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# Copyright (c) 2006-2010 Mitch Garnaat http://garnaat.org/
# Copyright (c) 2010 Google
# Copyright (c) 2008 rPath, Inc.
# Copyright (c) 2009 The Echo Nest Corporation
# Copyright (c) 2010, Eucalyptus Systems, Inc.
# All rights reserved.
#
# Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
# copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
# "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
# without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, dis-
# tribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit
# persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the fol-
# lowing conditions:
#
# The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
# in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
#
# THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS
# OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABIL-
# ITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT
# SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY,
# WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
# OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS
# IN THE SOFTWARE.
#
# Parts of this code were copied or derived from sample code supplied by AWS.
# The following notice applies to that code.
#
# This software code is made available "AS IS" without warranties of any
# kind. You may copy, display, modify and redistribute the software
# code either by itself or as incorporated into your code; provided that
# you do not remove any proprietary notices. Your use of this software
# code is at your own risk and you waive any claim against Amazon
# Digital Services, Inc. or its affiliates with respect to your use of
# this software code. (c) 2006 Amazon Digital Services, Inc. or its
# affiliates.
"""
Handles basic connections to AWS
"""
import base64
import hmac
import httplib
import socket, errno
import re
import sys
import time
import urllib, urlparse
import os
import xml.sax
import Queue
import boto
from boto.exception import AWSConnectionError, BotoClientError, BotoServerError
from boto.resultset import ResultSet
from boto.provider import Provider
import boto.utils
from boto import config, UserAgent, handler
#
# the following is necessary because of the incompatibilities
# between Python 2.4, 2.5, and 2.6 as well as the fact that some
# people running 2.4 have installed hashlib as a separate module
# this fix was provided by boto user mccormix.
# see: http://code.google.com/p/boto/issues/detail?id=172
# for more details.
#
try:
from hashlib import sha1 as sha
from hashlib import sha256 as sha256
if sys.version[:3] == "2.4":
# we are using an hmac that expects a .new() method.
class Faker:
def __init__(self, which):
self.which = which
self.digest_size = self.which().digest_size
def new(self, *args, **kwargs):
return self.which(*args, **kwargs)
sha = Faker(sha)
sha256 = Faker(sha256)
except ImportError:
import sha
sha256 = None
PORTS_BY_SECURITY = { True: 443, False: 80 }
class ConnectionPool:
def __init__(self, hosts, connections_per_host):
self._hosts = boto.utils.LRUCache(hosts)
self.connections_per_host = connections_per_host
def __getitem__(self, key):
if key not in self._hosts:
self._hosts[key] = Queue.Queue(self.connections_per_host)
return self._hosts[key]
def __repr__(self):
return 'ConnectionPool:%s' % ','.join(self._hosts._dict.keys())
class AWSAuthConnection(object):
def __init__(self, host, aws_access_key_id=None, aws_secret_access_key=None,
is_secure=True, port=None, proxy=None, proxy_port=None,
proxy_user=None, proxy_pass=None, debug=0,
https_connection_factory=None, path='/', provider='aws'):
"""
:type host: string
:param host: The host to make the connection to
:type aws_access_key_id: string
:param aws_access_key_id: AWS Access Key ID (provided by Amazon)
:type aws_secret_access_key: string
:param aws_secret_access_key: Secret Access Key (provided by Amazon)
:type is_secure: boolean
:param is_secure: Whether the connection is over SSL
:type https_connection_factory: list or tuple
:param https_connection_factory: A pair of an HTTP connection
factory and the exceptions to catch.
The factory should have a similar
interface to L{httplib.HTTPSConnection}.
:type proxy:
:param proxy:
:type proxy_port: int
:param proxy_port: The port to use when connecting over a proxy
:type proxy_user: string
:param proxy_user: The username to connect with on the proxy
:type proxy_pass: string
:param proxy_pass: The password to use when connection over a proxy.
