Boogie is an intermediate verification language (IVL), intended as a layer on which to build program verifiers for other languages. Several program verifiers have been built in this way, including the VCC and HAVOC verifiers for C and the verifiers for Dafny, Chalice, and Spec#. For a sample verifier for a toy language built on top of Boogie, see Forro.
Boogie is also the name of a tool. The tool accepts the Boogie language as input, optionally infers some invariants in the given Boogie program, and then generates verification conditions that are passed to an SMT solver. The default SMT solver is Z3.
Here are some resources to learn more about Boogie. Be aware that some information might be incomplete or outdated.
- Language reference.
- This is Boogie 2 details many aspects of the Boogie IVL but is slightly out of date.
Getting help and contribute
You can ask questions and report issues on our issue tracker.
We are happy to receive contributions via pull requests.
Boogie releases are packaged as a .NET Core global tool available at nuget.org. To install Boogie simply run:
$ dotnet tool install --global boogie
To build Boogie run:
$ dotnet build Source/Boogie.sln
The compiled Boogie binary is
Backend SMT Solver
By default, Boogie looks for an executable called
z3|cvc5|yices2[.exe] in your
PATH environment variable. If the solver executable is called differently on
your system, use
/proverOpt:PROVER_NAME=<exeName>. Alternatively, an explicit
path can be given using
To learn how custom options can be supplied to the SMT solver (and more), call
The current test suite assumes version 4.8.8, but earlier and newer versions may also work.
Call Boogie with
Call Boogie with
Works for unquantified fragments, e.g. arrays + arithmetic + bitvectors. Does not work for quantifiers, generalized arrays, datatypes.
Boogie has two forms of tests. Driver tests and unit tests
See the Driver test documentation
See the Unit test documentation
Versioning and Release
The current version of Boogie is noted in a build property. To push a new version to nuget, perform the following steps:
- Update the version (e.g., x.y.z) in
git add Source/Directory.Build.props; git commit -m "Release version x.y.z"to commit the change locally
git push origin master:release-vx.y.zto push your change in a separate branch, where
originnormally denotes the remote on github.com
- Create a pull request and wait for it to be approved and merged
git tag vx.y.zto create a local tag for the version
git push origin vx.y.zto push the tag once the pull request is merged
The CI workflow will build and push the packages.
Boogie is licensed under the MIT License (see LICENSE.txt).