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# Copyright 2010 Google Inc.
# Copyright (c) 2011 Mitch Garnaat http://garnaat.org/
# Copyright (c) 2011, Eucalyptus Systems, Inc.
#
# Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
# copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
# "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
# without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, dis-
# tribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit
# persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the fol-
# lowing conditions:
#
# The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
# in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
#
# THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS
# OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABIL-
# ITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT
# SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY,
# WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
# OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS
# IN THE SOFTWARE.
"""
Handles authentication required to AWS and GS
"""
import base64
import boto
import boto.auth_handler
import boto.exception
import boto.plugin
import boto.utils
import hmac
import sys
import urllib
import time
import datetime
import copy
from email.utils import formatdate
from boto.auth_handler import AuthHandler
from boto.exception import BotoClientError
#
# the following is necessary because of the incompatibilities
# between Python 2.4, 2.5, and 2.6 as well as the fact that some
# people running 2.4 have installed hashlib as a separate module
# this fix was provided by boto user mccormix.
# see: http://code.google.com/p/boto/issues/detail?id=172
# for more details.
#
try:
from hashlib import sha1 as sha
from hashlib import sha256 as sha256
if sys.version[:3] == "2.4":
# we are using an hmac that expects a .new() method.
class Faker:
def __init__(self, which):
self.which = which
self.digest_size = self.which().digest_size
def new(self, *args, **kwargs):
return self.which(*args, **kwargs)
sha = Faker(sha)
sha256 = Faker(sha256)
except ImportError:
import sha
sha256 = None
class HmacKeys(object):
"""Key based Auth handler helper."""
def __init__(self, host, config, provider):
if provider.access_key is None or provider.secret_key is None:
raise boto.auth_handler.NotReadyToAuthenticate()
self.host = host
self.update_provider(provider)
def update_provider(self, provider):
self._provider = provider
self._hmac = hmac.new(self._provider.secret_key, digestmod=sha)
if sha256:
self._hmac_256 = hmac.new(self._provider.secret_key,
digestmod=sha256)
else:
self._hmac_256 = None
def algorithm(self):
if self._hmac_256:
return 'HmacSHA256'
else:
return 'HmacSHA1'
def _get_hmac(self):
if self._hmac_256:
digestmod = sha256
else:
digestmod = sha
return hmac.new(self._provider.secret_key,
digestmod=digestmod)
def sign_string(self, string_to_sign):
new_hmac = self._get_hmac()
new_hmac.update(string_to_sign)
return base64.encodestring(new_hmac.digest()).strip()
def __getstate__(self):
pickled_dict = copy.copy(self.__dict__)
del pickled_dict['_hmac']
del pickled_dict['_hmac_256']
return pickled_dict
def __setstate__(self, dct):
self.__dict__ = dct
self.update_provider(self._provider)
class AnonAuthHandler(AuthHandler, HmacKeys):
"""
Implements Anonymous requests.
"""
capability = ['anon']
def __init__(self, host, config, provider):
AuthHandler.__init__(self, host, config, provider)
def add_auth(self, http_request, **kwargs):
pass
class HmacAuthV1Handler(AuthHandler, HmacKeys):
""" Implements the HMAC request signing used by S3 and GS."""
capability = ['hmac-v1', 's3']
def __init__(self, host, config, provider):
AuthHandler.__init__(self, host, config, provider)
HmacKeys.__init__(self, host, config, provider)
self._hmac_256 = None
def update_provider(self, provider):
super(HmacAuthV1Handler, self).update_provider(provider)
self._hmac_256 = None
def add_auth(self, http_request, **kwargs):
headers = http_request.headers
method = http_request.method
auth_path = http_request.auth_path
if 'Date' not in headers:
headers['Date'] = formatdate(usegmt=True)
if self._provider.security_token:
key = self._provider.security_token_header
headers[key] = self._provider.security_token
string_to_sign = boto.utils.canonical_string(method, auth_path,
headers, None,
self._provider)
boto.log.debug('StringToSign:\n%s' % string_to_sign)
b64_hmac = self.sign_string(string_to_sign)
auth_hdr = self._provider.auth_header
auth = ("%s %s:%s" % (auth_hdr, self._provider.access_key, b64_hmac))
boto.log.debug('Signature:\n%s' % auth)
headers['Authorization'] = auth
class HmacAuthV2Handler(AuthHandler, HmacKeys):
"""
Implements the simplified HMAC authorization used by CloudFront.
