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# Copyright (c) 2006-2012 Mitch Garnaat
# Copyright (c) 2012, Inc. or its affiliates.
# Copyright (c) 2010 Google
# Copyright (c) 2008 rPath, Inc.
# Copyright (c) 2009 The Echo Nest Corporation
# Copyright (c) 2010, Eucalyptus Systems, Inc.
# Copyright (c) 2011, Nexenta Systems Inc.
# All rights reserved.
# Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
# copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
# "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
# without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, dis-
# tribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit
# persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the fol-
# lowing conditions:
# The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
# in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
# Parts of this code were copied or derived from sample code supplied by AWS.
# The following notice applies to that code.
# This software code is made available "AS IS" without warranties of any
# kind. You may copy, display, modify and redistribute the software
# code either by itself or as incorporated into your code; provided that
# you do not remove any proprietary notices. Your use of this software
# code is at your own risk and you waive any claim against Amazon
# Digital Services, Inc. or its affiliates with respect to your use of
# this software code. (c) 2006 Amazon Digital Services, Inc. or its
# affiliates.
Handles basic connections to AWS
from datetime import datetime
import errno
import os
import random
import re
import socket
import sys
import time
import xml.sax
import copy
from boto import auth
from boto import auth_handler
import boto
import boto.utils
import boto.handler
import boto.cacerts
from boto import config, UserAgent
from boto.compat import six, http_client, urlparse, quote, encodebytes
from boto.exception import AWSConnectionError
from boto.exception import BotoClientError
from boto.exception import BotoServerError
from boto.exception import PleaseRetryException
from boto.provider import Provider
from boto.resultset import ResultSet
import ssl
from boto import https_connection
# Google App Engine runs on Python 2.5 so doesn't have ssl.SSLError.
if hasattr(ssl, 'SSLError'):
except ImportError:
import threading
except ImportError:
import dummy_threading as threading
ON_APP_ENGINE = all(key in os.environ for key in (
False: 80}
DEFAULT_CA_CERTS_FILE = os.path.join(os.path.dirname(os.path.abspath(boto.cacerts.__file__)), "cacerts.txt")
class HostConnectionPool(object):
A pool of connections for one remote (host,port,is_secure).
When connections are added to the pool, they are put into a
pending queue. The _mexe method returns connections to the pool
before the response body has been read, so they connections aren't
ready to send another request yet. They stay in the pending queue
until they are ready for another request, at which point they are
returned to the pool of ready connections.
The pool of ready connections is an ordered list of
(connection,time) pairs, where the time is the time the connection
was returned from _mexe. After a certain period of time,
connections are considered stale, and discarded rather than being
reused. This saves having to wait for the connection to time out
if AWS has decided to close it on the other end because of
Thread Safety:
This class is used only from ConnectionPool while it's mutex
is held.
def __init__(self):
self.queue = []
def size(self):
Returns the number of connections in the pool for this host.
Some of the connections may still be in use, and may not be
ready to be returned by get().
return len(self.queue)
def put(self, conn):
Adds a connection to the pool, along with the time it was
self.queue.append((conn, time.time()))
def get(self):
Returns the next connection in this pool that is ready to be
reused. Returns None if there aren't any.
# Discard ready connections that are too old.
# Return the first connection that is ready, and remove it
# from the queue. Connections that aren't ready are returned
# to the end of the queue with an updated time, on the
# assumption that somebody is actively reading the response.
for _ in range(len(self.queue)):
(conn, _) = self.queue.pop(0)
if self._conn_ready(conn):
return conn
return None
def _conn_ready(self, conn):
There is a nice state diagram at the top of It
indicates that once the response headers have been read (which
_mexe does before adding the connection to the pool), a
response is attached to the connection, and it stays there
until it's done reading. This isn't entirely true: even after
the client is done reading, the response may be closed, but
not removed from the connection yet.
This is ugly, reading a private instance variable, but the
state we care about isn't available in any public methods.
# Google AppEngine implementation of HTTPConnection doesn't contain
# _HTTPConnection__response attribute. Moreover, it's not possible
# to determine if given connection is ready. Reusing connections
# simply doesn't make sense with App Engine urlfetch service.
return False
response = getattr(conn, '_HTTPConnection__response', None)
return (response is None) or response.isclosed()
def clean(self):
Get rid of stale connections.
