Skip to content


Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with HTTPS or Subversion.

Download ZIP
Fetching contributors…

Cannot retrieve contributors at this time

393 lines (275 sloc) 11.509 kb
package Git::Repository::Command;
use strict;
use warnings;
use 5.006;
use Carp;
use Cwd qw( cwd );
use IO::Handle;
use Scalar::Util qw( blessed );
use File::Spec;
use Config;
use System::Command;
our @ISA = qw( System::Command );
# a few simple accessors
for my $attr (qw( pid stdin stdout stderr exit signal core )) {
no strict 'refs';
*$attr = sub { return $_[0]{$attr} };
for my $attr (qw( cmdline )) {
no strict 'refs';
*$attr = sub { return @{ $_[0]{$attr} } };
my %binary; # cache calls to _is_git
sub _is_git {
my ( $binary, @args ) = @_;
my $args = join "\0", @args;
# git option might be an arrayref containing an executable with arguments
# Best that can be done is to check if the first part is executable
# and use the arguments as part of the cache key
# compute cache key:
# - filename (path): path
# - absolute path (abs): empty string
# - relative path (rel): dirname
my $path = defined $ENV{PATH} && length( $ENV{PATH} ) ? $ENV{PATH} : '';
my ( $type, $key )
= ( File::Spec->splitpath($binary) )[2] eq $binary ? ( 'path', $path )
: File::Spec->file_name_is_absolute($binary) ? ( 'abs', '' )
: ( 'rel', cwd() );
# This relatively complex cache key scheme allows PATH or cwd to change
# during the life of a program using Git::Repository, which is likely
# to happen. On the other hand, it completely ignores the possibility
# that any part of the cached path to a git binary could be a symlink
# which target may also change during the life of the program.
# check the cache
return $binary{$type}{$key}{$binary}{$args}
if exists $binary{$type}{$key}{$binary}{$args};
# compute a list of candidate files (look in PATH if needed)
my $git;
if ( $type eq 'path' ) {
my $path_sep = $Config::Config{path_sep} || ';';
my @ext = (
'', $^O eq 'MSWin32' ? ( split /\Q$path_sep\E/, $ENV{PATHEXT} ) : ()
($git) = grep { -x && !-d }
map {
my $path = $_;
map { File::Spec->catfile( $path, $_ ) } map {"$binary$_"} @ext
split /\Q$path_sep\E/, $path;
else {
$git = File::Spec->rel2abs($binary);
# if we can't find any, we're done
return $binary{$type}{$key}{$binary} = undef
if !( defined $git && -x $git );
# try to run it
my ( $pid, $in, $out, $err )
= System::Command->spawn( $git, @args, '--version' );
my $version = do { local $/ = "\n"; <$out>; };
# does it really look like git?
return $binary{$type}{$key}{$binary}{$args}
= $version =~ /^git version \d/
? $type eq 'path'
? $binary # leave the shell figure it out itself too
: $git
: undef;
sub new {
my ( $class, @cmd ) = @_;
# split the args
my (@r, @o);
@cmd = # take out the first Git::Repository in $r, and options in @o
grep !( blessed $_ && $_->isa('Git::Repository') ? push @r, $_ : 0 ),
grep !( ref eq 'HASH' ? push @o, $_ : 0 ),
# wouldn't know what to do with more than one Git::Repository object
croak "Too many Git::Repository objects given: @r" if @r > 1;
my $r = shift @r;
# keep changes to the environment local
local %ENV = %ENV;
# a Git::Repository object will give more context
if ($r) {
# pick up repository options
unshift @o, $r->options;
# get some useful paths
my ( $git_dir, $work_tree ) = ( $r->git_dir, $r->work_tree );
unshift @o, { cwd => $work_tree }
if defined $work_tree && length $work_tree;
# setup our %ENV
delete @ENV{qw( GIT_DIR GIT_WORK_TREE )};
$ENV{GIT_DIR} = $git_dir;
$ENV{GIT_WORK_TREE} = $work_tree
if defined $work_tree;
# get and check the git command
my $git_cmd = ( map { exists $_->{git} ? $_->{git} : () } @o )[-1];
# git option might be an arrayref containing an executable with arguments
# (e.g. [ qw( /usr/bin/sudo -u nobody git ) ] )
( $git_cmd, my @args )
= defined $git_cmd ? ref $git_cmd ? @$git_cmd : ($git_cmd) : ('git');
my $git = _is_git($git_cmd, @args);
croak sprintf "git binary '%s' not available or broken",
join( ' ', $git_cmd, @args ) # show the full command given
if !defined $git;
# turn us into a dumb terminal
delete $ENV{TERM};
# spawn the command and re-bless the object in our class
return bless System::Command->new( $git, @args, @cmd, @o ), $class;
sub final_output {
my ($self, @cb) = @_;
# get output / errput
my ( $stdout, $stderr ) = @{$self}{qw(stdout stderr)};
my ( @output, @errput );
local $/ = "\n";
chomp( @output = <$stdout> );
chomp( @errput = <$stderr> );
# done with it
# exit codes: 128 => fatal, 129 => usage
my $exit = $self->{exit};
if ( $exit == 128 || $exit == 129 ) {
croak join( "\n", @errput ) || 'fatal: unknown git error';
# something else's wrong
if ( @errput && !$self->options->{quiet} ) { carp join "\n", @errput; }
# process the output with the optional callbacks
for my $cb (@cb) {
@output = map $cb->($_), @output;
# return the output
return wantarray ? @output : join "\n", @output;
# ABSTRACT: Command objects for running git
use Git::Repository::Command;
# invoke an external git command, and return an object
$cmd = Git::Repository::Command->new(@cmd);
# a Git::Repository object can provide more context
$cmd = Git::Repository::Command->new( $r, @cmd );
# options can be passed as a hashref
$cmd = Git::Repository::Command->new( $r, @cmd, \%option );
