimeoutMs, ]retval1 [, ..., retvalN ]);
} catch (const joynr::exceptions::JoynrRuntimeException& e) {
    // error handling
} catch (const joynr::exceptions::ApplicationException& e) {
    // If error enumerations are defined for the called method, ApplicationExceptions must also
    // be caught. The ApplicationException serves as container for the actual error enumeration
    // which can be retrieved by calling e.getError().
} catch (const joynr::exceptions::JoynrTimeOutException& e) {
    // handle timeout
}

Quality of Service settings for subscriptions

SubscriptionQos

The abstract class SubscriptionQos has the following members:

  • expiryDateMs Absolute Time until notifications will be send (milliseconds)
  • validityMs Lifespan of a notification (milliseconds), the notification will be deleted afterwards Known Issue: subscriptionQos passed when subscribing to a non-selective broadcast are ignored. The API will be changed in the future: proxy subscribe calls will no longer take a subscriptionQos; instead the publication TTL will be settable on the provider side.

MulticastSubscriptionQos

The class MulticastSubscriptionQos inherits from SubscriptionQos.

This class should be used for subscriptions to non-selective broadcasts.

PeriodicSubscriptionQos

The class PeriodicSubscriptionQos inherits from SubscriptionQos and has the following additional members:

  • periodMs defines how long to wait before sending an update even if the value did not change
  • alertAfterIntervalMs Timeout for notifications, afterwards a missed publication notification will be raised (milliseconds)

This class can be used for subscriptions to attributes.

Note that updates will be send only based on the specified interval and not based on changes of the attribute.

OnChangeSubscriptionQos

The class OnChangeSubscriptionQos inherits from SubscriptionQos and has the following additional members:

  • minIntervalMs Minimum time to wait between successive notifications (milliseconds)
  • publicationTtlMs Notification messages will be sent with this time-to-live. If a notification message can not be delivered within its time to live, it will be deleted from the system. This value is provided in milliseconds.

This class should be used for subscriptions to selective broadcasts. It can also be used for subscriptions to attributes if no periodic update is required.

OnchangeWithKeepAliveSubscriptionQos

The class OnChangeWithKeepAliveSubscriptionQos inherits from OnChangeSubscriptionQos and has the following additional members:

  • maxIntervalMs Maximum time to wait between notifications, if value has not changed
  • alertAfterIntervalMs Timeout for notifications, afterwards a missed publication notification will be raised (milliseconds)

This class can be used for subscriptions to attributes. Updates will then be sent based both periodically and after a change (i.e. this acts like a combination of PeriodicSubscriptionQos and OnChangeSubscriptionQos).

Using it for subscriptions to broadcasts is theoretically possible because of inheritance but makes no sense (in this case the additional members will be ignored).

Subscribing to an attribute

Attribute subscription - depending on the subscription quality of service settings used - informs the application either periodically and / or on change of an attribute about the current value.

The subscriptionId can be retrieved via the callback (onSubscribed) and via the future returned by the subscribeTo call. It can be used later to update the subscription or to unsubscribe from it. The subscriptionId will be available when the subscription is successfully registered at the provider. If the subscription failed, a SubscriptionException will be returned via the callback (onError) and thrown by future.get(subscriptionId).

To receive the subscription, a callback has to be provided which is done providing a listener class as outlined below. Since the callback is called by a communication middleware thread, it should not be blocked, wait for user interaction, or do larger computation. The callback methods (onReceive, onSubscribed, onError) are optional. Only the required methods have to be implemented.

// for any Franca type named "<Type>" used
#include "joynr/<Package>/<TypeCollection>/<Type>.h"

#include "joynr/SubscriptionListener.h"
#include "joynr/exceptions/SubscriptionException.h"
#include "joynr/exceptions/JoynrException.h"

class <AttributeType>Listener : public SubscriptionListener<<AttributeType>>
{
    public:
        // Constructor
        <AttributeType>Listener()
        {
        }

        // Destructor
        ~<AttributeType>Listener()
        {
        }

        // Gets called on every received publication
        void onReceive(const <AttributeType>& value)
        {
            // handle publication
        }

        // Gets called when the subscription is successfully registered at the provider
        void onSubscribed(const std::string& subscriptionId)
        {
            // save the subscriptionId for updating the subscription or unsubscribing from it
            // the subscriptionId can also be taken from the future returned by the subscribeTo call
        }

        // Gets called on every error that is detected on the subscription
        void onError(const joynr::exceptions::JoynrRuntimeException& error)
        {
            // handle error, e.g.:
            // - SubscriptionException if the subscription registration failed at the provider
            // - PublicationMissedException if a periodic subscription publication does not arrive
            //   in time
        }
};

auto listener = std::make_shared<ISubscriptionListener<AttributeType>>();

auto qos = std::make_shared<<QosClass>>();
// define details of qos by calling its setters here

std::shared_ptr<Future<std::string>> subscriptionIdFuture = proxy->subscribeTo<Attribute>(
    listener,
    qos
);

...