:type port: integer
:param port: The port to use to connect
"""
self.num_retries = 5
# Override passed-in is_secure setting if value was defined in config.
if config.has_option('Boto', 'is_secure'):
is_secure = config.getboolean('Boto', 'is_secure')
self.is_secure = is_secure
self.handle_proxy(proxy, proxy_port, proxy_user, proxy_pass)
# define exceptions from httplib that we want to catch and retry
self.http_exceptions = (httplib.HTTPException, socket.error,
socket.gaierror)
# define values in socket exceptions we don't want to catch
self.socket_exception_values = (errno.EINTR,)
if https_connection_factory is not None:
self.https_connection_factory = https_connection_factory[0]
self.http_exceptions += https_connection_factory[1]
else:
self.https_connection_factory = None
if (is_secure):
self.protocol = 'https'
else:
self.protocol = 'http'
self.host = host
self.path = path
if debug:
self.debug = debug
else:
self.debug = config.getint('Boto', 'debug', debug)
if port:
self.port = port
else:
self.port = PORTS_BY_SECURITY[is_secure]
self.provider = Provider(provider,
aws_access_key_id,
aws_secret_access_key)
# allow config file to override default host
if self.provider.host:
self.host = self.provider.host
if self.secret_key is None:
raise BotoClientError('No credentials have been supplied')
# initialize an HMAC for signatures, make copies with each request
self.hmac = hmac.new(self.secret_key, digestmod=sha)
if sha256:
self.hmac_256 = hmac.new(self.secret_key, digestmod=sha256)
else:
self.hmac_256 = None
# cache up to 20 connections per host, up to 20 hosts
self._pool = ConnectionPool(20, 20)
self._connection = (self.server_name(), self.is_secure)
self._last_rs = None
def __repr__(self):
return '%s:%s' % (self.__class__.__name__, self.host)
def _cached_name(self, host, is_secure):
if host is None:
host = self.server_name()
cached_name = is_secure and 'https://' or 'http://'
cached_name += host
return cached_name
def connection(self):
return self.get_http_connection(*self._connection)
connection = property(connection)
def aws_access_key_id(self):
return self.provider.access_key
aws_access_key_id = property(aws_access_key_id)
gs_access_key_id = aws_access_key_id
access_key = aws_access_key_id
def aws_secret_access_key(self):
return self.provider.secret_key
aws_secret_access_key = property(aws_secret_access_key)
gs_secret_access_key = aws_secret_access_key
secret_key = aws_secret_access_key
def get_path(self, path='/'):
pos = path.find('?')
if pos >= 0:
params = path[pos:]
path = path[:pos]
else:
params = None
if path[-1] == '/':
need_trailing = True
else:
need_trailing = False
path_elements = self.path.split('/')
path_elements.extend(path.split('/'))
path_elements = [p for p in path_elements if p]
path = '/' + '/'.join(path_elements)
if path[-1] != '/' and need_trailing:
path += '/'
if params:
path = path + params
return path
def server_name(self, port=None):
if not port:
port = self.port
if port == 80:
signature_host = self.host
else:
# This unfortunate little hack can be attributed to
# a difference in the 2.6 version of httplib. In old
# versions, it would append ":443" to the hostname sent
# in the Host header and so we needed to make sure we
# did the same when calculating the V2 signature. In 2.6
# (and higher!)
# it no longer does that. Hence, this kludge.
if sys.version[:3] in ('2.6', '2.7') and port == 443:
signature_host = self.host
else:
signature_host = '%s:%d' % (self.host, port)
return signature_host
def handle_proxy(self, proxy, proxy_port, proxy_user, proxy_pass):
self.proxy = proxy
self.proxy_port = proxy_port
self.proxy_user = proxy_user
self.proxy_pass = proxy_pass
if os.environ.has_key('http_proxy') and not self.proxy:
pattern = re.compile(
'(?:http://)?' \
'(?:(?P<user>\w+):(?P<pass>.*)@)?' \
'(?P<host>[\w\-\.]+)' \
'(?::(?P<port>\d+))?'