# Note that we do not close the connection here -- somebody
# may still be reading from it.
while len(self.queue) > 0 and self._pair_stale(self.queue[0]):
def _pair_stale(self, pair):
Returns true of the (connection,time) pair is too old to be
(_conn, return_time) = pair
now = time.time()
return return_time + ConnectionPool.STALE_DURATION < now
class ConnectionPool(object):
A connection pool that expires connections after a fixed period of
time. This saves time spent waiting for a connection that AWS has
timed out on the other end.
This class is thread-safe.
# The amout of time between calls to clean.
# How long before a connection becomes "stale" and won't be reused
# again. The intention is that this time is less that the timeout
# period that AWS uses, so we'll never try to reuse a connection
# and find that AWS is timing it out.
# Experimentation in July 2011 shows that AWS starts timing things
# out after three minutes. The 60 seconds here is conservative so
# we should never hit that 3-minute timout.
def __init__(self):
# Mapping from (host,port,is_secure) to HostConnectionPool.
# If a pool becomes empty, it is removed.
self.host_to_pool = {}
# The last time the pool was cleaned.
self.last_clean_time = 0.0
self.mutex = threading.Lock()
ConnectionPool.STALE_DURATION = \
config.getfloat('Boto', 'connection_stale_duration',
def __getstate__(self):
pickled_dict = copy.copy(self.__dict__)
pickled_dict['host_to_pool'] = {}
del pickled_dict['mutex']
return pickled_dict
def __setstate__(self, dct):
def size(self):
Returns the number of connections in the pool.
return sum(pool.size() for pool in self.host_to_pool.values())
def get_http_connection(self, host, port, is_secure):
Gets a connection from the pool for the named host. Returns
None if there is no connection that can be reused. It's the caller's
responsibility to call close() on the connection when it's no longer
with self.mutex:
key = (host, port, is_secure)
if key not in self.host_to_pool:
return None
return self.host_to_pool[key].get()
def put_http_connection(self, host, port, is_secure, conn):
Adds a connection to the pool of connections that can be
reused for the named host.
with self.mutex:
key = (host, port, is_secure)
if key not in self.host_to_pool:
self.host_to_pool[key] = HostConnectionPool()
def clean(self):
Clean up the stale connections in all of the pools, and then
get rid of empty pools. Pools clean themselves every time a
connection is fetched; this cleaning takes care of pools that
aren't being used any more, so nothing is being gotten from
with self.mutex:
now = time.time()
if self.last_clean_time + self.CLEAN_INTERVAL < now:
to_remove = []
for (host, pool) in self.host_to_pool.items():
if pool.size() == 0:
for host in to_remove:
del self.host_to_pool[host]
self.last_clean_time = now
class HTTPRequest(object):
def __init__(self, method, protocol, host, port, path, auth_path,
params, headers, body):
"""Represents an HTTP request.
:type method: string
:param method: The HTTP method name, 'GET', 'POST', 'PUT' etc.
:type protocol: string
:param protocol: The http protocol used, 'http' or 'https'.
:type host: string
:param host: Host to which the request is addressed. eg.
:type port: int
:param port: port on which the request is being sent. Zero means unset,
in which case default port will be chosen.
:type path: string
:param path: URL path that is being accessed.
:type auth_path: string
:param path: The part of the URL path used when creating the
authentication string.
:type params: dict
:param params: HTTP url query parameters, with key as name of
the param, and value as value of param.
:type headers: dict
:param headers: HTTP headers, with key as name of the header and value
as value of header.
:type body: string
:param body: Body of the HTTP request. If not present, will be None or
empty string ('').
self.method = method
self.protocol = protocol = host
self.port = port
self.path = path
if auth_path is None:
auth_path = path
self.auth_path = auth_path
self.params = params
# chunked Transfer-Encoding should act only on PUT request.
if headers and 'Transfer-Encoding' in headers and \
headers['Transfer-Encoding'] == 'chunked' and \
self.method != 'PUT':
self.headers = headers.copy()
del self.headers['Transfer-Encoding']
self.headers = headers
self.body = body
def __str__(self):
return (('method:(%s) protocol:(%s) host(%s) port(%s) path(%s) '
'params(%s) headers(%s) body(%s)') % (self.method,
self.protocol,, self.port, self.path, self.params,
self.headers, self.body))
def authorize(self, connection, **kwargs):
if not getattr(self, '_headers_quoted', False):
for key in self.headers:
val = self.headers[key]
if isinstance(val, six.text_type):
safe = '!"#$%&\'()*+,/:;<=>?@[\\]^`{|}~ '
self.headers[key] = quote(val.encode('utf-8'), safe)
setattr(self, '_headers_quoted', True)
self.headers['User-Agent'] = UserAgent
connection._auth_handler.add_auth(self, **kwargs)
# I'm not sure if this is still needed, now that add_auth is
# setting the content-length for POST requests.
if 'Content-Length' not in self.headers:
if 'Transfer-Encoding' not in self.headers or \
self.headers['Transfer-Encoding'] != 'chunked':
self.headers['Content-Length'] = str(len(self.body))
class HTTPResponse(http_client.HTTPResponse):
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
http_client.HTTPResponse.__init__(self, *args, **kwargs)
self._cached_response = ''
def read(self, amt=None):
"""Read the response.
This method does not have the same behavior as Instead, if this method is called with
no ``amt`` arg, then the response body will be cached. Subsequent
calls to ``read()`` with no args **will return the cached response**.
if amt is None:
# The reason for doing this is that many places in boto call
# and except to get the response body that they
# can then process. To make sure this always works as they expect
# we're caching the response so that multiple calls to read()
# will return the full body. Note that this behavior only
# happens if the amt arg is not specified.
if not self._cached_response:
self._cached_response =
return self._cached_response
return, amt)
class AWSAuthConnection(object):
def __init__(self, host, aws_access_key_id=None,
is_secure=True, port=None, proxy=None, proxy_port=None,
proxy_user=None, proxy_pass=None, debug=0,
https_connection_factory=None, path='/',
provider='aws', security_token=None,
validate_certs=True, profile_name=None):
:type host: str
:param host: The host to make the connection to
:keyword str aws_access_key_id: Your AWS Access Key ID (provided by
Amazon). If none is specified, the value in your
``AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID`` environmental variable is used.
:keyword str aws_secret_access_key: Your AWS Secret Access Key
(provided by Amazon). If none is specified, the value in your
``AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY`` environmental variable is used.
:keyword str security_token: The security token associated with
temporary credentials issued by STS. Optional unless using
temporary credentials. If none is specified, the environment
variable ``AWS_SECURITY_TOKEN`` is used if defined.
:type is_secure: boolean
:param is_secure: Whether the connection is over SSL
:type https_connection_factory: list or tuple
:param https_connection_factory: A pair of an HTTP connection
factory and the exceptions to catch. The factory should have
a similar interface to L{http_client.HTTPSConnection}.
:param str proxy: Address/hostname for a proxy server
:type proxy_port: int
:param proxy_port: The port to use when connecting over a proxy
:type proxy_user: str
:param proxy_user: The username to connect with on the proxy
:type proxy_pass: str
:param proxy_pass: The password to use when connection over a proxy.
:type port: int
:param port: The port to use to connect
:type suppress_consec_slashes: bool
:param suppress_consec_slashes: If provided, controls whether
consecutive slashes will be suppressed in key paths.
:type validate_certs: bool
:param validate_certs: Controls whether SSL certificates
will be validated or not. Defaults to True.
:type profile_name: str
:param profile_name: Override usual Credentials section in config
file to use a named set of keys instead.
self.suppress_consec_slashes = suppress_consec_slashes
self.num_retries = 6
# Override passed-in is_secure setting if value was defined in config.
if config.has_option('Boto', 'is_secure'):
is_secure = config.getboolean('Boto', 'is_secure')
self.is_secure = is_secure
# Whether or not to validate server certificates.
# The default is now to validate certificates. This can be
# overridden in the boto config file are by passing an
# explicit validate_certs parameter to the class constructor.
self.https_validate_certificates = config.getbool(
'Boto', 'https_validate_certificates',
if self.https_validate_certificates and not HAVE_HTTPS_CONNECTION:
raise BotoClientError(
"SSL server certificate validation is enabled in boto "
"configuration, but Python dependencies required to "
"support this feature are not available. Certificate "
"validation is only supported when running under Python "
"2.6 or later.")
