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WebDriverManager is a library which allows to automate the management of the binary drivers (e.g. chromedriver, geckodriver, etc.) required by Selenium WebDriver.

Table of contents

  1. Motivation
  2. WebDriverManager as Java dependency
    1. Basic usage
    2. Examples
    3. Resolution cache
    4. WebDriverManager API
    5. Configuration
  3. WebDriverManager CLI
  4. WebDriverManager Server
  5. WebDriverManager Agent
  6. WebDriverManager Docker Container
  7. Known issues
  8. Help
  9. Backers
  10. Sponsors
  11. About

WebDriverManager is being sponsored by the following tool; please help to support us by taking a look and signing up to a free trial:
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Motivation

If you use Selenium WebDriver, you probably know that to use some browsers such as Chrome, Firefox, Edge, Opera, PhantomJS, or Internet Explorer, first you need to download the so-called driver, i.e. a binary file which allows WebDriver to handle browsers. In Java, the path to this driver must be set as JVM properties, as follows:

System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver", "/path/to/chromedriver");
System.setProperty("webdriver.gecko.driver", "/path/to/geckodriver");
System.setProperty("webdriver.edge.driver", "/path/to/msedgedriver.exe");
System.setProperty("webdriver.opera.driver", "/path/to/operadriver");
System.setProperty("phantomjs.binary.path", "/path/to/phantomjs");
System.setProperty("webdriver.ie.driver", "C:/path/to/IEDriverServer.exe");

This is quite annoying since it forces you to link directly this driver into your source code. In addition, you have to check manually when new versions of the binaries are released. WebDriverManager comes to the rescue, performing in an automated way all this dirty job for you. WebDriverManager can be used in different ways:

  1. WebDriverManager as Java dependency (typically from test cases).
  2. WebDriverManager as Command Line Interface (CLI) tool (from the shell).
  3. WebDriverManager as Server (using a REST-like API).
  4. WebDriverManager as Agent (using Java instrumentation).
  5. WebDriverManager as Container (using Docker).

WebDriverManager is open-source, released under the terms of Apache 2.0 License.

WebDriverManager as Java dependency

Basic usage

To use WebDriverManager from tests in a Maven project, you need to add the following dependency in your pom.xml (Java 8 or upper required):

<dependency>
    <groupId>io.github.bonigarcia</groupId>
    <artifactId>webdrivermanager</artifactId>
    <version>4.1.0</version>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

... or in Gradle project:

dependencies {
    testCompile("io.github.bonigarcia:webdrivermanager:4.1.0")
}

Once we have included this dependency, you can let WebDriverManager to manage the WebDriver binaries for you. Take a look at this JUnit 4 example which uses Chrome with Selenium WebDriver (to use WebDriverManager in conjunction with JUnit 5, the extension Selenium-Jupiter is highly recommended):

public class ChromeTest {

    private WebDriver driver;

    @BeforeClass
    public static void setupClass() {
        WebDriverManager.chromedriver().setup();
    }

    @Before
    public void setupTest() {
        driver = new ChromeDriver();
    }

    @After
    public void teardown() {
        if (driver != null) {
            driver.quit();
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void test() {
        // Your test code here
    }

}

Notice that simply adding WebDriverManager.chromedriver().setup(); WebDriverManager does magic for you:

  1. It checks the version of the browser installed in your machine (e.g. Chrome, Firefox).
  2. It checks the version of the driver (e.g. chromedriver, geckodriver). If unknown, it uses the latest version of the driver.
  3. It downloads the WebDriver binary if it is not present on the WebDriverManager cache (~/.m2/repository/webdriver by default).
  4. It exports the proper WebDriver Java environment variables required by Selenium (not done when using WebDriverManager from the CLI or as a Server).