)
match = pattern.match(os.environ['http_proxy'])
if match:
self.proxy = match.group('host')
self.proxy_port = match.group('port')
self.proxy_user = match.group('user')
self.proxy_pass = match.group('pass')
else:
if not self.proxy:
self.proxy = config.get_value('Boto', 'proxy', None)
if not self.proxy_port:
self.proxy_port = config.get_value('Boto', 'proxy_port', None)
if not self.proxy_user:
self.proxy_user = config.get_value('Boto', 'proxy_user', None)
if not self.proxy_pass:
self.proxy_pass = config.get_value('Boto', 'proxy_pass', None)
if not self.proxy_port and self.proxy:
print "http_proxy environment variable does not specify " \
"a port, using default"
self.proxy_port = self.port
self.use_proxy = (self.proxy != None)
def get_http_connection(self, host, is_secure):
queue = self._pool[self._cached_name(host, is_secure)]
try:
return queue.get_nowait()
except Queue.Empty:
return self.new_http_connection(host, is_secure)
def new_http_connection(self, host, is_secure):
if self.use_proxy:
host = '%s:%d' % (self.proxy, int(self.proxy_port))
if host is None:
host = self.server_name()
boto.log.debug('establishing HTTP connection')
if is_secure:
if self.use_proxy:
connection = self.proxy_ssl()
elif self.https_connection_factory:
connection = self.https_connection_factory(host)
else:
connection = httplib.HTTPSConnection(host)
else:
connection = httplib.HTTPConnection(host)
if self.debug > 1:
connection.set_debuglevel(self.debug)
# self.connection must be maintained for backwards-compatibility
# however, it must be dynamically pulled from the connection pool
# set a private variable which will enable that
if host.split(':')[0] == self.host and is_secure == self.is_secure:
self._connection = (host, is_secure)
return connection
def put_http_connection(self, host, is_secure, connection):
try:
self._pool[self._cached_name(host, is_secure)].put_nowait(connection)
except Queue.Full:
# gracefully fail in case of pool overflow
connection.close()
def proxy_ssl(self):
host = '%s:%d' % (self.host, self.port)
sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
try:
sock.connect((self.proxy, int(self.proxy_port)))
except:
raise
sock.sendall("CONNECT %s HTTP/1.0\r\n" % host)
sock.sendall("User-Agent: %s\r\n" % UserAgent)
if self.proxy_user and self.proxy_pass:
for k, v in self.get_proxy_auth_header().items():
sock.sendall("%s: %s\r\n" % (k, v))
sock.sendall("\r\n")
resp = httplib.HTTPResponse(sock, strict=True)
resp.begin()
if resp.status != 200:
# Fake a socket error, use a code that make it obvious it hasn't
# been generated by the socket library
raise socket.error(-71,
"Error talking to HTTP proxy %s:%s: %s (%s)" %
(self.proxy, self.proxy_port, resp.status, resp.reason))
# We can safely close the response, it duped the original socket
resp.close()
h = httplib.HTTPConnection(host)
# Wrap the socket in an SSL socket
if hasattr(httplib, 'ssl'):
sslSock = httplib.ssl.SSLSocket(sock)
else: # Old Python, no ssl module
sslSock = socket.ssl(sock, None, None)
sslSock = httplib.FakeSocket(sock, sslSock)
# This is a bit unclean
h.sock = sslSock
return h
def prefix_proxy_to_path(self, path, host=None):
path = self.protocol + '://' + (host or self.server_name()) + path
return path
def get_proxy_auth_header(self):
auth = base64.encodestring(self.proxy_user+':'+self.proxy_pass)
return {'Proxy-Authorization': 'Basic %s' % auth}
def _mexe(self, method, path, data, headers, host=None, sender=None):
"""
mexe - Multi-execute inside a loop, retrying multiple times to handle
transient Internet errors by simply trying again.
Also handles redirects.
This code was inspired by the S3Utils classes posted to the boto-users
Google group by Larry Bates. Thanks!