certs_file = config.get_value(
'Boto', 'ca_certificates_file', DEFAULT_CA_CERTS_FILE)
if certs_file == 'system':
certs_file = None
self.ca_certificates_file = certs_file
if port:
self.port = port
self.port = PORTS_BY_SECURITY[is_secure]
self.handle_proxy(proxy, proxy_port, proxy_user, proxy_pass)
# define exceptions from http_client that we want to catch and retry
self.http_exceptions = (http_client.HTTPException, socket.error,
socket.gaierror, http_client.BadStatusLine)
# define subclasses of the above that are not retryable.
self.http_unretryable_exceptions = []
# define values in socket exceptions we don't want to catch
self.socket_exception_values = (errno.EINTR,)
if https_connection_factory is not None:
self.https_connection_factory = https_connection_factory[0]
self.http_exceptions += https_connection_factory[1]
self.https_connection_factory = None
if (is_secure):
self.protocol = 'https'
self.protocol = 'http' = host
self.path = path
# if the value passed in for debug
if not isinstance(debug, six.integer_types):
debug = 0
self.debug = config.getint('Boto', 'debug', debug)
self.host_header = None
# Timeout used to tell http_client how long to wait for socket timeouts.
# Default is to leave timeout unchanged, which will in turn result in
# the socket's default global timeout being used. To specify a
# timeout, set http_socket_timeout in Boto config. Regardless,
# timeouts will only be applied if Python is 2.6 or greater.
self.http_connection_kwargs = {}
if (sys.version_info[0], sys.version_info[1]) >= (2, 6):
# If timeout isn't defined in boto config file, use 70 second
# default as recommended by
self.http_connection_kwargs['timeout'] = config.getint(
'Boto', 'http_socket_timeout', 70)
if isinstance(provider, Provider):
# Allow overriding Provider
self.provider = provider
self._provider_type = provider
self.provider = Provider(self._provider_type,
# Allow config file to override default host, port, and host header.
if =
if self.provider.port:
self.port = self.provider.port
if self.provider.host_header:
self.host_header = self.provider.host_header
self._pool = ConnectionPool()
self._connection = (, self.port, self.is_secure)
self._last_rs = None
self._auth_handler = auth.get_auth_handler(
host, config, self.provider, self._required_auth_capability())
if getattr(self, 'AuthServiceName', None) is not None:
self.auth_service_name = self.AuthServiceName
self.request_hook = None
def __repr__(self):
return '%s:%s' % (self.__class__.__name__,
def _required_auth_capability(self):
return []
def _get_auth_service_name(self):
return getattr(self._auth_handler, 'service_name')
# For Sigv4, the auth_service_name/auth_region_name properties allow
# the service_name/region_name to be explicitly set instead of being
# derived from the endpoint url.
def _set_auth_service_name(self, value):
self._auth_handler.service_name = value
auth_service_name = property(_get_auth_service_name, _set_auth_service_name)
def _get_auth_region_name(self):
return getattr(self._auth_handler, 'region_name')
def _set_auth_region_name(self, value):
self._auth_handler.region_name = value
auth_region_name = property(_get_auth_region_name, _set_auth_region_name)
def connection(self):
return self.get_http_connection(*self._connection)
connection = property(connection)
def aws_access_key_id(self):
return self.provider.access_key
aws_access_key_id = property(aws_access_key_id)
gs_access_key_id = aws_access_key_id
access_key = aws_access_key_id
def aws_secret_access_key(self):
return self.provider.secret_key
aws_secret_access_key = property(aws_secret_access_key)
gs_secret_access_key = aws_secret_access_key
secret_key = aws_secret_access_key
def profile_name(self):
return self.provider.profile_name
profile_name = property(profile_name)
def get_path(self, path='/'):
# The default behavior is to suppress consecutive slashes for reasons
# discussed at
# You can override that behavior with the suppress_consec_slashes param.
if not self.suppress_consec_slashes:
return self.path + re.sub('^(/*)/', "\\1", path)
pos = path.find('?')