WebDriverManager resolves the driver binaries for the browsers Chrome, Firefox, Edge, Opera, PhantomJS, Internet Explorer, and Chromium. For that, it provides several drivers managers for these browsers. These drivers managers can be used as follows:

WebDriverManager.chromedriver().setup();
WebDriverManager.firefoxdriver().setup();
WebDriverManager.edgedriver().setup();
WebDriverManager.operadriver().setup();
WebDriverManager.phantomjs().setup();
WebDriverManager.iedriver().setup();
WebDriverManager.chromiumdriver().setup();

Moreover, WebDriverManager provides a generic driver manager. This manager which can be parameterized using Selenium driver classes (e.g. org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver, org.openqa.selenium.firefox.FirefoxDriver, etc), as follows:

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
import io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.WebDriverManager;

// ...

Class<? extends WebDriver> driverClass = ChromeDriver.class;
WebDriverManager.getInstance(driverClass).setup();
WebDriver driver = driverClass.newInstance();

This generic driver manager can be also parameterized using the enumeration DriverManagerType. For instance as follows:

import static io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.DriverManagerType.CHROME;

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
import io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.WebDriverManager;

// ...

WebDriverManager.getInstance(CHROME).setup();
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

You can also use the DriverManagerType and get the complete driver class name. It might help you to create a browser instance without explicitly define the browser class.

import static io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.DriverManagerType.CHROME;

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.WebDriverManager;

// ...

DriverManagerType chrome = DriverManagerType.CHROME;
WebDriverManager.getInstance(chrome).setup();
Class<?> chromeClass =  Class.forName(chrome.browserClass());
driver = (WebDriver) chromeClass.newInstance();

Examples

Check out the repository WebDriverManager Examples which contains different JUnit 4 test examples using WebDriverManager.

Resolution cache

The relationship between browser version and driver version is managed in a internal database called resolution cache. As of WebDriverManager 4.x, this database is stored in a Java properties file called resolution.properties located by default in the cache folder (~/.m2/repository/webdriver). The validity of this relationship (browser version and driver version) is limited by a time-to-live (ttl) value. There are two kinds of TTLs. First, a TTL for driver versions, with a default value of 86400 seconds (i.e. 1 day). Second, a TTL for browser versions, with a default value of 3600 seconds (i.e. 1 hour).

To resolve the driver version for a given browser, first WebDriverManager try to find out the version of that browser. This mechanism depends on the browser (Chrome, Firefox, etc) and the platform (Linux, Windows, Mac). For instance, for Chrome in Linux, the command google-chrome --version is executed in the shell.

Then, WebDriverManager tries to determine which is the proper driver version for the detected browser version. To that aim, first the values of LATEST_RELEASE labels within the driver repositories are read. Besides, WebDriverManager maintains another properties file called versions.properties which maps the proper driver and browsers versions. To use always the latest relationships between browser and driver, the online version of versions.properties (master branch) is used. As alternative, the local version of this file (distributed within WebDriverManager) is used.

WebDriverManager API

WebDriverManager exposes its API by means of the builder pattern. This means that given a WebDriverManger instance, their capabilities can be tuned using different methods. The following table summarizes the WebDriverManager API, together with the equivalent configuration key:

Method Description Equivalent configuration key
driverVersion(String) By default, WebDriverManager tries to download the proper version of a given driver binary. A concrete version can be specified using this method. wdm.chromeDriverVersion, wdm.operaDriverVersion, wdm.internetExplorerDriverVersion, wdm.edgeDriverVersion, wdm.phantomjsDriverVersion, wdm.geckoDriverVersion, wdm.chromiumDriverVersion
browserVersion(String) Alternatively to the driver version, the major version of the browser can be specified using this method. wdm.chromeVersion, wdm.operaVersion, wdm.edgeVersion, wdm.firefoxVersion, wdm.chromiumVersion
cachePath(String) Folder in which WebDriver binaries are stored (WedDriverManager cache). wdm.cachePath
forceDownload() By default, WebDriverManager finds out the latest version of the binary, and then it uses the cached version if exists. This option forces to download again the binary even if it has been previously cached. wdm.forceDownload=true
useBetaVersions() By default, WebDriverManager skip beta versions. With this method, WebDriverManager will download also beta versions. wdm.useBetaVersions=true
architecture(Architecture) By default, WebDriverManager would try to use the proper binary for the platform running the test case (i.e. 32-bit or 64-bit). This behavior can be changed by forcing a given architecture: 32-bits (Architecture.x32) or 64-bits (Architecture.x64); wdm.architecture
arch32() Force to use the 32-bit version of a given driver binary. wdm.architecture=32
arch64() Force to use the 64-bit version of a given driver binary. wdm.architecture=64
operatingSystem(OperatingSystem) By default, WebDriverManager downloads the binary for the same operating systems than the machine running the test. This can be changed using this method (accepted values: WIN, LINUX, MAC). wdm.os=WIN, wdm.os=LINUX, wdm.os=MAC
driverRepositoryUrl(URL) This method allows to change the repository URL in which the binaries are hosted (see next section for default values). wdm.chromeDriverUrl, wdm.operaDriverUrl, wdm.internetExplorerDriverUrl, wdm.edgeDriverUrl, wdm.phantomjsDriverUrl, wdm.geckoDriverUrl
useMirror() The npm.taobao.org site is a mirror which hosts different software assets. Among them, it hosts chromedriver, geckodriver, operadriver, and phantomjs driver. Therefore, this method can be used for Chrome, Firefox, Opera, and PhantomJS to force to use the taobao.org mirror. wdm.useMirror=true
proxy(String) Use a HTTP proxy for the Internet connection using the following notation: my.http.proxy:1234 or username:password@my.http.proxy:1234. This can be also configured using the environment variable environment variable HTTPS_PROXY. wdm.proxy
proxyUser(String) Specify a username for HTTP proxy. This can be also configured using the environment variable environment variable HTTPS_PROXY_USER. wdm.proxyUser
proxyPass(String) Specify a password for HTTP proxy. This can be also configured using the environment variable environment variable HTTPS_PROXY_PASS. wdm.proxyPass
ignoreVersions(String...) Ignore some versions to be downloaded. wdm.ignoreVersions
gitHubTokenName(String) Token name for authenticated requests (see Known issues). wdm.gitHubTokenName
gitHubTokenSecret(String) Secret for authenticated requests (see Known issues). wdm.gitHubTokenSecret
localRepositoryUser(String) Specify a username for local repository. wdm.proxyUser
localRepositoryPassword(String) Specify a password for local repository. wdm.proxyPass
timeout(int) Timeout (in seconds) to connect and download binaries from online repositories wdm.timeout
properties(String) Properties file for configuration values (by default webdrivermanager.properties). wdm.properties
avoidExport() Avoid exporting JVM properties with the path of binaries (i.e. webdriver.chrome.driver, webdriver.gecko.driver, etc). Only recommended for interactive mode. wdm.avoidExport
avoidOutputTree() Avoid create tree structure for downloaded binaries (e.g. webdriver/chromedriver/linux64/2.37/ for chromedriver). Used by default in interactive mode. wdm.avoidOutputTree
avoidFallback() If some problem is detected while resolving a driver, a fallback mechanism is used by default (i.e. use the latest version from cache as driver). To method should be used to deactivate this fallback mechanism. wdm.avoidFallback
avoidBrowserDetection() Avoid checking the version of the installed browser (e.g. Chrome, Firefox) to find out the proper version of the required driver (e.g. chromedriver, geckodriver). Only recommended for WebDriverManager as Java dependency mode. wdm.avoidBrowserDetection
avoidReadReleaseFromRepository() Avoid checking the repository (e.g. chromedriver-latest, msedgedriver-latest) to find out the version of the required driver. wdm.avoidReadReleaseFromRepository
browserPath() As of WebDriverManager 3.0.0, versions of drivers are contained in an internal database (versions.properties) which matches the driver version to each browser version. To find the browser version, a command is executed on the shell (e.g. google-chrome --version in Linux). The path of the browser can be configured using this method wdm.binaryPath
ttl(int) As of WebDriverManager 3.1.0, resolved versions of drivers are stored in the resolution cache. These values has a expiration time based on this Time To Live (TTL) value, measured in seconds. By default this value is 86400 (i.e. 1 day). wdm.ttl
ttlBrowsers(int) As of WebDriverManager 4.1.0, resolved versions of browsers are stored in the resolution cache. These values has a expiration time based on this Time To Live (TTL) value, measured in seconds. By default this value is 3600 (i.e. 1 hour). wdm.ttlForBrowsers
setVersionsPropertiesUrl(URL) URL of the online version.properties file, used if the relationship between browser and driver is unknown in the local version of that file. By default this value targets to the master branch of GitHub. wdm.versionsPropertiesUrl
useLocalVersionsPropertiesFirst() As of WebDriverManager 3.7.1, the online version.properties file is read to check the latest relationship browser-driver. If the local version.properties want to be used instead, this method should be invoked wdm.versionsPropertiesOnlineFirst
clearResolutionCache() This methods allows to remove the resolution cache (browser and driver versions previously resolved). wdm.clearResolutionCache
clearDriverCache() This methods allows to remove the driver cache (driver previously resolved). By default, the resolution cache is located in the same folder that the driver, and therefore, it will be also cleared when calling this method. wdm.clearDriverCache

