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                        README for newlib-1.20.0 release
           (mostly cribbed from the README in the gdb-4.13 release)

This is `newlib', a simple ANSI C library, math library, and collection
of board support packages.

The newlib and libgloss subdirectories are a collection of software from
several sources, each wi6h their own copyright and license.  See the file
COPYING.NEWLIB for details.  The rest of the release tree is under either
the GNU GPL or LGPL licenses.


Unpacking and Installation -- quick overview

When you unpack the newlib-1.20.0.tar.gz file, you'll find a directory
called `newlib-1.20.0', which contains:

COPYING          config/          install-sh*      mpw-configure
COPYING.LIB     libgloss/        mpw-install
COPYING.NEWLIB   config.guess*    mkinstalldirs*   newlib/
CYGNUS           config.sub*      move-if-change*  symlink-tree*
ChangeLog        configure*       mpw-README       texinfo/
README           etc/   

To build NEWLIB, you must follow the instructions in the section entitled
"Compiling NEWLIB".

This will configure and build all the libraries and crt0 (if one exists).
If `configure' can't determine your host system type, specify one as its
argument, e.g., sun4 or sun4sol2.  NEWLIB is most often used in cross


More Documentation

   Newlib documentation is available on the net via:

   All the documentation for NEWLIB comes as part of the machine-readable
distribution.  The documentation is written in Texinfo format, which is
a documentation system that uses a single source file to produce both
on-line information and a printed manual.  You can use one of the Info
formatting commands to create the on-line version of the documentation
and TeX (or `texi2roff') to typeset the printed version.

   If you want to format these Info files yourself, you need one of the
Info formatting programs, such as `texinfo-format-buffer' or `makeinfo'.

   If you want to typeset and print copies of this manual, you need TeX,
a program to print its DVI output files, and `texinfo.tex', the Texinfo
definitions file.

   TeX is a typesetting program; it does not print files directly, but
produces output files called DVI files.  To print a typeset document,
you need a program to print DVI files.  If your system has TeX
installed, chances are it has such a program.  The precise command to
use depends on your system; `lpr -d' is common; another (for PostScript
devices) is `dvips'.  The DVI print command may require a file name
without any extension or a `.dvi' extension.

   TeX also requires a macro definitions file called `texinfo.tex'. 
This file tells TeX how to typeset a document written in Texinfo
format.  On its own, TeX cannot read, much less typeset a Texinfo file.
`texinfo.tex' is distributed with NEWLIB and is located in the
`newlib-VERSION-NUMBER/texinfo' directory.

Compiling NEWLIB

   To compile NEWLIB, you must build it in a directory separate from
the source directory.  If you want to run NEWLIB versions for several host 
or target machines, you need a different `newlib' compiled for each combination
of host and target.  `configure' is designed to make this easy by allowing 
you to generate each configuration in a separate subdirectory.
If your `make' program handles the `VPATH' feature correctly (like GNU `make')
running `make' in each of these directories builds the `newlib' libraries
specified there.

   To build `newlib' in a specific directory, run `configure' with the
`--srcdir' option to specify where to find the source. (You also need
to specify a path to find `configure' itself from your working
directory.  If the path to `configure' would be the same as the
argument to `--srcdir', you can leave out the `--srcdir' option; it
will be assumed.)

   For example, with version 1.20.0, you can build NEWLIB in a separate
directory for a Sun 4 cross m68k-aout environment like this:

     cd newlib-1.20.0
     mkdir ../newlib-m68k-aout
     cd ../newlib-m68k-aout
     ../newlib-1.20.0/configure --host=sun4 --target=m68k-aout

   When `configure' builds a configuration using a remote source
directory, it creates a tree for the binaries with the same structure
(and using the same names) as the tree under the source directory.  In
the example, you'd find the Sun 4 library `libiberty.a' in the
directory `newlib-m68k-aout/libiberty', and NEWLIB itself in

   When you run `make' to build a program or library, you must run it
in a configured directory--whatever directory you were in when you
called `configure' (or one of its subdirectories).