"""
capability = ['hmac-v2', 'cloudfront']
def __init__(self, host, config, provider):
AuthHandler.__init__(self, host, config, provider)
HmacKeys.__init__(self, host, config, provider)
self._hmac_256 = None
def update_provider(self, provider):
super(HmacAuthV2Handler, self).update_provider(provider)
self._hmac_256 = None
def add_auth(self, http_request, **kwargs):
headers = http_request.headers
if 'Date' not in headers:
headers['Date'] = formatdate(usegmt=True)
if self._provider.security_token:
key = self._provider.security_token_header
headers[key] = self._provider.security_token
b64_hmac = self.sign_string(headers['Date'])
auth_hdr = self._provider.auth_header
headers['Authorization'] = ("%s %s:%s" %
(auth_hdr,
self._provider.access_key, b64_hmac))
class HmacAuthV3Handler(AuthHandler, HmacKeys):
"""Implements the new Version 3 HMAC authorization used by Route53."""
capability = ['hmac-v3', 'route53', 'ses']
def __init__(self, host, config, provider):
AuthHandler.__init__(self, host, config, provider)
HmacKeys.__init__(self, host, config, provider)
def add_auth(self, http_request, **kwargs):
headers = http_request.headers
if 'Date' not in headers:
headers['Date'] = formatdate(usegmt=True)
if self._provider.security_token:
key = self._provider.security_token_header
headers[key] = self._provider.security_token
b64_hmac = self.sign_string(headers['Date'])
s = "AWS3-HTTPS AWSAccessKeyId=%s," % self._provider.access_key
s += "Algorithm=%s,Signature=%s" % (self.algorithm(), b64_hmac)
headers['X-Amzn-Authorization'] = s
class HmacAuthV3HTTPHandler(AuthHandler, HmacKeys):
"""
Implements the new Version 3 HMAC authorization used by DynamoDB.
"""
capability = ['hmac-v3-http']
def __init__(self, host, config, provider):
AuthHandler.__init__(self, host, config, provider)
HmacKeys.__init__(self, host, config, provider)
def headers_to_sign(self, http_request):
"""
Select the headers from the request that need to be included
in the StringToSign.
"""
headers_to_sign = {}
headers_to_sign = {'Host': self.host}
for name, value in http_request.headers.items():
lname = name.lower()
if lname.startswith('x-amz'):
headers_to_sign[name] = value
return headers_to_sign
def canonical_headers(self, headers_to_sign):
"""
Return the headers that need to be included in the StringToSign
in their canonical form by converting all header keys to lower
case, sorting them in alphabetical order and then joining
them into a string, separated by newlines.
"""
l = sorted(['%s:%s' % (n.lower().strip(),
headers_to_sign[n].strip()) for n in headers_to_sign])
return '\n'.join(l)
def string_to_sign(self, http_request):
"""
Return the canonical StringToSign as well as a dict
containing the original version of all headers that
were included in the StringToSign.
"""
headers_to_sign = self.headers_to_sign(http_request)
canonical_headers = self.canonical_headers(headers_to_sign)
string_to_sign = '\n'.join([http_request.method,
http_request.auth_path,
'',
canonical_headers,
'',
http_request.body])
return string_to_sign, headers_to_sign
def add_auth(self, req, **kwargs):
"""
Add AWS3 authentication to a request.
:type req: :class`boto.connection.HTTPRequest`
:param req: The HTTPRequest object.
"""
# This could be a retry. Make sure the previous
# authorization header is removed first.
if 'X-Amzn-Authorization' in req.headers:
del req.headers['X-Amzn-Authorization']
req.headers['X-Amz-Date'] = formatdate(usegmt=True)
if self._provider.security_token:
req.headers['X-Amz-Security-Token'] = self._provider.security_token
string_to_sign, headers_to_sign = self.string_to_sign(req)
boto.log.debug('StringToSign:\n%s' % string_to_sign)
hash_value = sha256(string_to_sign).digest()
b64_hmac = self.sign_string(hash_value)
s = "AWS3 AWSAccessKeyId=%s," % self._provider.access_key
s += "Algorithm=%s," % self.algorithm()
s += "SignedHeaders=%s," % ';'.join(headers_to_sign)
s += "Signature=%s" % b64_hmac
req.headers['X-Amzn-Authorization'] = s
class HmacAuthV4Handler(AuthHandler, HmacKeys):
"""
Implements the new Version 4 HMAC authorization.