The following table contains some examples:

Example Description
WebDriverManager.chromedriver().driverVersion("81.0.4044.138").setup(); Force to use version 81.0.4044.138 of chromedriver
WebDriverManager.firefoxdriver().browserVersion("75").setup(); Force to use proper version of geckodriver for Firefox 75
WebDriverManager.operadriver().proxy("server:port").setup(); Using proxy server:port to resolve the proper version of operadriver
WebDriverManager.edgedriver().operatingSystem(OperatingSystem.MAC).setup(); Force to download msedgedriver for Mac OS

Additional methods are exposed by WebDriverManager, namely:

  • getDriverVersions(): This method allows to find out the list of available driver versions.
  • getBinaryPath(): This method allows to find out the path of the latest resolved binary.
  • getDownloadedVersion(): This method allows to find out the version of the latest resolved binary.
  • getDriverManagerType(): This methods allows to get the driver manager type (as enum) of a given manager.

Configuration

Configuration parameters for WebDriverManager are set in the webdrivermanager.properties file:

wdm.cachePath=~/.m2/repository/webdriver
wdm.forceDownload=false
wdm.useMirror=false
wdm.useBetaVersions=false
wdm.avoidExport=false
wdm.avoidOutputTree=false
wdm.avoidBrowserDetection=false
wdm.avoidAutoReset=false
wdm.avoidResolutionCache=false
wdm.avoidFallback=false
wdm.avoidReadReleaseFromRepository=false
wdm.timeout=30
wdm.serverPort=4041
wdm.resolutionCache=resolution.properties
wdm.ttl=86400
wdm.ttlForBrowsers=3600

wdm.chromeDriverUrl=https://chromedriver.storage.googleapis.com/
wdm.chromeDriverMirrorUrl=http://npm.taobao.org/mirrors/chromedriver/
wdm.chromeDriverExport=webdriver.chrome.driver
wdm.chromeDownloadUrlPattern=https://chromedriver.storage.googleapis.com/%s/chromedriver_%s%s.zip

wdm.geckoDriverUrl=https://api.github.com/repos/mozilla/geckodriver/releases
wdm.geckoDriverMirrorUrl=http://npm.taobao.org/mirrors/geckodriver
wdm.geckoDriverExport=webdriver.gecko.driver

wdm.operaDriverUrl=https://api.github.com/repos/operasoftware/operachromiumdriver/releases
wdm.operaDriverMirrorUrl=http://npm.taobao.org/mirrors/operadriver
wdm.operaDriverExport=webdriver.opera.driver

wdm.edgeDriverUrl=https://msedgedriver.azureedge.net/
wdm.edgeDriverExport=webdriver.edge.driver
wdm.edgeDownloadUrlPattern=https://msedgewebdriverstorage.blob.core.windows.net/edgewebdriver/%s/edgedriver_%s%s.zip

wdm.internetExplorerDriverUrl=https://selenium-release.storage.googleapis.com/
wdm.internetExplorerDriverExport=webdriver.ie.driver

wdm.phantomjsDriverUrl=https://bitbucket.org/api/2.0/repositories/ariya/phantomjs/downloads
wdm.phantomjsDriverMirrorUrl=http://npm.taobao.org/mirrors/phantomjs
wdm.phantomjsDriverExport=phantomjs.binary.path

wdm.seleniumServerStandaloneUrl=https://selenium-release.storage.googleapis.com/

wdm.chromiumDriverSnapPath=/snap/bin/chromium.chromedriver

wdm.versionsPropertiesOnlineFirst=true
wdm.versionsPropertiesUrl=https://raw.githubusercontent.com/bonigarcia/webdrivermanager/master/src/main/resources/versions.properties