if pos >= 0:
params = path[pos:]
path = path[:pos]
params = None
if path[-1] == '/':
need_trailing = True
need_trailing = False
path_elements = self.path.split('/')
path_elements = [p for p in path_elements if p]
path = '/' + '/'.join(path_elements)
if path[-1] != '/' and need_trailing:
path += '/'
if params:
path = path + params
return path
def server_name(self, port=None):
if not port:
port = self.port
if port == 80:
signature_host =
# This unfortunate little hack can be attributed to
# a difference in the 2.6 version of http_client. In old
# versions, it would append ":443" to the hostname sent
# in the Host header and so we needed to make sure we
# did the same when calculating the V2 signature. In 2.6
# (and higher!)
# it no longer does that. Hence, this kludge.
if ((ON_APP_ENGINE and sys.version[:3] == '2.5') or
sys.version[:3] in ('2.6', '2.7')) and port == 443:
signature_host =
signature_host = '%s:%d' % (, port)
return signature_host
def handle_proxy(self, proxy, proxy_port, proxy_user, proxy_pass):
self.proxy = proxy
self.proxy_port = proxy_port
self.proxy_user = proxy_user
self.proxy_pass = proxy_pass
if 'http_proxy' in os.environ and not self.proxy:
pattern = re.compile(
match = pattern.match(os.environ['http_proxy'])
if match:
self.proxy ='host')
self.proxy_port ='port')
self.proxy_user ='user')
self.proxy_pass ='pass')
if not self.proxy:
self.proxy = config.get_value('Boto', 'proxy', None)
if not self.proxy_port:
self.proxy_port = config.get_value('Boto', 'proxy_port', None)
if not self.proxy_user:
self.proxy_user = config.get_value('Boto', 'proxy_user', None)
if not self.proxy_pass:
self.proxy_pass = config.get_value('Boto', 'proxy_pass', None)
if not self.proxy_port and self.proxy:
print("http_proxy environment variable does not specify "
"a port, using default")
self.proxy_port = self.port
self.no_proxy = os.environ.get('no_proxy', '') or os.environ.get('NO_PROXY', '')
self.use_proxy = (self.proxy is not None)
def get_http_connection(self, host, port, is_secure):
conn = self._pool.get_http_connection(host, port, is_secure)
if conn is not None:
return conn
return self.new_http_connection(host, port, is_secure)
def skip_proxy(self, host):
if not self.no_proxy:
return False
if self.no_proxy == "*":
return True
hostonly = host
hostonly = host.split(':')[0]
for name in self.no_proxy.split(','):
if name and (hostonly.endswith(name) or host.endswith(name)):
return True
return False
def new_http_connection(self, host, port, is_secure):
if host is None:
host = self.server_name()
# Make sure the host is really just the host, not including
# the port number
host = boto.utils.parse_host(host)
http_connection_kwargs = self.http_connection_kwargs.copy()
# Connection factories below expect a port keyword argument
http_connection_kwargs['port'] = port
# Override host with proxy settings if needed
if self.use_proxy and not is_secure and \
not self.skip_proxy(host):
host = self.proxy
http_connection_kwargs['port'] = int(self.proxy_port)
if is_secure:
'establishing HTTPS connection: host=%s, kwargs=%s',
host, http_connection_kwargs)
if self.use_proxy and not self.skip_proxy(host):
connection = self.proxy_ssl(host, is_secure and 443 or 80)
elif self.https_connection_factory:
connection = self.https_connection_factory(host)
elif self.https_validate_certificates and HAVE_HTTPS_CONNECTION:
connection = https_connection.CertValidatingHTTPSConnection(
host, ca_certs=self.ca_certificates_file,
connection = http_client.HTTPSConnection(
host, **http_connection_kwargs)
boto.log.debug('establishing HTTP connection: kwargs=%s' %
if self.https_connection_factory:
# even though the factory says https, this is too handy
# to not be able to allow overriding for http also.
connection = self.https_connection_factory(
host, **http_connection_kwargs)
connection = http_client.HTTPConnection(
host, **http_connection_kwargs)
if self.debug > 1:
# self.connection must be maintained for backwards-compatibility
# however, it must be dynamically pulled from the connection pool
# set a private variable which will enable that
if host.split(':')[0] == and is_secure == self.is_secure:
self._connection = (host, port, is_secure)