"""
boto.log.debug('Method: %s' % method)
boto.log.debug('Path: %s' % path)
boto.log.debug('Data: %s' % data)
boto.log.debug('Headers: %s' % headers)
boto.log.debug('Host: %s' % host)
response = None
body = None
e = None
num_retries = config.getint('Boto', 'num_retries', self.num_retries)
i = 0
connection = self.get_http_connection(host, self.is_secure)
while i <= num_retries:
try:
if callable(sender):
response = sender(connection, method, path, data, headers)
else:
connection.request(method, path, data, headers)
response = connection.getresponse()
location = response.getheader('location')
# -- gross hack --
# httplib gets confused with chunked responses to HEAD requests
# so I have to fake it out
if method == 'HEAD' and getattr(response, 'chunked', False):
response.chunked = 0
if response.status == 500 or response.status == 503:
boto.log.debug('received %d response, retrying in %d seconds' % (response.status, 2**i))
body = response.read()
elif response.status == 408:
body = response.read()
print '-------------------------'
print ' 4 0 8 '
print 'path=%s' % path
print body
print '-------------------------'
elif response.status < 300 or response.status >= 400 or \
not location:
self.put_http_connection(host, self.is_secure, connection)
return response
else:
scheme, host, path, params, query, fragment = \
urlparse.urlparse(location)
if query:
path += '?' + query
boto.log.debug('Redirecting: %s' % scheme + '://' + host + path)
connection = self.get_http_connection(host,
scheme == 'https')
continue
except KeyboardInterrupt:
sys.exit('Keyboard Interrupt')
except self.http_exceptions, e:
boto.log.debug('encountered %s exception, reconnecting' % \
e.__class__.__name__)
connection = self.new_http_connection(host, self.is_secure)
time.sleep(2**i)
i += 1
# If we made it here, it's because we have exhausted our retries and stil haven't
# succeeded. So, if we have a response object, use it to raise an exception.
# Otherwise, raise the exception that must have already happened.
if response:
raise BotoServerError(response.status, response.reason, body)
elif e:
raise e
else:
raise BotoClientError('Please report this exception as a Boto Issue!')
def make_request(self, method, path, headers=None, data='', host=None,
auth_path=None, sender=None):
path = self.get_path(path)
if headers == None:
headers = {}
else:
headers = headers.copy()
headers['User-Agent'] = UserAgent
if not headers.has_key('Content-Length'):
headers['Content-Length'] = str(len(data))
if self.use_proxy:
path = self.prefix_proxy_to_path(path, host)
if self.proxy_user and self.proxy_pass and not self.is_secure:
# If is_secure, we don't have to set the proxy authentication
# header here, we did that in the CONNECT to the proxy.
headers.update(self.get_proxy_auth_header())
request_string = auth_path or path
for key in headers:
val = headers[key]
if isinstance(val, unicode):
headers[key] = urllib.quote_plus(val.encode('utf-8'))
self.add_aws_auth_header(headers, method, request_string)
return self._mexe(method, path, data, headers, host, sender)
def add_aws_auth_header(self, headers, method, path):
path = self.get_path(path)
if not headers.has_key('Date'):
headers['Date'] = time.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT",
time.gmtime())
c_string = boto.utils.canonical_string(method, path, headers,
None, self.provider)
boto.log.debug('Canonical: %s' % c_string)
hmac = self.hmac.copy()
hmac.update(c_string)
b64_hmac = base64.encodestring(hmac.digest()).strip()
auth_hdr = self.provider.auth_header
headers['Authorization'] = ("%s %s:%s" %
(auth_hdr,
self.aws_access_key_id, b64_hmac))
def close(self):
"""(Optional) Close any open HTTP connections. This is non-destructive,
and making a new request will open a connection again."""
boto.log.debug('closing all HTTP connections')
self.connection = None # compat field
class AWSQueryConnection(AWSAuthConnection):
APIVersion = ''
SignatureVersion = '1'
ResponseError = BotoServerError
def __init__(self, aws_access_key_id=None, aws_secret_access_key=None,
is_secure=True, port=None, proxy=None, proxy_port=None,
proxy_user=None, proxy_pass=None, host=None, debug=0,
https_connection_factory=None, path='/'):
AWSAuthConnection.__init__(self, host, aws_access_key_id, aws_secret_access_key,
is_secure, port, proxy, proxy_port, proxy_user, proxy_pass,
debug, https_connection_factory, path)
def get_utf8_value(self, value):
if not isinstance(value, str) and not isinstance(value, unicode):
value = str(value)
if isinstance(value, unicode):