For instance, the variable wdm.cachePath is the default folder in which the drivers are stored. By default the path of the Maven local repository is used. This property can be overwritten by Java system properties, for example:

System.setProperty("wdm.cachePath", "/my/custom/path/to/driver/binaries");

... or by command line, for example:

-Dwdm.cachePath=/my/custom/path/to/driver/binaries

By default, WebDriverManager try to download the proper version of the driver for the installed browsers. Nevertheless, concrete versions of WebDriver binaries can be forced by changing the value of the variables wdm.chromeDriverVersion, wdm.operaDriverVersion, wdm.internetExplorerDriverVersion, or wdm.edgeDriverVersion to a concrete version. For instance:

-Dwdm.chromeDriverVersion=81.0.4044.138
-Dwdm.geckoDriverVersion=0.26.0
-Dwdm.edgeDriverVersion=81.0.410.0
-Dwdm.operaDriverVersion=81.0.4044.113

The value of these properties can be also overridden by means of environmental variables. The name of these variables result from putting the name in uppercase and replacing the symbol . by _. For example, the property wdm.cachePath can be overridden by the environment variable WDM_CACHEPATH.

Moreover, configuration values can be customized from Java code. The configuration object is unique per driver manager (i.e. WebDriverManager.chromedriver(), WebDriverManager.firefoxdriver(), etc.) and is accessed using the method config(). The configuration parameters can be reset to default values using the method reset(). For example:

WebDriverManager.chromedriver().config().setProperties("/path/to/my-wdm.properties");
WebDriverManager.operadriver().config().setForceDownload(true);
WebDriverManager.chromedriver().config().reset();

Finally, if a single configuration object needs to be specified for all the driver managers, it can be done using the static method globalConfig(). This global configuration is reset as usual using the reset() method. For example:

WebDriverManager.globalConfig().setCachePath("/path/to/my-wdm-cache");
WebDriverManager.globalConfig().reset();

WebDriverManager CLI

As of version 2.2.0, WebDriverManager can used interactively from the Command Line Interface (CLI), i.e. the shell, to resolve and download binaries for the supported browsers. There are two ways of using this feature:

  • Directly from the source code, using Maven. The command to be used is mvn exec:java -Dexec.args="browserName". For instance:
> mvn exec:java -Dexec.args="chrome"
[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO]
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Building WebDriverManager 4.1.0
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO]
[INFO] --- exec-maven-plugin:1.6.0:java (default-cli) @ webdrivermanager ---
[INFO] Using WebDriverManager to resolve chrome
[DEBUG] Running command on the shell: [google-chrome, --version]
[DEBUG] Result: Google Chrome 81.0.4044.138
[INFO] Using chromedriver 81.0.4044.138 (since Chrome 81 is installed in your machine)
[INFO] Reading https://chromedriver.storage.googleapis.com/ to seek chromedriver
[DEBUG] Driver to be downloaded chromedriver 81.0.4044.138
[INFO] Downloading https://chromedriver.storage.googleapis.com/81.0.4044.138/chromedriver_linux64.zip
[INFO] Extracting binary from compressed file chromedriver_linux64.zip
[INFO] Driver location: /home/boni/dev/webdrivermanager/chromedriver
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time:  3.595 s
[INFO] Finished at: 2020-05-12T16:11:13+02:00
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
  • Using WebDriverManager as a fat-jar (i.e. WebDriverManager with all its dependencies in a single executable JAR file). This JAR file can downloaded from here and also it can be created using the command mvn compile assembly:single from the source code. Once you get the fat-jar, you simply need to use the command java -jar webdrivermanager-4.1.0-fat.jar browserName, for instance:
> java -jar webdrivermanager-4.1.0-fat.jar chrome
[INFO] Using WebDriverManager to resolve chrome
[DEBUG] Running command on the shell: [google-chrome, --version]
[DEBUG] Result: Google Chrome 81.0.4044.138
[INFO] Using chromedriver 81.0.4044.138 (since Chrome 81 is installed in your machine)
[INFO] Reading https://chromedriver.storage.googleapis.com/ to seek chromedriver
[DEBUG] Driver to be downloaded chromedriver 81.0.4044.138
[INFO] Downloading https://chromedriver.storage.googleapis.com/81.0.4044.138/chromedriver_linux64.zip
[INFO] Extracting binary from compressed file chromedriver_linux64.zip
[INFO] Driver location: /home/boni/Downloads/chromedriver