// get the subscriptionId from the Future when needed
std::string subscriptionId;
try {
    std::uint16_t optionalTimeoutMs = 500;
    subscriptionIdFuture->get([optionalTimeoutMs, ]subscriptionId);
} catch (const jonyr::exceptions::SubscriptionException& e) {
    // handle subscription error
} catch (const joynr::exceptions::JoynrTimeOutException& e) {
    // handle timeout
}

Updating an attribute subscription

The subscribeTo method can also be used to update an existing subscription, when the subscriptionId is given as additional parameter as follows:

std::shared_ptr<Future<std::string>> subscriptionIdFuture = proxy->subscribeTo<Attribute>(
    listener,
    qos,
    subscriptionId
);

Unsubscribing from an attribute

Unsubscribing from an attribute subscription also requires the subscriptionId returned by the earlier subscribeTo call.

proxy->unsubscribeFrom<Attribute>(subscriptionId);

Subscribing to a (non-selective) broadcast

A Broadcast subscription informs the application in case a broadcast is fired by a provider. The output values are returned via a callback function.

A broadcast is selective only if it is declared with the selective keyword in Franca, otherwise it is non-selective.

Non-selective broadcast subscriptions can be passed optional partitions. A partition is a hierarchical list of strings similar to a URL path. Subscribing to a partition will cause only those broadcasts to be sent to the consumer that match the partition. Note that the partition is set when subscribing on the consumer side, and must match the partition set on the provider side when the broadcast is performed.

Example: a consumer could set a partition of "europe", "germany", "munich" to receive broadcasts for Munich only. The matching provider would use the same partition when sending the broadcast.

The subscriptionId can be retrieved via the callback (onSubscribed) and via the future returned by the subscribeTo call. It can be used later to update the subscription or to unsubscribe from it. The subscriptionId will be available when the subscription is successfully registered at the provider. If the subscription failed, a SubscriptionException will be returned via the callback (onError) and thrown by future.get(subscriptionId).

To receive the subscription, a callback has to be provided which is done providing a listener class as outlined below. Since the callback is called by a communication middleware thread, it should not be blocked, wait for user interaction, or do larger computation. The callback methods (onReceive, onSubscribed, onError) are optional. Only the required methods have to be implemented.

// for any Franca type named "<Type>" used
#include "joynr/<Package>/<TypeCollection>/<Type>.h"

#include "joynr/SubscriptionListener.h"
#include "joynr/exceptions/SubscriptionException.h"
#include "joynr/exceptions/JoynrException.h"

class <Broadcast>Listener : public SubscriptionListener<<OutputType1>[, ... <OutputTypeN>]>
{
    public:
        // Constructor
        <Broadcast>Listener()
        {
        }

        // Destructor
        ~<Broadcast>Listener()
        {
        }

        // Gets called on every received publication
        void onReceive(<OutputType1> value1[, ... <OutputTypeN> valueN])
        {
            // handle broadcast
        }

        // Gets called when the subscription is successfully registered at the provider
        void onSubscribed(const std::string& subscriptionId)
        {
            // save the subscriptionId for updating the subscription or unsubscribing from it
            // the subscriptionId can also be taken from the future returned by the subscribeTo call
        }

        // Gets called on every error that is detected on the subscription
        void onError(const joynr::exceptions::JoynrRuntimeException& error)
        {
            // handle error
        }
};

auto listener = std::make_shared<ISubscriptionListener<OutputType1>[, ... <OutputTypeN>]>();

auto qos = std::make_shared<MulticastSubscriptionQos>();
// define details of qos by calling its setters here

// optionally specifiy partitions here
const std::vector<std::string> partitions {partitionLevel1,
                                           ...
                                           partitionLevelN};

std::shared_ptr<Future<std::string>> subscriptionIdFuture = proxy->subscribeTo<Broadcast>Broadcast(
    listener,
    qos,
    // optional parameter for multicast subscriptions (subscriptions to non-selective broadcasts)
    partitions
);

...