# Set the response class of the http connection to use our custom
# class.
connection.response_class = HTTPResponse
return connection
def put_http_connection(self, host, port, is_secure, connection):
self._pool.put_http_connection(host, port, is_secure, connection)
def proxy_ssl(self, host=None, port=None):
if host and port:
host = '%s:%d' % (host, port)
host = '%s:%d' % (, self.port)
# Seems properly to use timeout for connect too
timeout = self.http_connection_kwargs.get("timeout")
if timeout is not None:
sock = socket.create_connection((self.proxy,
int(self.proxy_port)), timeout)
sock = socket.create_connection((self.proxy, int(self.proxy_port)))
boto.log.debug("Proxy connection: CONNECT %s HTTP/1.0\r\n", host)
sock.sendall("CONNECT %s HTTP/1.0\r\n" % host)
sock.sendall("User-Agent: %s\r\n" % UserAgent)
if self.proxy_user and self.proxy_pass:
for k, v in self.get_proxy_auth_header().items():
sock.sendall("%s: %s\r\n" % (k, v))
# See discussion about this config option at
if config.getbool('Boto', 'send_crlf_after_proxy_auth_headers', False):
resp = http_client.HTTPResponse(sock, strict=True, debuglevel=self.debug)
if resp.status != 200:
# Fake a socket error, use a code that make it obvious it hasn't
# been generated by the socket library
raise socket.error(-71,
"Error talking to HTTP proxy %s:%s: %s (%s)" %
(self.proxy, self.proxy_port,
resp.status, resp.reason))
# We can safely close the response, it duped the original socket
h = http_client.HTTPConnection(host)
if self.https_validate_certificates and HAVE_HTTPS_CONNECTION:
msg = "wrapping ssl socket for proxied connection; "
if self.ca_certificates_file:
msg += "CA certificate file=%s" % self.ca_certificates_file
msg += "using system provided SSL certs"
key_file = self.http_connection_kwargs.get('key_file', None)
cert_file = self.http_connection_kwargs.get('cert_file', None)
sslSock = ssl.wrap_socket(sock, keyfile=key_file,
cert = sslSock.getpeercert()
hostname =':', 0)[0]
if not https_connection.ValidateCertificateHostname(cert, hostname):
raise https_connection.InvalidCertificateException(
hostname, cert, 'hostname mismatch')
# Fallback for old Python without ssl.wrap_socket
if hasattr(http_client, 'ssl'):
sslSock = http_client.ssl.SSLSocket(sock)
sslSock = socket.ssl(sock, None, None)
sslSock = http_client.FakeSocket(sock, sslSock)
# This is a bit unclean
h.sock = sslSock
return h
def prefix_proxy_to_path(self, path, host=None):
path = self.protocol + '://' + (host or self.server_name()) + path
return path
def get_proxy_auth_header(self):
auth = encodebytes(self.proxy_user + ':' + self.proxy_pass)
return {'Proxy-Authorization': 'Basic %s' % auth}
# For passing proxy information to other connection libraries, e.g. cloudsearch2
def get_proxy_url_with_auth(self):
if not self.use_proxy:
return None
if self.proxy_user or self.proxy_pass:
if self.proxy_pass:
login_info = '%s:%s@' % (self.proxy_user, self.proxy_pass)
login_info = '%s@' % self.proxy_user
login_info = ''
return 'http://%s%s:%s' % (login_info, self.proxy, str(self.proxy_port or self.port))
def set_host_header(self, request):
request.headers['Host'] = \
self._auth_handler.host_header(, request)
except AttributeError:
request.headers['Host'] =':', 1)[0]
def set_request_hook(self, hook):
self.request_hook = hook
def _mexe(self, request, sender=None, override_num_retries=None,
mexe - Multi-execute inside a loop, retrying multiple times to handle
transient Internet errors by simply trying again.
Also handles redirects.
This code was inspired by the S3Utils classes posted to the boto-users
Google group by Larry Bates. Thanks!
boto.log.debug('Method: %s' % request.method)
boto.log.debug('Path: %s' % request.path)
boto.log.debug('Data: %s' % request.body)
boto.log.debug('Headers: %s' % request.headers)
boto.log.debug('Host: %s' %
boto.log.debug('Port: %s' % request.port)
boto.log.debug('Params: %s' % request.params)
response = None
body = None
ex = None
if override_num_retries is None:
num_retries = config.getint('Boto', 'num_retries', self.num_retries)
num_retries = override_num_retries
i = 0
connection = self.get_http_connection(, request.port,
# Convert body to bytes if needed
if not isinstance(request.body, bytes) and hasattr(request.body,
request.body = request.body.encode('utf-8')
while i <= num_retries:
# Use binary exponential backoff to desynchronize client requests.
next_sleep = min(random.random() * (2 ** i),
boto.config.get('Boto', 'max_retry_delay', 60))
# we now re-sign each request before it is retried
boto.log.debug('Token: %s' % self.provider.security_token)
# Only force header for non-s3 connections, because s3 uses
# an older signing method + bucket resource URLs that include
# the port info. All others should be now be up to date and
# not include the port.
if 's3' not in self._required_auth_capability():
if not getattr(self, 'anon', False):
if not request.headers.get('Host'):
boto.log.debug('Final headers: %s' % request.headers)
request.start_time =
if callable(sender):
response = sender(connection, request.method, request.path,
request.body, request.headers)
connection.request(request.method, request.path,
request.body, request.headers)
response = connection.getresponse()
boto.log.debug('Response headers: %s' % response.getheaders())
location = response.getheader('location')
# -- gross hack --
# http_client gets confused with chunked responses to HEAD requests
# so I have to fake it out
if request.method == 'HEAD' and getattr(response,
'chunked', False):
response.chunked = 0
if callable(retry_handler):
status = retry_handler(response, i, next_sleep)
if status:
msg, i, next_sleep = status
if msg:
if response.status in [500, 502, 503, 504]:
msg = 'Received %d response. ' % response.status
msg += 'Retrying in %3.1f seconds' % next_sleep
body =
if isinstance(body, bytes):
body = body.decode('utf-8')
elif response.status < 300 or response.status >= 400 or \
not location:
# don't return connection to the pool if response contains
# Connection:close header, because the connection has been
# closed and default reconnect behavior may do something
# different than new_http_connection. Also, it's probably
# less efficient to try to reuse a closed connection.
conn_header_value = response.getheader('connection')
if conn_header_value == 'close':
self.put_http_connection(, request.port,
self.is_secure, connection)
if self.request_hook is not None:
self.request_hook.handle_request_data(request, response)
return response
scheme,, request.path, \
params, query, fragment = urlparse(location)
if query:
request.path += '?' + query
# urlparse can return both host and port in netloc, so if
# that's the case we need to split them up properly
if ':' in, request.port =':', 1)
msg = 'Redirecting: %s' % scheme + '://'
msg += + request.path
connection = self.get_http_connection(,
scheme == 'https')
response = None
except PleaseRetryException as e:
boto.log.debug('encountered a retry exception: %s' % e)
connection = self.new_http_connection(, request.port,
response = e.response
ex = e
except self.http_exceptions as e:
for unretryable in self.http_unretryable_exceptions:
if isinstance(e, unretryable):
'encountered unretryable %s exception, re-raising' %
boto.log.debug('encountered %s exception, reconnecting' %
connection = self.new_http_connection(, request.port,
ex = e
i += 1
# If we made it here, it's because we have exhausted our retries
# and stil haven't succeeded. So, if we have a response object,
# use it to raise an exception.
# Otherwise, raise the exception that must have already happened.
if self.request_hook is not None:
self.request_hook.handle_request_data(request, response, error=True)
if response:
raise BotoServerError(response.status, response.reason, body)
elif ex:
raise ex
msg = 'Please report this exception as a Boto Issue!'
raise BotoClientError(msg)
def build_base_http_request(self, method, path, auth_path,
params=None, headers=None, data='', host=None):
path = self.get_path(path)
if auth_path is not None:
auth_path = self.get_path(auth_path)
if params is None:
params = {}
params = params.copy()
if headers is None:
headers = {}
headers = headers.copy()
if self.host_header and not boto.utils.find_matching_headers('host', headers):
headers['host'] = self.host_header
host = host or
if self.use_proxy and not self.skip_proxy(host):
if not auth_path:
auth_path = path
path = self.prefix_proxy_to_path(path, host)
if self.proxy_user and self.proxy_pass and not self.is_secure:
# If is_secure, we don't have to set the proxy authentication
# header here, we did that in the CONNECT to the proxy.
return HTTPRequest(method, self.protocol, host, self.port,
path, auth_path, params, headers, data)
def make_request(self, method, path, headers=None, data='', host=None,
auth_path=None, sender=None, override_num_retries=None,
params=None, retry_handler=None):
"""Makes a request to the server, with stock multiple-retry logic."""
if params is None:
params = {}
http_request = self.build_base_http_request(method, path, auth_path,
params, headers, data, host)
return self._mexe(http_request, sender, override_num_retries,
def close(self):
"""(Optional) Close any open HTTP connections. This is non-destructive,
and making a new request will open a connection again."""