"""
capability = ['hmac-v4']
def __init__(self, host, config, provider,
service_name=None, region_name=None):
AuthHandler.__init__(self, host, config, provider)
HmacKeys.__init__(self, host, config, provider)
# You can set the service_name and region_name to override the
# values which would otherwise come from the endpoint, e.g.
# <service>.<region>.amazonaws.com.
self.service_name = service_name
self.region_name = region_name
def _sign(self, key, msg, hex=False):
if hex:
sig = hmac.new(key, msg.encode('utf-8'), sha256).hexdigest()
else:
sig = hmac.new(key, msg.encode('utf-8'), sha256).digest()
return sig
def headers_to_sign(self, http_request):
"""
Select the headers from the request that need to be included
in the StringToSign.
"""
headers_to_sign = {}
headers_to_sign = {'Host': self.host}
for name, value in http_request.headers.items():
lname = name.lower()
if lname.startswith('x-amz'):
headers_to_sign[name] = value
return headers_to_sign
def query_string(self, http_request):
parameter_names = sorted(http_request.params.keys())
pairs = []
for pname in parameter_names:
pval = str(http_request.params[pname]).encode('utf-8')
pairs.append(urllib.quote(pname, safe='') + '=' +
urllib.quote(pval, safe='-_~'))
return '&'.join(pairs)
def canonical_query_string(self, http_request):
# POST requests pass parameters in through the
# http_request.body field.
if http_request.method == 'POST':
return ""
l = []
for param in sorted(http_request.params):
value = str(http_request.params[param])
l.append('%s=%s' % (urllib.quote(param, safe='-_.~'),
urllib.quote(value, safe='-_.~')))
return '&'.join(l)
def canonical_headers(self, headers_to_sign):
"""
Return the headers that need to be included in the StringToSign
in their canonical form by converting all header keys to lower
case, sorting them in alphabetical order and then joining
them into a string, separated by newlines.
"""
l = sorted(['%s:%s' % (n.lower().strip(),
' '.join(headers_to_sign[n].strip().split()))
for n in headers_to_sign])
return '\n'.join(l)
def signed_headers(self, headers_to_sign):
l = ['%s' % n.lower().strip() for n in headers_to_sign]
l = sorted(l)
return ';'.join(l)
def canonical_uri(self, http_request):
return http_request.auth_path
def payload(self, http_request):
body = http_request.body
# If the body is a file like object, we can use
# boto.utils.compute_hash, which will avoid reading
# the entire body into memory.
if hasattr(body, 'seek') and hasattr(body, 'read'):
return boto.utils.compute_hash(body, hash_algorithm=sha256)[0]
return sha256(http_request.body).hexdigest()
def canonical_request(self, http_request):
cr = [http_request.method.upper()]
cr.append(self.canonical_uri(http_request))
cr.append(self.canonical_query_string(http_request))
headers_to_sign = self.headers_to_sign(http_request)
cr.append(self.canonical_headers(headers_to_sign) + '\n')
cr.append(self.signed_headers(headers_to_sign))
cr.append(self.payload(http_request))
return '\n'.join(cr)
def scope(self, http_request):
scope = [self._provider.access_key]
scope.append(http_request.timestamp)
scope.append(http_request.region_name)
scope.append(http_request.service_name)
scope.append('aws4_request')
return '/'.join(scope)
def credential_scope(self, http_request):
scope = []
http_request.timestamp = http_request.headers['X-Amz-Date'][0:8]
scope.append(http_request.timestamp)
# The service_name and region_name either come from:
# * The service_name/region_name attrs or (if these values are None)
# * parsed from the endpoint <service>.<region>.amazonaws.com.
parts = http_request.host.split('.')
if self.region_name is not None:
region_name = self.region_name
else:
if len(parts) == 3:
region_name = 'us-east-1'
else:
region_name = parts[1]
if self.service_name is not None:
service_name = self.service_name
else:
service_name = parts[0]
http_request.service_name = service_name
http_request.region_name = region_name
scope.append(http_request.region_name)
scope.append(http_request.service_name)
scope.append('aws4_request')
return '/'.join(scope)
def string_to_sign(self, http_request, canonical_request):
"""
Return the canonical StringToSign as well as a dict
containing the original version of all headers that
were included in the StringToSign.