// get the subscriptionId from the Future when needed
std::string subscriptionId;
try {
    std::uint16_t optionalTimeoutMs = 500;
    subscriptionIdFuture->get([optionalTimeoutMs, ]subscriptionId);
} catch (const jonyr::exceptions::SubscriptionException& e) {
    // handle subscription error
} catch (const joynr::exceptions::JoynrTimeOutException& e) {
    // handle timeout
}

The partition syntax is explained in the multicast concept

Updating a (non-selective) broadcast subscription

The subscribeTo method can also be used to update an existing subscription, when the subscriptionId is given as additional parameter as follows:

std::shared_ptr<Future<std::string>> subscriptionIdFuture = proxy.subscribeTo<Broadcast>Broadcast(
    subscriptionId,
    listener,
    qos,
    // optional parameter for multicast subscriptions (subscriptions to non-selective broadcasts)
    partitions
);

Subscribing to a selective broadcast, i.e. a broadcast with filter parameters

Selective Broadcasts use filter logic implemented by the provider and filter parameters set by the consumer to send only those broadcasts from the provider to the consumer that pass the filter. The broadcast output values are passed to the consumer via callback.

The subscriptionId can be retrieved via the callback (onSubscribed) and via the future returned by the subscribeTo call (see section Subscribing to a (non-selective) broadcast).

To receive the subscription, a callback has to be provided (cf. section Subscribing to a (non-selective) broadcast).

In addition to the normal broadcast subscription, the filter parameters for this broadcast must be created and initialized as additional parameters to the subscribeTo method. These filter parameters are used to receive only those broadcasts matching the provided filter criteria.

// for any Franca type named "<Type>" used
#include "joynr/<Package>/<TypeCollection>/<Type>.h"

#include "joynr/ISubscriptionListener.h"
#include "joynr/SubscriptionListener.h"
#include "joynr/OnChangeSubscriptionQos.h"
...
// for class <Broadcast>Listener please refer to
// section "subscribing to a broadcast unconditionally"
...
auto listener = std::make_shared<ISubscriptionListener<OutputType1>[, ... <OutputTypeN>]>();

auto qos = std::make_shared<OnChangeSubscriptionQos>();
// define details of qos by calling its setters here

// create filterparams instance on stack
<Package>::<Interface><Broadcast>BroadcastFilterParams <broadcast>BroadcastFilterParams;
// set filter attributes by calling setters on the
// filter parameter instance

std::shared_ptr<Future<std::string>> subscriptionIdFuture =
    proxy->subscribeTo<Broadcast>Broadcast(
        <broadcast>BroadcastFilterParams,
        listener,
        qos
    );
// to retrieve the subscriptionId, please refer to section "subscribing to a broadcast unconditionally"

Updating a broadcast subscription with filter parameters

The subscribeTo method can also be used to update an existing subscription, when the subscriptionId is given as additional parameter as follows:

std::shared_ptr<Future<std::string>> subscriptionIdFuture =
    <interface>Proxy.subscribeTo<Broadcast>Broadcast(
            subscriptionId,
            <broadcast>BroadcastFilterParams,
            listener,
            qos
);

Unsubscribing from a broadcast

Unsubscribing from a broadcast subscription requires the subscriptionId returned by the earlier subscribe call.

proxy->unsubscribeFrom<Broadcast>Broadcast(subscriptionId);

Shutting down

On shutdown of the application, the consumer should unsubscribe from any attributes and broadcasts it was subscribed to; delete any allocations and terminate the instance.

// for each attribute subscribed to
proxy->unsubscribeFrom<Attribute>(subscriptionTo<Attribute>Id);

// for each broadcast subscribed to
proxy->unsubscribeFrom<Broadcast>Broadcast(subscriptionTo<Broadcast>Id);

Building a C++ Provider application

The C++ Provider mainly consists of the following classes:

  • A generic Provider Application Class
  • One Provider Class for each Franca interface to be supported

The MyProviderApplication program

The provider application class is used to register a provider class for each Franca interface to be supported.

Required includes files

#include "joynr/JoynrRuntime.h"
#include "My<Interface>Provider.h"
#include "<Broadcast>BroadcastFilter.h"

The main function

The class can theoretically serve multiple Franca interfaces.

For each Franca interface implemented, the providing application creates an instance of My<Interface>Provider, which implements the service for that particular interface, and registers it as a capability at the Joynr Middleware.

