Om with Haskell in it
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Ben Ford
Latest commit 4f69d48 Mar 19, 2015

README.md

oHm Om with Haskell in the middle

Om is awesome. oHm is a hommage to Om in GHCJS using Haskell's pipes, mvc and pipes-concurrent libraries.

Introduction

Ohm at its core is the idea of building an application as a pure left fold over a stream of events. At a previous position we built a UI that captured this model in clojurescript and Om, this is a port of that architectural idea to Haskell.

Set up

Concepts

  1. Models

    Models are the state of your application. Here's the Model from the todo mvc example mentioned later:

    1. State

      data ToDo = ToDo
        { _items :: [Item]
        , _editText :: String
        , _filter :: Filter
        } deriving Show
      

      In addition to the model you also need a updating function of type mdlEvent -> model -> model which is a left fold function that applies a to the Model resulting in the new Model. This function is one of the things you need to construct a .

    2. Fold

      Here's the model function from our todo mvc example:

      process :: Action -> ToDo -> ToDo
      process (NewItem str) todo = todo &~ do
         items %= (Item str False:)
         editText .= ""
      process (RemoveItem idx) todo = todo & items %~ deleteAt idx
      process (SetEditText str) todo = todo & editText .~ str
      process (SetCompleted idx c) todo = todo & items.element idx.completed .~ c
      process (SetFilter f) todo = todo & filter .~ f
      

      Note that MVC, one of the libraries that oHm is built on has a concept of a model too. In MVC Model refers to the pure transformation that happens within a Pipe and applies an event to the state to produce a new state. In oHm construction of an MVC Model happens with the appModel function that the runComponent function applies for you.

  2. Model Events

    Model Events represent events that happen in your domain to effect change to the state of the world. This is the Action type mentioned in the event -> model -> model function earlier:

    data Action
      = NewItem String
      | RemoveItem Index
      | SetEditText String
      | SetCompleted Index Bool
      | SetFilter Filter
    
  3. UI Events

    UI Events occur at the points of interaction between user and your app. These are the sorts of things that you'd attach callbacks to: changes, clicks, mouse moves etc. A DOMEvent type is provided to 1.1.2.5 for these events.

    For simpler apps, like our todo mvc example, the UI could emit events which are passed straight through to the model.

  4. Processors

    Processors consume events of one type, say UI Events and produce Events of another type, with the ability to perform actions in some Monad. These are used to process the UI Events that a Component emits into a form that that component's model can use to update its state.

    In our simple todo mvc example, as we're using the same type for UI Events and Model Event, there's no processing and events are just passed straight through using the idProcessor.

  5. Renderers

    A Renderer is a function of type DOMEvent a -> model -> HTML where HTML is a virtual-dom representation of the UI.

    This is the top level Renderer from todo mvc:

    todoView :: DOMEvent Action -> ToDo -> HTML
    todoView chan todo@(ToDo itemList _txtEntry currentFilter) =
      with div
        (classes .= ["body"])
        [ titleRender, itemsRender, renderFilters chan todo]
      where
      titleRender = with h1 (classes .= ["title"]) ["todos"]
      itemsRender = with ul (classes .= ["items"])
        (newItem chan todo : (P.map (renderItem chan) $ zip [0..] filteredItems))
      filteredItems = filterItems currentFilter itemList
    

    In this example renderFilters, newItem, and renderItem are all Renderers that each render a sub part of the UI

    One other point of interest is how DOMEvents work if we take the example of onInput:

    onInput :: MonadState HTML m => DOMEvent String -> m ()
    

    In our newItem Renderer

    newItem :: DOMEvent Action -> ToDo -> HTML  
    newItem chan todo =
      with li (classes .= ["newItem"])
        [ into form
          [ with input (do
                 attrs . at "placeholder" ?= "Create a new task"
                 props . at "value" ?= value
                 onInput $ contramap SetEditText chan)
                 []
            , with (btn click "Create") (attrs . at "hidden" ?= "true") ["Create"]
          ]
        ]
      where
      value = (todo ^. editText.to toJSString)
      click = (const $ (channel chan) $ NewItem (todo ^. editText))
    

    we only have a DOMEvent Action available to accept UI Events, whereas onInput takes a DOMEvent String so we need to adapt the DOMEvent passed to newItem to be one that takes a String for passing to onInput. DOMEvent happens to be an instance of the Contravariant class. You can thing of the contramap function being like an fmap, but applying its function to the input of something rather than the content.

    f :: String -> Action
    f = SetEditText
    -- We have a DOMEvent Action
    -- We want a DOMEvent String
    -- fmap   :: (a -> b) -> f a -> f b 
    contramap :: (a -> b) -> f b -> f a
    contramap :: (String -> Action) -> DOMEvent Action -> DOMEvent String
    
  6. Components

    A component packages up the three things that you provide into something that the framework can run, with an extra environment in ReaderT that the processor can use within its actions to route events that have an external effect (for example REST requests or socket.io calls)

    modelComp :: Component () Action ToDo Action
    modelComp = Component process todoView idProcessor
    
    main :: IO ()
    main = void $ runComponent initialToDo () modelComp
    

Examples

Todo MVC

http://todomvc.com/ The canonnical TODO MVC example demonstrates the basic moving parts of oHm

Socket.IO Chat

The socket.io example is a bit more involved and adds some new concepts illustrating nesting components by adapting the types of processors