   The `Makefile' that `configure' generates in each source directory
also runs recursively.  If you type `make' in a source directory such
as `newlib-1.20.0' (or in a separate configured directory configured with
`--srcdir=PATH/newlib-1.20.0'), you will build all the required libraries.

   When you have multiple hosts or targets configured in separate
directories, you can run `make' on them in parallel (for example, if
they are NFS-mounted on each of the hosts); they will not interfere
with each other.

Specifying names for hosts and targets

   The specifications used for hosts and targets in the `configure'
script are based on a three-part naming scheme, but some short
predefined aliases are also supported.  The full naming scheme encodes
three pieces of information in the following pattern:


   For example, you can use the alias `sun4' as a HOST argument or in a
`--target=TARGET' option.  The equivalent full name is

   The `configure' script accompanying NEWLIB does not provide any query
facility to list all supported host and target names or aliases. 
`configure' calls the Bourne shell script `config.sub' to map
abbreviations to full names; you can read the script, if you wish, or
you can use it to test your guesses on abbreviations--for example:

     % sh config.sub sun4
     % sh config.sub sun3
     % sh config.sub decstation
     % sh config.sub hp300bsd
     % sh config.sub i386v
     % sh config.sub i786v
     Invalid configuration `i786v': machine `i786v' not recognized

The Build, Host and Target Concepts in newlib

The build, host and target concepts are defined for gcc as follows:

build: the platform on which gcc is built.
host: the platform on which gcc is run.
target: the platform for which gcc generates code.

Since newlib is a library, the target concept does not apply to it, and the
build, host, and target options given to the top-level configure script must
be changed for newlib's use.

The options are shifted according to these correspondences:

gcc's build platform has no equivalent in newlib.
gcc's host platform is newlib's build platform.
gcc's target platform is newlib's host platform.
and as mentioned before, newlib has no concept of target.

`configure' options

   Here is a summary of the `configure' options and arguments that are
most often useful for building NEWLIB.  `configure' also has several other
options not listed here.

     configure [--help]
               [--target=TARGET] HOST

You may introduce options with a single `-' rather than `--' if you
prefer; but you may abbreviate option names if you use `--'.

     Display a quick summary of how to invoke `configure'.

     Configure the source to install programs and files in directory

     Configure the source to install host-dependent files in directory

     *Warning: using this option requires GNU `make', or another `make'
     that compatibly implements the `VPATH' feature.
     Use this option to make configurations in directories separate
     from the NEWLIB source directories.  Among other things, you can use
     this to build (or maintain) several configurations simultaneously,
     in separate directories.  `configure' writes configuration
     specific files in the current directory, but arranges for them to
     use the source in the directory PATH.  `configure' will create
     directories under the working directory in parallel to the source
     directories below PATH.

     Configure only the directory level where `configure' is executed;
     do not propagate configuration to subdirectories.

     Configure NEWLIB for running on the specified TARGET.

     There is no convenient way to generate a list of all available

`HOST ...'
     Configure NEWLIB to be built using a cross compiler running on
     the specified HOST.

     There is no convenient way to generate a list of all available

Running the Testsuite

To run newlib's testsuite, you'll need a site.exp in your home
directory which points dejagnu to the proper baseboards directory and
the proper exp file for your target.

Before running make check-target-newlib, set the DEJAGNU environment
variable to point to ~/site.exp.

Here is a sample site.exp:

# Make sure we look in the right place for the board description files.
if ![info exists boards_dir] {
    set boards_dir {}
lappend boards_dir "your dejagnu/baseboards here"

verbose "Global Config File: target_triplet is $target_triplet" 2

global target_list
case "$target_triplet" in {

    { "mips-*elf*" } {
	set target_list "mips-sim"

    default {
	set target_list { "unix" }

mips-sim refers to an exp file in the baseboards directory.  You'll
need to add the other targets you're testing to the case statement.

Now type make check-target-newlib in the top-level build directory to
run the testsuite.