return value.encode('utf-8')
else:
return value
def calc_signature_0(self, params):
boto.log.debug('using calc_signature_0')
hmac = self.hmac.copy()
s = params['Action'] + params['Timestamp']
hmac.update(s)
keys = params.keys()
keys.sort(cmp = lambda x, y: cmp(x.lower(), y.lower()))
pairs = []
for key in keys:
val = self.get_utf8_value(params[key])
pairs.append(key + '=' + urllib.quote(val))
qs = '&'.join(pairs)
return (qs, base64.b64encode(hmac.digest()))
def calc_signature_1(self, params):
boto.log.debug('using calc_signature_1')
hmac = self.hmac.copy()
keys = params.keys()
keys.sort(cmp = lambda x, y: cmp(x.lower(), y.lower()))
pairs = []
for key in keys:
hmac.update(key)
val = self.get_utf8_value(params[key])
hmac.update(val)
pairs.append(key + '=' + urllib.quote(val))
qs = '&'.join(pairs)
return (qs, base64.b64encode(hmac.digest()))
def calc_signature_2(self, params, verb, path):
boto.log.debug('using calc_signature_2')
string_to_sign = '%s\n%s\n%s\n' % (verb, self.server_name().lower(), path)
if self.hmac_256:
hmac = self.hmac_256.copy()
params['SignatureMethod'] = 'HmacSHA256'
else:
hmac = self.hmac.copy()
params['SignatureMethod'] = 'HmacSHA1'
keys = params.keys()
keys.sort()
pairs = []
for key in keys:
val = self.get_utf8_value(params[key])
pairs.append(urllib.quote(key, safe='') + '=' + urllib.quote(val, safe='-_~'))
qs = '&'.join(pairs)
boto.log.debug('query string: %s' % qs)
string_to_sign += qs
boto.log.debug('string_to_sign: %s' % string_to_sign)
hmac.update(string_to_sign)
b64 = base64.b64encode(hmac.digest())
boto.log.debug('len(b64)=%d' % len(b64))
boto.log.debug('base64 encoded digest: %s' % b64)
return (qs, b64)
def get_signature(self, params, verb, path):
if self.SignatureVersion == '0':
t = self.calc_signature_0(params)
elif self.SignatureVersion == '1':
t = self.calc_signature_1(params)
elif self.SignatureVersion == '2':
t = self.calc_signature_2(params, verb, path)
else:
raise BotoClientError('Unknown Signature Version: %s' % self.SignatureVersion)
return t
def make_request(self, action, params=None, path='/', verb='GET'):
headers = {}
if params == None:
params = {}
params['Action'] = action
params['Version'] = self.APIVersion
params['AWSAccessKeyId'] = self.aws_access_key_id
params['SignatureVersion'] = self.SignatureVersion
params['Timestamp'] = time.strftime("%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S", time.gmtime())
qs, signature = self.get_signature(params, verb, self.get_path(path))
if verb == 'POST':
headers['Content-Type'] = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8'
request_body = qs + '&Signature=' + urllib.quote(signature)
qs = path
else:
request_body = ''
qs = path + '?' + qs + '&Signature=' + urllib.quote(signature)
return AWSAuthConnection.make_request(self, verb, qs,
data=request_body,
headers=headers)
def build_list_params(self, params, items, label):
if isinstance(items, str):
items = [items]
for i in range(1, len(items)+1):
params['%s.%d' % (label, i)] = items[i-1]
# generics
def get_list(self, action, params, markers, path='/', parent=None, verb='GET'):
if not parent:
parent = self
response = self.make_request(action, params, path, verb)
body = response.read()
boto.log.debug(body)
if response.status == 200:
rs = ResultSet(markers)
h = handler.XmlHandler(rs, parent)
xml.sax.parseString(body, h)
return rs
else:
boto.log.error('%s %s' % (response.status, response.reason))
boto.log.error('%s' % body)
raise self.ResponseError(response.status, response.reason, body)
def get_object(self, action, params, cls, path='/', parent=None, verb='GET'):
if not parent:
parent = self
response = self.make_request(action, params, path, verb)
body = response.read()
boto.log.debug(body)
if response.status == 200:
obj = cls(parent)
h = handler.XmlHandler(obj, parent)
xml.sax.parseString(body, h)
return obj
else:
boto.log.error('%s %s' % (response.status, response.reason))
boto.log.error('%s' % body)
raise self.ResponseError(response.status, response.reason, body)
def get_status(self, action, params, path='/', parent=None, verb='GET'):
if not parent:
parent = self
response = self.make_request(action, params, path, verb)
body = response.read()
boto.log.debug(body)
if response.status == 200:
rs = ResultSet()
h = handler.XmlHandler(rs, parent)
xml.sax.parseString(body, h)
return rs.status
else:
boto.log.error('%s %s' % (response.status, response.reason))
boto.log.error('%s' % body)
raise self.ResponseError(response.status, response.reason, body)
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