a collection of cellular automata written in Haskell with Diagrams
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README.md

Cellular Automata

Pretty cellular automata in Haskell. The aim is to have most Cellular Automata implemented in this package so it can serve as a reference / library to write Cellular Automata.

1. Game of Life

game-of-life-gif

Ruleset
stepCell :: Grid -> Cell
stepCell grid = 
    cell'
    where
        cell' = if numNeighbours > 3 then Off
                else if numNeighbours < 2 then Off
                else if cell == Off && numNeighbours == 3 then On
                else cell
        cell = extract grid 
        numNeighbours = liveNeighbourCount $ grid

2. Seeds

seeds-gif

Ruleset
stepCell :: Grid -> Cell
stepCell grid = 
    cell'
    where
        cell' = if numNeighbours == 2 then On
                else Off
        numNeighbours = liveNeighbourCount $ grid

3. Brian's brain

brians-brain-gif

Ruleset
stepCell :: Grid -> Cell
stepCell grid = 
    cell'
    where
        cell' = if cell == Off && numNeighbours == 2 then On
                else if cell == On then Dying
                else Off
        cell = extract grid 
        numNeighbours = liveNeighbourCount $ grid

3. 1D cyclic Cellular Automata

1d-cyclic.gif

Ruleset
stepCell :: Simulation -> Cell
stepCell s =
    cell'
    where
        cell = extract s 
        cell' = if hasNextNeighbour (getRingZipperNeighbours s)
           then Cell { value = (Cyclic1D.value cell + 1) `mod` (total cell), total = total cell}
           else cell
        hasNextNeighbour neighbours = any (\c -> Cyclic1D.value c == ((Cyclic1D.value cell) + 1) `mod` (total cell)) neighbours

4. 2D cyclic Cellular Automata

2d-cyclic.gif

Ruleset
stepCell :: Grid -> Cell
stepCell s =
    cell'
    where
        cell = extract s 
        cell' = if hasNextNeighbour (getUnivNeighbours s)
           then Cell { val = (val cell + 1) `mod` (total cell), total = total cell}
           else cell
        hasNextNeighbour neighbours = any (\c -> val c == ((val cell) + 1) `mod` (total cell)) neighbours

More to encode

https://qlfiles.net/the-ql-files/next-nearest-neighbors-cellular-automata

Design

This is an exploration of the Haskell design space to create Cellular Automata.

I finally settled on using Comonads to represent the grid space of the cellular automata. The difference between this implementation and many others in the wild is that this one has a finite grid, which makes writing the instances for Zipper and Comonad harder.

This will be refactored into a library that allows one to create cellular automata by simply specifying the ruleset and the way to draw a single cell. The library will extrapolate the data to allow rendering the entire grid.

Contributing

Please send a PR to create more Cellular Automata by using an existing cellular automata file (for example, Seeds(https://github.com/bollu/cellularAutomata/blob/master/src/Seeds.hs)).

If someone knows how to make GIF rendering faster, that would be of great help as well!

As a college student, I write code for passion projects like this on my free time. If you want to support me to see more stuff like this, please

Support via Gratipay

Theory

Motivating Comonads

As stated before, this simulation uses the Comonad typeclass to model cellular automata. There are multiple ways of looking at this algebra, and one way to think of them is a structure that can automatically convert "global-to-local" transforms into "global-to-global" transforms.

For example, in a cellular automata, the "global-to-local" transformation is updating the state of one Cell by reading the cell's neighbours. The neighbour state is the global state, which is used to update the local state of the cell. This can be thought of as the type

Grid -> Cell

where Grid is the grid in which the cellular automata is running, and Cell is the new state of the cell. However, the question that immediately arises is - which cell? the answer is that, the Grid not only encodes the state of the cellular automata, but also a focused cell which is updated.

The Grid is not just a grid, it is a grid with a cell that it is targeted on. However, this seems ridiculous, since we have simply added extra complexity (that of focusing on a particular cell) with zero gains in benefit.

The nice part of a Comonad is that if we have a structure that knows how to do a "focused update", the Comonad enables us to extend this to the entire structure. Written in types, it is along the lines of

Grid -> (Grid -> Cell) -> Grid

If we think of grid as a container of cells (or as a functor w), this gives us the new type

Grid -> (Grid -> Cell) -> Grid
-- replace Grid with w Cell
w Cell -> (w Cell -> Cell) -> w Cell
-- replace Cell with type variable a
w a -> (w a -> a) -> w a
-- generalize type even further, by allowing the
-- output type to differ
-- (this is shown to be possible with an implementation later on)
w a -> (w a -> b) -> w b

Note that this rewrite exploited the fact that a Grid is simply a functor (collection) of Cells, and then used this to rewrite the type signature.

The type signature

w a -> (w a -> b) -> w b

can be sharply contrasted with the monadic >>= (bind) as

>>= :: m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b

Indeed, these structures are dual, which is why there are called as Comonad, which is also why I picked w as the symbol for Comonad (which is an upside-down m for Monad). It is usually called as "cobind", and is written as

=>> :: w a -> (w a -> b) -> w b

with the interpretation that it takes a global structure w a which is focused on some a in the w a, and then takes a transform that updates the focused a in the w a to a b. Given these two pieces of information, the Comonad automatically updates every single a, to produce an updated w b.

The Store comonad

Weird Template Haskell stuff I've noticed

-- this works

deriveMonoElement :: Type -> Type -> Q[Dec]
deriveMonoElement tnewtype telem = [d| type instance Element (tnewtype) = $(return telem) |]


-- this doesn't
deriveMonoElement :: Type -> Type -> Q[Dec]
deriveMonoElement tnewtype telem = [d| type instance Element (tnewtype) = telem |]

-- Why can I use `tnewtype` as a "raw" value while I can't with `telem`?
-- Why does `$(return telem)`  work while raw `telem` doesn't?

License - MIT

The MIT License (MIT)
Copyright (c) 2016 Siddharth Bhat

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
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