"""
sts = ['AWS4-HMAC-SHA256']
sts.append(http_request.headers['X-Amz-Date'])
sts.append(self.credential_scope(http_request))
sts.append(sha256(canonical_request).hexdigest())
return '\n'.join(sts)
def signature(self, http_request, string_to_sign):
key = self._provider.secret_key
k_date = self._sign(('AWS4' + key).encode('utf-8'),
http_request.timestamp)
k_region = self._sign(k_date, http_request.region_name)
k_service = self._sign(k_region, http_request.service_name)
k_signing = self._sign(k_service, 'aws4_request')
return self._sign(k_signing, string_to_sign, hex=True)
def add_auth(self, req, **kwargs):
"""
Add AWS4 authentication to a request.
:type req: :class`boto.connection.HTTPRequest`
:param req: The HTTPRequest object.
"""
# This could be a retry. Make sure the previous
# authorization header is removed first.
if 'X-Amzn-Authorization' in req.headers:
del req.headers['X-Amzn-Authorization']
now = datetime.datetime.utcnow()
req.headers['X-Amz-Date'] = now.strftime('%Y%m%dT%H%M%SZ')
if self._provider.security_token:
req.headers['X-Amz-Security-Token'] = self._provider.security_token
qs = self.query_string(req)
if qs and req.method == 'POST':
# Stash request parameters into post body
# before we generate the signature.
req.body = qs
req.headers['Content-Type'] = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8'
req.headers['Content-Length'] = str(len(req.body))
else:
# Safe to modify req.path here since
# the signature will use req.auth_path.
req.path = req.path.split('?')[0]
req.path = req.path + '?' + qs
canonical_request = self.canonical_request(req)
boto.log.debug('CanonicalRequest:\n%s' % canonical_request)
string_to_sign = self.string_to_sign(req, canonical_request)
boto.log.debug('StringToSign:\n%s' % string_to_sign)
signature = self.signature(req, string_to_sign)
boto.log.debug('Signature:\n%s' % signature)
headers_to_sign = self.headers_to_sign(req)
l = ['AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=%s' % self.scope(req)]
l.append('SignedHeaders=%s' % self.signed_headers(headers_to_sign))
l.append('Signature=%s' % signature)
req.headers['Authorization'] = ','.join(l)
class QuerySignatureHelper(HmacKeys):
"""
Helper for Query signature based Auth handler.
Concrete sub class need to implement _calc_sigature method.
"""
def add_auth(self, http_request, **kwargs):
headers = http_request.headers
params = http_request.params
params['AWSAccessKeyId'] = self._provider.access_key
params['SignatureVersion'] = self.SignatureVersion
params['Timestamp'] = boto.utils.get_ts()
qs, signature = self._calc_signature(
http_request.params, http_request.method,
http_request.auth_path, http_request.host)
boto.log.debug('query_string: %s Signature: %s' % (qs, signature))
if http_request.method == 'POST':
headers['Content-Type'] = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8'
http_request.body = qs + '&Signature=' + urllib.quote_plus(signature)
http_request.headers['Content-Length'] = str(len(http_request.body))
else:
http_request.body = ''
# if this is a retried request, the qs from the previous try will
# already be there, we need to get rid of that and rebuild it
http_request.path = http_request.path.split('?')[0]
http_request.path = (http_request.path + '?' + qs +
'&Signature=' + urllib.quote_plus(signature))
class QuerySignatureV0AuthHandler(QuerySignatureHelper, AuthHandler):
"""Provides Signature V0 Signing"""
SignatureVersion = 0
capability = ['sign-v0']
def _calc_signature(self, params, *args):
boto.log.debug('using _calc_signature_0')
hmac = self._get_hmac()
s = params['Action'] + params['Timestamp']
hmac.update(s)
keys = params.keys()
keys.sort(cmp=lambda x, y: cmp(x.lower(), y.lower()))
pairs = []
for key in keys:
val = boto.utils.get_utf8_value(params[key])
pairs.append(key + '=' + urllib.quote(val))
qs = '&'.join(pairs)
return (qs, base64.b64encode(hmac.digest()))
class QuerySignatureV1AuthHandler(QuerySignatureHelper, AuthHandler):
"""
Provides Query Signature V1 Authentication.