WebDriverManager Server

As of version 3.0.0, WebDriverManager can used as a server. To start this mode, the shell is used. Once again, two options are allowed:

  • Directly from the source code and Maven. The command to be used is mvn exec:java -Dexec.args="server <port>". If the second argument is not specified, the default port will be used (4041):
$ mvn exec:java -Dexec.args="server"
[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO]
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Building WebDriverManager 4.1.0
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO]
[INFO] --- exec-maven-plugin:1.6.0:java (default-cli) @ webdrivermanager ---
[INFO] WebDriverManager server listening on port 4041
  • Using WebDriverManager as a fat-jar. For instance:
> java -jar webdrivermanager-4.1.0-fat.jar server
[INFO] WebDriverManager server listening on port 4041

When the WebDriverManager is up and running, a REST-like API using HTTP request can be done to resolve driver binaries (chromedriver, geckodriver, etc.). For instance, supposing that WebDriverManager is running the local host and in the default port:

These requests use HTTP GET and can be done using a normal browser. The driver binary is automatically downloaded by the browser since it is sent as an attachment in the HTTP response.

In addition, configuration parameters can be specified in the URL using query arguments. The name of these arguments are identical to the parameters in the webdrivermanager.properties file but skipping the prefix wdm. (see configuration section). For instance:

Example Description
http://localhost:4041/chromedriver?chromeDriverVersion=81.0.4044.138 Downloads the version 81.0.4044.138 of chromedriver
http://localhost:4041/firefoxdriver?geckoDriverVersion=0.26.0 Downloads the version 0.26.0 of geckodriver
http://localhost:4041/operadriver?os=WIN&forceDownload=true Force not to use the cache version of operadriver for Windows

Finally, requests to WebDriverManager server can be done interactively using tools such as curl, as follows:

curl -O -J http://localhost:4041/chromedriver
curl -O -J "http://localhost:4041/chromedriver?chromeDriverVersion=81.0.4044.138"

WebDriverManager Agent

As of version 4.x, WebDriverManager can be used as Java Agent. To configure that, we need to specify the the path of the WebDriverManager fat-jar using the JVM flag -javaagent:/path/to/webdrivermanager.jar. Alternatively, it can be done using Maven (see a complete project example here).

Using this approach, Selenium WebDriver tests can drop the driver setup for chromedriver, geckodriver, etc. For example:

public class ChromeTest {

    private WebDriver driver;


    @Before
    public void setupTest() {
        driver = new ChromeDriver();
    }

    @After
    public void teardown() {
        if (driver != null) {
            driver.quit();
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void test() {
        // Test logic
    }

}
public class FirefoxTest {

    private WebDriver driver;

    @Before
    public void setupTest() {
        driver = new FirefoxDriver();
    }

    @After
    public void teardown() {
        if (driver != null) {
            driver.quit();
        }
    }

    @Test
    public void test() {
        // Test logic
    }

}

The WebDriverManager Agent will check the objects being created in the JVM. Just before Selenium WebDriver objects are instantiated in the tests (org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver, org.openqa.selenium.firefox.FirefoxDriver, org.openqa.selenium.opera.OperaDriver, org.openqa.selenium.edge.EdgeDriver, org.openqa.selenium.phantomjs.PhantomJSDriver, or org.openqa.selenium.ie.InternetExplorerDriver), the proper WebDriverManager setup call is executed to manage the required driver (chromedriver, geckodriver, msedgedriver, etc).