# $cmd is basically a hash, with keys / accessors
$cmd->stdin(); # filehandle to the process' stdin (write)
$cmd->stdout(); # filehandle to the process' stdout (read)
$cmd->stderr(); # filehandle to the process' stdout (read)
$cmd->pid(); # pid of the child process
# done!
# exit information
$cmd->exit(); # exit status
$cmd->signal(); # signal
$cmd->core(); # core dumped? (boolean)
# cut to the chase
my ( $pid, $in, $out, $err ) = Git::Repository::Command->spawn(@cmd);
L<Git::Repository::Command> is a class that actually launches a B<git>
commands, allowing to interact with it through its C<STDIN>, C<STDOUT>
and C<STDERR>.
This class is a subclass of L<System::Command>, meant to be invoked
through L<Git::Repository>.
=head1 METHODS
As a subclass of L<System::Command>,
L<Git::Repository::Command> supports the following methods:
=head2 new( @cmd )
Runs a B<git> command with the parameters in C<@cmd>.
If C<@cmd> contains a L<Git::Repository> object, it is used to provide
context to the B<git> command.
If C<@cmd> contains one or more hash reference, they are taken as
I<option> hashes. The recognized keys are:
=over 4
=item C<git>
The actual git binary to run. By default, it is just C<git>.
In case the C<git> to be run is actually a command with parameters
(e.g. when using B<sudo> or another command executer), the option value
should be an array reference with the command and parameters, like this:
{ git => [qw( sudo -u nobody git )] }
=item C<cwd>
The I<current working directory> in which the git command will be run.
=item C<env>
A hashref containing key / values to add to the git command environment.
=item C<input>
A string that is send to the git command standard input, which is then closed.
Using the empty string as C<input> will close the git command standard input
without writing to it.
Using C<undef> as C<input> will not do anything. This behaviour provides
a way to modify options inherited from C<new()> or a hash populated by
some other part of the program.
On some systems, some git commands may close standard input on startup,
which will cause a C<SIGPIPE> when trying to write to it. This will raise
an exception.
=item C<quiet>
Boolean option to control the output of warnings.
If true, methods such as C<final_output()> will not warn when Git outputs
messages on C<STDERR>.
If the L<Git::Repository> object has its own option hash, it will be used
to provide default values that can be overridden by the actual option hash
passed to C<new()>.
If several option hashes are passed to C<new()>, they will all be merged,
keys in later hashes taking precedence over keys in earlier hashes.
The L<Git::Repository::Command> object returned by C<new()> has a
number of attributes defined (see below).
=head2 close()
Close all pipes to the child process, and collects exit status, etc.
and defines a number of attributes (see below).
=head2 final_output( @callbacks )
Collect all the output, and terminate the command.
Returns the output as a string in scalar context,
or as a list of lines in list context. Also accepts a hashref of options.
Lines are automatically C<chomp>ed.
If C<@callbacks> is provided, the code references will be applied
successively to each line of output. The line being processed is in C<$_>,
but the coderef must still return the result string.
If the Git command printed anything on stderr, it will be printed as
warnings. If the git sub-process exited with status C<128> (fatal error),
or C<129> (usage message), it will C<die()>.
=head2 Accessors
The attributes of a L<Git::Repository::Command> object are also accessible
through a number of accessors.
The object returned by C<new()> will have the following attributes defined:
=over 4
=item cmdline()
Return the command-line actually executed, as a list of strings.
=item pid()
The PID of the underlying B<git> command.
=item stdin()
A filehandle opened in write mode to the child process' standard input.
=item stdout()
A filehandle opened in read mode to the child process' standard output.
=item stderr()
A filehandle opened in read mode to the child process' standard error output.
Regarding the handles to the child git process, note that in the
following code:
my $fh = Git::Repository::Command->new( @cmd )->stdout;
C<$fh> is opened and points to the output of the git subcommand, while
the anonymous L<Git::Repository::Command> object has been destroyed.
Once C<$fh> is destroyed, the subprocess will be reaped, thus avoiding
After the call to C<close()>, the following attributes will be defined:
=over 4
=item exit()
The exit status of the underlying B<git> command.
=item core()
A boolean value indicating if the command dumped core.
=item signal()
The signal, if any, that killed the command.
The core of L<Git::Repository::Command> has been moved into its own
distribution: L<System::Command>. Proper Win32 support is now delegated
to that module.
Before that, the Win32 implementation owed a lot to two people.
First, Olivier Raginel (BABAR), who provided me with a test platform
with Git and Strawberry Perl installed, which I could use at any time.
Many thanks go also to Chris Williams (BINGOS) for pointing me towards
perlmonks posts by ikegami that contained crucial elements to a working
MSWin32 implementation.
Jump to Line
Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.