"""
SignatureVersion = 1
capability = ['sign-v1', 'mturk']
def __init__(self, *args, **kw):
QuerySignatureHelper.__init__(self, *args, **kw)
AuthHandler.__init__(self, *args, **kw)
self._hmac_256 = None
def _calc_signature(self, params, *args):
boto.log.debug('using _calc_signature_1')
hmac = self._get_hmac()
keys = params.keys()
keys.sort(cmp=lambda x, y: cmp(x.lower(), y.lower()))
pairs = []
for key in keys:
hmac.update(key)
val = boto.utils.get_utf8_value(params[key])
hmac.update(val)
pairs.append(key + '=' + urllib.quote(val))
qs = '&'.join(pairs)
return (qs, base64.b64encode(hmac.digest()))
class QuerySignatureV2AuthHandler(QuerySignatureHelper, AuthHandler):
"""Provides Query Signature V2 Authentication."""
SignatureVersion = 2
capability = ['sign-v2', 'ec2', 'ec2', 'emr', 'fps', 'ecs',
'sdb', 'iam', 'rds', 'sns', 'sqs', 'cloudformation']
def _calc_signature(self, params, verb, path, server_name):
boto.log.debug('using _calc_signature_2')
string_to_sign = '%s\n%s\n%s\n' % (verb, server_name.lower(), path)
hmac = self._get_hmac()
params['SignatureMethod'] = self.algorithm()
if self._provider.security_token:
params['SecurityToken'] = self._provider.security_token
keys = sorted(params.keys())
pairs = []
for key in keys:
val = boto.utils.get_utf8_value(params[key])
pairs.append(urllib.quote(key, safe='') + '=' +
urllib.quote(val, safe='-_~'))
qs = '&'.join(pairs)
boto.log.debug('query string: %s' % qs)
string_to_sign += qs
boto.log.debug('string_to_sign: %s' % string_to_sign)
hmac.update(string_to_sign)
b64 = base64.b64encode(hmac.digest())
boto.log.debug('len(b64)=%d' % len(b64))
boto.log.debug('base64 encoded digest: %s' % b64)
return (qs, b64)
class POSTPathQSV2AuthHandler(QuerySignatureV2AuthHandler, AuthHandler):
"""
Query Signature V2 Authentication relocating signed query
into the path and allowing POST requests with Content-Types.
"""
capability = ['mws']
def add_auth(self, req, **kwargs):
req.params['AWSAccessKeyId'] = self._provider.access_key
req.params['SignatureVersion'] = self.SignatureVersion
req.params['Timestamp'] = boto.utils.get_ts()
qs, signature = self._calc_signature(req.params, req.method,
req.auth_path, req.host)
boto.log.debug('query_string: %s Signature: %s' % (qs, signature))
if req.method == 'POST':
req.headers['Content-Length'] = str(len(req.body))
req.headers['Content-Type'] = req.headers.get('Content-Type',
'text/plain')
else:
req.body = ''
# if this is a retried req, the qs from the previous try will
# already be there, we need to get rid of that and rebuild it
req.path = req.path.split('?')[0]
req.path = (req.path + '?' + qs +
'&Signature=' + urllib.quote_plus(signature))
def get_auth_handler(host, config, provider, requested_capability=None):
"""Finds an AuthHandler that is ready to authenticate.
Lists through all the registered AuthHandlers to find one that is willing
to handle for the requested capabilities, config and provider.
:type host: string
:param host: The name of the host
:type config:
:param config:
:type provider:
:param provider:
Returns:
An implementation of AuthHandler.
Raises:
boto.exception.NoAuthHandlerFound
"""
ready_handlers = []
auth_handlers = boto.plugin.get_plugin(AuthHandler, requested_capability)
total_handlers = len(auth_handlers)
for handler in auth_handlers:
try:
ready_handlers.append(handler(host, config, provider))
except boto.auth_handler.NotReadyToAuthenticate:
pass
if not ready_handlers:
checked_handlers = auth_handlers
names = [handler.__name__ for handler in checked_handlers]
raise boto.exception.NoAuthHandlerFound(
'No handler was ready to authenticate. %d handlers were checked.'
' %s '
'Check your credentials' % (len(names), str(names)))
# We select the last ready auth handler that was loaded, to allow users to
# customize how auth works in environments where there are shared boto
# config files (e.g., /etc/boto.cfg and ~/.boto): The more general,
# system-wide shared configs should be loaded first, and the user's
# customizations loaded last. That way, for example, the system-wide
# config might include a plugin_directory that includes a service account
# auth plugin shared by all users of a Google Compute Engine instance
# (allowing sharing of non-user data between various services), and the
# user could override this with a .boto config that includes user-specific
# credentials (for access to user data).
return ready_handlers[-1]
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