Plausible looking adversarial examples for text classification
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Plausible looking adversarial examples for text classification


This is a proof of concept aiming at producing "imperceptible" adversarial examples for text classifiers.

For instance, this are some adversarial examples produced by this code for a classifier of a tweet author's gender based on the tweet's text:

Examples of adversarial examples



You need Python 3, and all system dependencies possibly required by

  • Keras
  • NLTK
  • SpaCy


pip install -r requirements.txt

NLP Data

  • SpaCy English language model:
    python -m spacy download en
  • NLTK datasets (a prompt will appear upon running


To train using default parameters simply run


By default will check for the CSV data set at ./data/twitter_gender_data.csv, and save the model weights to ./data/model.dat.

Should attain about 66% accuracy on validation data set for gender recognition.


This model uses Kaggle Twitter User Gender Classification data.


To run the adversarial crafting script:


Success rate for crafting the adversarial example should be about 17%. By default the script will write the crafted examples into ./data/adversarial_texts.csv.


This module is rather reusable, although not immensely useful for anything practical. It provides a function that "paraphrases" a text by replacing some words with their WordNet synonyms, sorting by GloVe similarity between the synonym and the original context window. Relies on SpaCy and NLTK.

Example of paraphrase:

Paraphrase example

Citing notes

Please use Zenodo link to cite textfool. Not that this work is not published, and not peer-reviewed. textfool has no relationship to "Deep Text Classification Can be Fooled." by B. Liang, H. Li, M. Su, P. Bian, X. Li, and W. Shi.