The example below shows the code for one interface:

using namespace joynr;

int
main(int argc, char** argv)
{
    // creating the runtime
    // register any provider
    // main application logic
    // shutting down
}

Creating the runtime

    // setup pathToLibJoynrSettings, and optionally pathToMessagingSettings
    std::shared_ptr<IKeychain> keychain = createMyKeychain();
    std::shared_ptr<JoynrRuntime> runtime =
        JoynrRuntime::createRuntime(pathToLibJoynrSettings, pathToMessagingSettings, keychain);

The Provider quality of service

The ProviderQos has the following members:

  • customParameters e.g. the key-value for the arbitration strategy Keyword during discovery
  • priority the priority used for arbitration strategy HighestPriority during discovery
  • scope the Provider scope (see below), used in discovery
  • supportsOnChangeSubscriptions whether the provider supports subscriptions on changes

The ProviderScope can be

  • LOCAL The provider will be registered in the local capability directory
  • GLOBAL The provider will be registered in the local and global capability directory

Example:

types::ProviderQos providerQos;
providerQos.setCustomParameters(customParameters);
providerQos.setPriority(100);
providerQos.setScope(ProviderScope.GLOBAL);
providerQos.setSupportsOnChangeSubscriptions(true);

Registering provider

For each interface a specific provider class instance must be registered. From that time on, the provider will be reachable from outside and react on incoming requests (e.g. method RPC etc.). It can be found by consumers through Discovery. Any specific broadcast filters must be added prior to registry.

    // create instance of provider class
    auto provider = std::make_shared<My<Interface>Provider>();

    // set up providerQos
    types::ProviderQos providerQos;
    // call setters to configure providerQos

    // create filter instance for each broadcast filter
    auto <broadcast>BroadcastFilter = std::make_shared<<Broadcast>BroadcastFilter>();
    provider->addBroadcastFilter(<broadcast>BroadcastFilter);

    runtime->registerProvider<<Package>::<Interface>Provider>(
        providerDomain, provider, providerQos);

Alternatively, use the registerProviderAsync method of JoynrRuntime to register the provider asynchronously:

    auto onSuccess = []() {
        // this lambda will be called once the provider is registered
    };

    auto onError = [](const exceptions::JoynrRuntimeException& exception) {
        // Process the error here
    };

    runtime->registerProviderAsync<<Package>::<Interface>Provider>(
        providerDomain,
        provider,
        providerQos,
        onSuccess,
        onError);

Shutting down

On exit of the application it should cleanly unregister any providers the application had registered earlier and free resources.

    // for each provider class
    runtime->unregisterProvider<Package>::<Interface>Provider>(
        providerDomain, provider);

Alternatively, use the unregisterProviderAsync method of JoynrRuntime to unregister the provider asynchronously:

    auto onSuccess = []() {
        // this lambda will be called once the provider is unregistered
    };

    auto onError = [](const exceptions::JoynrRuntimeException& exception) {
        // Process the error here
    };

    runtime->unregisterProviderAsync<<Package>::<Interface>Provider>(
        providerDomain,
        provider,
        onSuccess,
        onError);

The My<Interface>Provider class

The provider class implements the attributes, methods and broadcasts of a particular Franca interface.

Required imports

The following Joynr C++ include files are required:

#include "My<Interface>Provider.h"

The base class

The provider class must extend the generated class joynr::<Package>::Default<Interface>Provider and implement a method for each method of the Franca interface.

It may override the provided default implementation of getter and setter methods for each Franca attribute (where required).

In order to send broadcasts the generated code of the super class joynr::<Interface>Provider can be used.

If the value of a notifiable attribute gets changed directly inside the implementation of a method or (non-default) setter, the <Attribute>Changed(<Attribute>) method needs to be called in order to inform subscribers about the value change.

#include "My<Interface>Provider.h"

using namespace joynr;

My<Interface>Provider::My<Interface>Provider()
    : Default<Interface>Provider()
{
    ...
}

My<Interface>Provider::~My<Interface>Provider()
{
}
...
// foreach Franca interface "<Attribute>" provide a getter method
// foreach Franca interface "<Attribute>" provide a setter method
// foreach Franca method provide an implementation
...
}

Providing attribute getters and setters

The getter methods return the current value of an attribute. Since the current thread is blocked while the getter runs, activity should be kept as short as possible.

// for any Franca type named "<Type>" used
#include "joynr/<Package>/<TypeCollection>/<Type>.h"
...
void My<Interface>Provider::get<Attribute>(
    std::function<void(const <AttributeType>&)> onSuccess,
    std::function<void (const joynr::exceptions::ProviderRuntimeException&)> onError
)
{
    onSuccess(<AttributeValue>);
}

void My<Interface>Provider::set<Attribute>(
    const <AttributeType>& <Attribute>,
    std::function<void()> onSuccess,
    std::function<void (const joynr::exceptions::ProviderRuntimeException&)> onError
)
{
    // handle and store the new Value
    ...
    // if attribute is notifiable (not marked as noSubscriptions in the Franca model),
    // inform subscribers about the value change
    <Attribute>Changed(<Attribute>);
    ...
    onSuccess();
}

Implementing a Franca RPC method

The provider should always implement RPC calls asynchronously in order to not block the main thread longer than required. Also it needs to take care not to overload the server, e.g. it must not accept unlimited amount of RPC requests causing background activity. After exceeding a limit, further calls should be rejected until the number of outstanding activities falls below the limit again.