boto.log.debug('closing all HTTP connections')
self._connection = None # compat field
class AWSQueryConnection(AWSAuthConnection):
APIVersion = ''
ResponseError = BotoServerError
def __init__(self, aws_access_key_id=None, aws_secret_access_key=None,
is_secure=True, port=None, proxy=None, proxy_port=None,
proxy_user=None, proxy_pass=None, host=None, debug=0,
https_connection_factory=None, path='/', security_token=None,
validate_certs=True, profile_name=None, provider='aws'):
super(AWSQueryConnection, self).__init__(
host, aws_access_key_id,
is_secure, port, proxy,
proxy_port, proxy_user, proxy_pass,
debug, https_connection_factory, path,
def _required_auth_capability(self):
return []
def get_utf8_value(self, value):
return boto.utils.get_utf8_value(value)
def make_request(self, action, params=None, path='/', verb='GET'):
http_request = self.build_base_http_request(verb, path, None,
params, {}, '',
if action:
http_request.params['Action'] = action
if self.APIVersion:
http_request.params['Version'] = self.APIVersion
return self._mexe(http_request)
def build_list_params(self, params, items, label):
if isinstance(items, six.string_types):
items = [items]
for i in range(1, len(items) + 1):
params['%s.%d' % (label, i)] = items[i - 1]
def build_complex_list_params(self, params, items, label, names):
"""Serialize a list of structures.
For example::
items = [('foo', 'bar', 'baz'), ('foo2', 'bar2', 'baz2')]
label = 'ParamName.member'
names = ('One', 'Two', 'Three')
self.build_complex_list_params(params, items, label, names)
would result in the params dict being updated with these params::
ParamName.member.1.One = foo
ParamName.member.1.Two = bar
ParamName.member.1.Three = baz
ParamName.member.2.One = foo2
ParamName.member.2.Two = bar2
ParamName.member.2.Three = baz2
:type params: dict
:param params: The params dict. The complex list params
will be added to this dict.
:type items: list of tuples
:param items: The list to serialize.
:type label: string
:param label: The prefix to apply to the parameter.
:type names: tuple of strings
:param names: The names associated with each tuple element.
for i, item in enumerate(items, 1):
current_prefix = '%s.%s' % (label, i)
for key, value in zip(names, item):
full_key = '%s.%s' % (current_prefix, key)
params[full_key] = value
# generics
def get_list(self, action, params, markers, path='/',
parent=None, verb='GET'):
if not parent:
parent = self
response = self.make_request(action, params, path, verb)
body =
if not body:
boto.log.error('Null body %s' % body)
raise self.ResponseError(response.status, response.reason, body)
elif response.status == 200:
rs = ResultSet(markers)
h = boto.handler.XmlHandler(rs, parent)
if isinstance(body, six.text_type):
body = body.encode('utf-8')
xml.sax.parseString(body, h)
return rs
boto.log.error('%s %s' % (response.status, response.reason))
boto.log.error('%s' % body)
raise self.ResponseError(response.status, response.reason, body)
def get_object(self, action, params, cls, path='/',
parent=None, verb='GET'):
if not parent:
parent = self
response = self.make_request(action, params, path, verb)
body =
if not body:
boto.log.error('Null body %s' % body)
raise self.ResponseError(response.status, response.reason, body)
elif response.status == 200:
obj = cls(parent)
h = boto.handler.XmlHandler(obj, parent)
if isinstance(body, six.text_type):
body = body.encode('utf-8')
xml.sax.parseString(body, h)
return obj
boto.log.error('%s %s' % (response.status, response.reason))
boto.log.error('%s' % body)
raise self.ResponseError(response.status, response.reason, body)
def get_status(self, action, params, path='/', parent=None, verb='GET'):
if not parent:
parent = self
response = self.make_request(action, params, path, verb)
body =
if not body:
boto.log.error('Null body %s' % body)
raise self.ResponseError(response.status, response.reason, body)
elif response.status == 200:
rs = ResultSet()
h = boto.handler.XmlHandler(rs, parent)
xml.sax.parseString(body, h)
return rs.status
boto.log.error('%s %s' % (response.status, response.reason))
boto.log.error('%s' % body)
raise self.ResponseError(response.status, response.reason, body)