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Root Scroller

This is a proposed feature that would allow an author to endow an arbitrary scrolling element with the same specialness currently assigned to the documentElement.

The Problem

Applications are typically composed of multiple views between which a user can transition. Traditionally, a web app would transition between its views by navigating to a new page. This causes a round trip to the server and a jarring experience for the user. To improve performance and allow for pleasing transitions, the author may wish to keep multiple views within the DOM, removing the need to navigate to a new document.

Authors can do this today by making each view out of a viewport-sized, scrollable <div> element. This is the intuitive solution and allows the author to animate transitions between these views and manage them as independent components.

On the other hand, browsers have given essential UX features exclusively to one special element: the documentElement (<html>). Here are some examples of how <html> is special:

  • URL-bar Hiding - To maximize the user's screen real-estate, the browser's URL-bar is hidden when the documentElement element is scrolled down.
  • Overscroll Affordance - To let the user know the page content is fully scrolled, further scrolls generate a "glow" or "rubber-banding" effect. In Chrome, this only occurs on the documentElement.
  • Pull-to-Refresh - To allow the user to quickly refresh the page, scrolling the documentElement up beyond the content top activates a refresh action in Chrome. Chrome disables this effect when the documentElement isn't scrollable.
  • Spacebar to Scroll - Many browsers use the spacebar as a shortcut to scroll down by a page. This often only works for the documentElement.
  • Tapping top of browser chrome - iOS Safari has this to allow the user to quickly scroll back to the top of the page but it targets only the documentElement.
  • Anchoring scroll position on rotation

Thus, authors have a choice: use the intuitive method and lose all these essential UX features, or swap the content of each view in and out of the documentElement. The latter turns out to be surprisingly difficult to implement in a portable way for all the reasons listed in the MiniApp example. To summarize, swapping content within a single scroller is complicated since the scroll offset is shared between two conceptual views; it requires tricks to keep the content of multiple views overlaid and we have to manually keep track of each view's scroll offset. Likewise, animating transitions becomes tricky since the animation must be timed carefully with the content swap. Simple behaviors which emerge naturally from using separate <div>s become difficult and complicated to implement when forced to share the special documentElement.

Want to see the problem in action? Go to or any AMP article. Notice that scrolling down doesn't hide the URL bar.

The Root Scroller

This proposal introduces the concept of a root scroller. This generalizes the special behaviors given today only to the documentElement to a single root scroller on the page. By default, the documentElement is the page's root scroller, however, by changing which element is the root scroller, the special behaviors can be endowed to scrollers other than the documentElement.

Changing the Root Scroller

This proposal previously explored an explicit API to let the page designate the root scroller element explicitly. Due to lack of interop interest, this API has been dropped in favour of an implicit approach. Should interest arise in an explicit API, this approach doesn't preclude resurrecting the API.

Implicit Root Scroller

The alternative to an API is to let the browser automatically decide which element on a page should be the root scroller. We call this approach the Implicit Root Scroller.

There are certain criteria that an element must meet in order to be eligible for promotion to the implicit root scroller. These are designed for two purposes.

The first is to ensure a consistent UX with existing documentElement scrolling. We may decide to loosen these restrictions in the future to allow a greater variety of scrollers to benefit from document scrolling UX.

The second is to determine the semantically most important scroller on the page. In other words, the set of criteria and heuristics should pick a unique scroller on the page that's hosting the content the user currently cares about.

The current set of criteria are as follows:

  • The Element is connected to the DOM tree, is displayed and is of “box” type (essentially, a display: block or <iframe>)
  • For non-iframe Elements, it must have an overflow clip
  • The Element must exactly fill the viewport. That is, it must be at location (0, 0) and it’s size must match the viewport size exactly.
  • The Element must be user scrollable, have overflow, and be fully visible (e.g. opacity: 1)
  • The Element must not have an ancestor that is scrollable or has any kind of clipping or masking (e.g. overflow: hidden, clip-path, mask, etc.)

Intuitively: if we notice the main document doesn’t have any scrollable content itself, but there is a screen-filling scroller that’s not “weird” in any way - the scroller is promoted to root scroller. In the rare case there are multiple such candidates, neither is promoted.

These criteria are reevaluated after a style or layout update so that the root scroller must always meet these criteria.

Improved Functionality

A major benefit of this feature is that authors can keep logically separate views in separate parts of the DOM. For example, a common app model is to have a stream of items from which users can open an item to view more details (e.g. a news stream). This app has a "stream view" and an "item view".

The intuitive structure of this app would be:

<div id="streamView">
<div id="itemView" class="hidden">

When the user opens an item, the #itemView is populated and unhidden, perhaps with some animated transition.

Without root scroller, this application misses out on all the document-scrolling UX like URL bar hiding. Thus, today authors are forced to move all the scrollable content in and out of the documentElement.

With implicit root scroller, the currently in-view scroller automatically gets the document-scrolling UX (assuming the criteria above are met) so the above DOM structure can be kept and only style needs to change. Authors are no longer forced perform DOM surgery to avoid losing UX features.


This feature is currently implemented in Chrome and on track to ship by default in M73, see


See for an example of an application layout that levarages the implicit root scroller.

Note: pre-M73 and in other browsers, scrolling on either the stream or item view doesn't hide the URL bar or show the overscroll glow affordance. In M73, on both views the URL bar hides, overscroll glow is shown, and UX is as-if the view was the documentElement.