// for any Franca type named "<Type>" used
#include "joynr/<Package>/<TypeCollection>/<Type>.h"
...
void My<Interface>Provider::<method>(
    ... input parameters ...   // optional
    std::function<void(
        const <ReturnType1>& returnValue1
        ...
        const <ReturnTypeN>& returnValueN
    )> onSuccess,
    std::function<void (const joynr::exceptions::ProviderRuntimeException&)> onError
)
{
    // handle request
    ...
    onSuccess(returnValue1, ..., returnValueN);
}

If errors are modelled in Franca for the method, the onError function is replaced by:

std::function<void (const joynr::<Package>::<Interface>::<Error>::Enum& errorEnum)> onError

Firing a broadcast

Firing a broadcast blocks the current thread until the message is serialized.

// for any Franca type named "<Type>" used
#include "joynr/<Package>/<TypeCollection>/<Type>.h"
...
void My<Interface>Provider::fire<Broadcast>Event()
{
    <OutputValueType1> outputValue1;
    ...
    <OutputValueTypeN> outputValueN;
    ...
    // setup outputValue(s)
    ...
    // optional: the partition to be used for the broadcast
    // Note: wildcards are only allowed on consumer side
    const std::vector<std::string> partitions {partitionLevel1,
                                               ...
                                               partitionLevelN};

    // use method provided by generators to send the broadcast
    fire<Broadcast>(
        outputValue1,
        ... ,
        outputValueN,
        // optional: the partitions to be used for multicasts
        partitions
        );
}

The partition syntax is explained in the multicast concept

Selective (filtered) broadcasts

In contrast to unfiltered broadcasts, to realize selective (filtered) broadcasts, the filter logic has to be implemented and registered by the provider. If multiple filters are registered on the same provider and broadcast, all filters are applied in a chain and the broadcast is only delivered if all filters in the chain return true.

The broadcast filter classes

A broadcast filter class implements a filtering function called filter() which returns a boolean value indicating whether the broadcast should be delivered. The input parameters of the filter() method reflect the output values of the broadcast.

#include "joynr/<Package>/<Interface><Broadcast>BroadcastFilter.h"
// for any Franca type named "<Type>" used
#include "joynr/<Package>/<TypeCollection>/<Type>.h"
...
class <Filter>Filter: public <Package>::<Interface><Broadcast>BroadcastFilter
{
    public:
        <Broadcast>Filter();

        virtual bool filter(
            const joynr::<Package>::<OutputValueType1>& outputValue1,
            ...
            const joynr::<Package>::<OutputValueTypeN>& outputValueN,
            const joynr::<Package>::<Interface><Broadcast>BroadcastFilterParameters& filterParameters
        );
}

The include file for the My<Interface>Provider class

The include file for the provider class contains

  • prototypes for getters (and optionally setters) for each Franca attribute
  • prototypes for each Franca method
  • prototypes for each Franca broadcast
  • constructor and destructor
#ifndef MY_<INTERFACE>_PROVIDER_H
#define MY_<INTERFACE>_PROVIDER_H

#include "joynr/<Package>/Default<Interface>Provider.h"

class My<Interface>Provider : public joynr::<Package>::Default<Interface>Provider
{
public:
    My<Interface>Provider();
    ~My<Interface>Provider();

    // for each attribute
    void get<Attribute>(
        std::function<void(const <AttributeType>& result)> onSuccess,
        std::function<void (const joynr::exceptions::ProviderRuntimeException&)> onError);

    // for each attribute which are NOT readonly
    void set<Attribute>(
        const <AttributeType>& <attribute>,
        std::function<void()> onSuccess,
        std::function<void (const joynr::exceptions::ProviderRuntimeException&)> onError);

    // for each method
    void <method>(
        ... input parameters ...   // optional
        std::function<void(
            const <ReturnType1>& returnValue1
            ...
            const <ReturnTypeN>& returnValueN
        )> onSuccess,
        std::function<void (const joynr::exceptions::ProviderRuntimeException&)> onError
    );

    // for each broadcast
    void fire<Broadcast>Event();

private:
    My<Interface>Provider(const My<Interface>Provider&);
    void operator=(const My<Interface>Provider&);
}
#endif

For methods which are modelled with error enumerations, the onError function is replaced by:

std::function<void (const joynr::<Package>::<Interface>::<Error>::Enum& errorEnum)> onError
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