Shared newlib

newlib uses libtool when it is being compiled natively (with
--target=i[34567]86-pc-linux-gnu) on an i[34567]86-pc-linux-gnu
host. This allows newlib to be compiled as a shared library.

To configure newlib, do the following from your build directory:

$(source_dir)/src/configure --with-newlib --prefix=$(install_dir)

configure will recognize that host == target ==
i[34567]86-pc-linux-gnu, so it will tell newlib to compile itself using
libtool. By default, libtool will build shared and static versions of

To compile a program against shared newlib, do the following (where
target_install_dir = $(install_dir)/i[34567]86-pc-linux-gnu):

gcc -nostdlib $(target_install_dir)/lib/crt0.o progname.c -I $(target_install_dir)/include -L $(target_install_dir)/lib -lc -lm -lgcc

To run the program, make sure that $(target_install_dir)/lib is listed
in the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable.

To create a static binary linked against newlib, do the following:

gcc -nostdlib -static $(target_install_dir)/lib/crt0.o progname.c -I $(target_install_dir)/include -L $(target_install_dir)/lib -lc -lm

libtool can be instructed to produce only static libraries. To build
newlib as a static library only, do the following from your build

$(source_dir)/src/configure --with-newlib --prefix=$(install_dir) --disable-shared

Regenerating Configuration Files

At times you will need to make changes to and files.
This will mean that configure and files will need to be

At the top level of newlib is the file: acinclude.m4.  This file contains
the definition of the NEWLIB_CONFIGURE macro which is used by all
files in newlib.  You will notice that each directory in newlib containing
a file also contains an aclocal.m4 file.  This file is
generated by issuing: aclocal -I${relative_path_to_toplevel_newlib_dir}
The first relative directory is to access acinclude.m4.  The second relative
directory is to access libtool information in the top-level src directory.

For example, to regenerate aclocal.m4 in newlib/libc/machine/arm:

  aclocal -I ../../.. -I ../../../..

Note that if the top level acinclude.m4 is altered, every aclocal.m4 file 
in newlib should be regenerated.

If the aclocal.m4 file is regenerated due to a change in acinclude.m4 or
if a file is modified, the corresponding configure file in the 
directory must be regenerated using autoconf.  No parameters are necessary.
In the previous example, we would issue:


from the newlib/libc/machine/arm directory.

If you have regenerated a configure file or if you have modified a
file, you will need to regenerate the appropriate file(s).
For newlib, automake is a bit trickier.  First of all, all
files in newlib (and libgloss) are generated using the --cygnus option
of automake. files are generated from the nearest directory up the chain
which contains a file.  In most cases, this is the same
directory containing, but there are exceptions.
For example, the newlib/libc directory has a number of
subdirectories that do not contain their own files (e.g. stdio).
For these directories, you must issue the automake command from newlib/libc
which is the nearest parent directory that contains a
When you issue the automake command, you specify the subdirectory for
the you are regenerating.  For example:

   automake --cygnus stdio/Makefile stdlib/Makefile

Note how multiple files can be created in the same step.  You
would not specify machine/Makefile or sys/Makefile in the previous example
because both of these subdirectories contain their own files.
One would change to each of these subdirectories and in turn issue:

   automake --cygnus Makefile

Let's say you create a new machine directory XXXX off of newlib/libc/machine.
After creating a new and file, you would issue:

   aclocal -I ../../..
   automake --cygnus Makefile

from newlib/libc/machine/XXXX

It is strongly advised that you use an adequate version of autotools.
For this latest release, the following were used: autoconf 2.68, aclocal 1.11.1, and 
automake 1.11.1.

Reporting Bugs

The correct address for reporting bugs found in NEWLIB is
"".  Please email all bug reports to that
address.  Please include the NEWLIB version number (e.g., newlib-1.20.0),
and how you configured it (e.g., "sun4 host and m68k-aout target").
Since NEWLIB supports many different configurations, it is important
that you be precise about this.

Archives of the newlib mailing list are on-line, see