$ mvn test
...
[INFO] -------------------------------------------------------
[INFO]  T E S T S
[INFO] -------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Running io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.agent.test.ChromeTest
2020-05-12 15:38:49 [main] DEBUG io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.WdmAgent.transform(86) -- WebDriverManager Agent is going to resolve the driver for Chrome
2020-05-12 15:38:49 [main] DEBUG i.g.b.wdm.cache.ResolutionCache.checkKeyInResolutionCache(183) -- Resolution chrome=81 in cache (valid until 15:23:29 13/05/2020 CEST)
2020-05-12 15:38:49 [main] INFO  i.g.bonigarcia.wdm.WebDriverManager.resolveDriverVersion(571) -- Using chromedriver 81.0.4044.138 (since Chrome 81 is installed in your machine)
2020-05-12 15:38:49 [main] DEBUG i.g.bonigarcia.wdm.WebDriverManager.manage(520) -- Driver chromedriver 81.0.4044.138 found in cache
2020-05-12 15:38:49 [main] INFO  i.g.bonigarcia.wdm.WebDriverManager.exportDriver(615) -- Exporting webdriver.chrome.driver as /home/boni/.m2/repository/webdriver/chromedriver/linux64/81.0.4044.138/chromedriver
Starting ChromeDriver 81.0.4044.138 (8c6c7ba89cc9453625af54f11fd83179e23450fa-refs/branch-heads/4044@{#999}) on port 31286
2020-05-12 15:38:50 [main] DEBUG i.g.b.wdm.agent.test.ChromeTest.test(54) -- The title of https://bonigarcia.github.io/selenium-jupiter/ is Selenium-Jupiter: JUnit 5 extension for Selenium
[INFO] Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0, Time elapsed: 1.814 s - in io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.agent.test.ChromeTest
[INFO] Running io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.agent.test.FirefoxTest
2020-05-12 15:46:04 [main] DEBUG io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.WdmAgent.transform(86) -- WebDriverManager Agent is going to resolve the driver for Firefox
2020-05-12 15:46:04 [main] DEBUG i.g.b.wdm.cache.ResolutionCache.checkKeyInResolutionCache(183) -- Resolution firefox=76 in cache (valid until 15:45:41 13/05/2020 CEST)
2020-05-12 15:46:04 [main] INFO  i.g.bonigarcia.wdm.WebDriverManager.resolveDriverVersion(571) -- Using geckodriver 0.26.0 (since Firefox 76 is installed in your machine)
2020-05-12 15:46:04 [main] DEBUG i.g.bonigarcia.wdm.WebDriverManager.manage(520) -- Driver geckodriver 0.26.0 found in cache
2020-05-12 15:46:04 [main] INFO  i.g.bonigarcia.wdm.WebDriverManager.exportDriver(615) -- Exporting webdriver.gecko.driver as /home/boni/.m2/repository/webdriver/geckodriver/linux64/0.26.0/geckodriver
2020-05-12 15:46:07 [main] DEBUG i.g.b.wdm.agent.test.FirefoxTest.test(54) -- The title of https://bonigarcia.github.io/selenium-jupiter/ is Selenium-Jupiter: JUnit 5 extension for Selenium
[INFO] Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0, Time elapsed: 6.163 s - in io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.agent.test.FirefoxTest
[INFO]
[INFO] Results:
[INFO]
[INFO] Tests run: 2, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0
[INFO]
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time:  10.017 s
[INFO] Finished at: 2020-05-12T15:46:10+02:00
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------

WebDriverManager Docker container

As of version 4.x, WebDriverManager can be used as a Docker container to execute the Server and CLI modes. To execute WebDriverManager Server in Docker, you simply need to run the following command:

docker run -p 4041:4041 bonigarcia/webdrivermanager:4.1.0

To execute WebDriverManager CLI in Docker, you need to specify the type of browser to be resolved as environmental variable (BROWSER). The rest of WebDriverManager configuration parameters can be passed to the Docker container using env variables using the usual -e option in Docker. For example, in Linux:

docker run --rm -e BROWSER=chrome -e WDM_CHROMEDRIVERVERSION=83.0.4103.39 -e WDM_OS=LINUX -v ${PWD}:/wdm bonigarcia/webdrivermanager:4.1.0

... or Mac:

docker run --rm -e BROWSER=chrome -e WDM_CHROMEDRIVERVERSION=83.0.4103.39 -e WDM_OS=MAC -v ${PWD}:/wdm bonigarcia/webdrivermanager:4.1.0

... or Windows:

docker run --rm -e BROWSER=chrome -e WDM_CHROMEDRIVERVERSION=83.0.4103.39 -e WDM_OS=WIN -v %cd%:/wdm bonigarcia/webdrivermanager:4.1.0

Known issues

HTTP response code 403

Some of the binaries (for Opera and Firefox) are hosted on GitHub. When several consecutive requests are made by WebDriverManager, GitHub servers return an HTTP 403 error response as follows:

Caused by: java.io.IOException: Server returned HTTP response code: 403 for URL: https://api.github.com/repos/operasoftware/operachromiumdriver/releases
    at sun.net.www.protocol.http.HttpURLConnection.getInputStream0(HttpURLConnection.java:1840)
    at sun.net.www.protocol.http.HttpURLConnection.getInputStream(HttpURLConnection.java:1441)
    at sun.net.www.protocol.https.HttpsURLConnectionImpl.getInputStream(HttpsURLConnectionImpl.java:254)
    at io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.BrowserManager.openGitHubConnection(BrowserManager.java:463)
    at io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.OperaDriverManager.getDrivers(OperaDriverManager.java:55)
    at io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.BrowserManager.manage(BrowserManager.java:168)
Caused by: java.io.IOException: Server returned HTTP response code: 403 for URL: https://api.github.com/repos/mozilla/geckodriver/releases
    at sun.net.www.protocol.http.HttpURLConnection.getInputStream0(HttpURLConnection.java:1840)
    at sun.net.www.protocol.http.HttpURLConnection.getInputStream(HttpURLConnection.java:1441)
    at sun.net.www.protocol.https.HttpsURLConnectionImpl.getInputStream(HttpsURLConnectionImpl.java:254)
    at io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.FirefoxDriverManager.getDrivers(FirefoxDriverManager.java:61)
    at io.github.bonigarcia.wdm.BrowserManager.manage(BrowserManager.java:163)

To avoid this problem, authenticated requests should be done. The procedure is the following:

  1. Create a token/secret pair in your GitHub account.
  2. Tell WebDriverManager the value of this pair token/secret. To do that you should use the configuration keys wdm.gitHubTokenName and wdm.gitHubTokenSecret. You can pass them as command line Java parameters as follows:
-Dwdm.gitHubTokenName=<your-token-name>
-Dwdm.gitHubTokenSecret=<your-token-secret>

... or as environment variables (e.g. in Travis CI) as follows:

WDM_GITHUBTOKENNAME=<your-token-name>
WDM_GITHUBTOKENSECRET=<your-token-secret>

TravisCI fork builds

If you have a fork and want to build using the same travis.yml you have to add some enviroment variables to your TravisCI instance configuration:

If you want disable the SonarSource validation add a variable TRAVIS_PULL_REQUEST with value true.

Tons of org.apache.http DEBUG log

WebDriverManager uses Apache HTTP Client to download WebDriver binaries from online repositories. Internally, Apache HTTP client writes a lot of logging information using the DEBUG level of org.apache.http classes. To reduce this amount of logs, the level of this logger might be reduced. For instance, in the case of Logback, the log configuration file should include the following:

<configuration>
    <logger name="org.apache.http" level="WARN" />
</configuration>

You can find further information about others logging implementations in the Apache HTTP Client logging practices page.

Help

If you have questions on how to use WebDriverManager properly with a special configuration or suchlike, please consider asking a question on Stack Overflow and tag it with webdrivermanager-java.

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About

WebDriverManager (Copyright © 2015-2020) is a project created and maintained by Boni Garcia and licensed under the terms of the Apache 2.0 License. Comments, questions and suggestions are always very welcome!

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