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# Copyright (c) 2010 Mitch Garnaat http://garnaat.org/
# Copyright (c) 2011 Harry Marr http://hmarr.com/
# Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
# copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
# "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
# without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, dis-
# tribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit
# persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the fol-
# lowing conditions:
# The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
# in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
import re
import base64
from boto.compat import six, urllib
from boto.connection import AWSAuthConnection
from boto.exception import BotoServerError
from boto.regioninfo import RegionInfo
import boto
import boto.jsonresponse
from boto.ses import exceptions as ses_exceptions
class SESConnection(AWSAuthConnection):
ResponseError = BotoServerError
DefaultRegionName = 'us-east-1'
DefaultRegionEndpoint = 'email.us-east-1.amazonaws.com'
APIVersion = '2010-12-01'
def __init__(self, aws_access_key_id=None, aws_secret_access_key=None,
is_secure=True, port=None, proxy=None, proxy_port=None,
proxy_user=None, proxy_pass=None, debug=0,
https_connection_factory=None, region=None, path='/',
security_token=None, validate_certs=True, profile_name=None):
if not region:
region = RegionInfo(self, self.DefaultRegionName,
self.region = region
super(SESConnection, self).__init__(self.region.endpoint,
aws_access_key_id, aws_secret_access_key,
is_secure, port, proxy, proxy_port,
proxy_user, proxy_pass, debug,
https_connection_factory, path,
def _required_auth_capability(self):
return ['ses']
def _build_list_params(self, params, items, label):
"""Add an AWS API-compatible parameter list to a dictionary.
:type params: dict
:param params: The parameter dictionary
:type items: list
:param items: Items to be included in the list
:type label: string
:param label: The parameter list's name
if isinstance(items, six.string_types):
items = [items]
for i in range(1, len(items) + 1):
params['%s.%d' % (label, i)] = items[i - 1]
def _make_request(self, action, params=None):
"""Make a call to the SES API.
:type action: string
:param action: The API method to use (e.g. SendRawEmail)
:type params: dict
:param params: Parameters that will be sent as POST data with the API
ct = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8'
headers = {'Content-Type': ct}
params = params or {}
params['Action'] = action
for k, v in params.items():
if isinstance(v, six.text_type): # UTF-8 encode only if it's Unicode
params[k] = v.encode('utf-8')
response = super(SESConnection, self).make_request(
body = response.read().decode('utf-8')
if response.status == 200:
list_markers = ('VerifiedEmailAddresses', 'Identities',
'DkimTokens', 'DkimAttributes',
'VerificationAttributes', 'SendDataPoints')
item_markers = ('member', 'item', 'entry')
e = boto.jsonresponse.Element(list_marker=list_markers,
h = boto.jsonresponse.XmlHandler(e, None)
return e
# HTTP codes other than 200 are considered errors. Go through
# some error handling to determine which exception gets raised,
self._handle_error(response, body)
def _handle_error(self, response, body):
Handle raising the correct exception, depending on the error. Many
errors share the same HTTP response code, meaning we have to get really
kludgey and do string searches to figure out what went wrong.
boto.log.error('%s %s' % (response.status, response.reason))
boto.log.error('%s' % body)
if "Address blacklisted." in body:
# Delivery failures happened frequently enough with the recipient's
# email address for Amazon to blacklist it. After a day or three,
# they'll be automatically removed, and delivery can be attempted
# again (if you write the code to do so in your application).
ExceptionToRaise = ses_exceptions.SESAddressBlacklistedError
exc_reason = "Address blacklisted."
elif "Email address is not verified." in body:
# This error happens when the "Reply-To" value passed to
# send_email() hasn't been verified yet.
ExceptionToRaise = ses_exceptions.SESAddressNotVerifiedError
exc_reason = "Email address is not verified."
elif "Daily message quota exceeded." in body:
# Encountered when your account exceeds the maximum total number
# of emails per 24 hours.
ExceptionToRaise = ses_exceptions.SESDailyQuotaExceededError
exc_reason = "Daily message quota exceeded."
elif "Maximum sending rate exceeded." in body:
# Your account has sent above its allowed requests a second rate.
ExceptionToRaise = ses_exceptions.SESMaxSendingRateExceededError
exc_reason = "Maximum sending rate exceeded."
elif "Domain ends with dot." in body:
# Recipient address ends with a dot/period. This is invalid.
ExceptionToRaise = ses_exceptions.SESDomainEndsWithDotError
exc_reason = "Domain ends with dot."
elif "Local address contains control or whitespace" in body:
# I think this pertains to the recipient address.
ExceptionToRaise = ses_exceptions.SESLocalAddressCharacterError
exc_reason = "Local address contains control or whitespace."
elif "Illegal address" in body:
# A clearly mal-formed address.
ExceptionToRaise = ses_exceptions.SESIllegalAddressError
exc_reason = "Illegal address"
# The re.search is to distinguish from the
# SESAddressNotVerifiedError error above.
elif re.search('Identity.*is not verified', body):
ExceptionToRaise = ses_exceptions.SESIdentityNotVerifiedError
exc_reason = "Identity is not verified."
elif "ownership not confirmed" in body:
ExceptionToRaise = ses_exceptions.SESDomainNotConfirmedError
exc_reason = "Domain ownership is not confirmed."
# This is either a common AWS error, or one that we don't devote
# its own exception to.
ExceptionToRaise = self.ResponseError
exc_reason = response.reason
raise ExceptionToRaise(response.status, exc_reason, body)
def send_email(self, source, subject, body, to_addresses,
cc_addresses=None, bcc_addresses=None,
format='text', reply_addresses=None,
return_path=None, text_body=None, html_body=None):
"""Composes an email message based on input data, and then immediately
queues the message for sending.
:type source: string
:param source: The sender's email address.
:type subject: string
:param subject: The subject of the message: A short summary of the
content, which will appear in the recipient's inbox.
:type body: string
:param body: The message body.
:type to_addresses: list of strings or string
:param to_addresses: The To: field(s) of the message.
:type cc_addresses: list of strings or string
:param cc_addresses: The CC: field(s) of the message.
:type bcc_addresses: list of strings or string
:param bcc_addresses: The BCC: field(s) of the message.
:type format: string
:param format: The format of the message's body, must be either "text"
or "html".
:type reply_addresses: list of strings or string
:param reply_addresses: The reply-to email address(es) for the
message. If the recipient replies to the
message, each reply-to address will
receive the reply.
:type return_path: string
:param return_path: The email address to which bounce notifications are
to be forwarded. If the message cannot be delivered
to the recipient, then an error message will be
returned from the recipient's ISP; this message
will then be forwarded to the email address
specified by the ReturnPath parameter.
:type text_body: string
:param text_body: The text body to send with this email.
:type html_body: string
:param html_body: The html body to send with this email.
format = format.lower().strip()
if body is not None:
if format == "text":
if text_body is not None:
raise Warning("You've passed in both a body and a "
"text_body; please choose one or the other.")
text_body = body
if html_body is not None:
raise Warning("You've passed in both a body and an "
"html_body; please choose one or the other.")
html_body = body
params = {
'Source': source,
'Message.Subject.Data': subject,
if return_path:
params['ReturnPath'] = return_path
if html_body is not None:
params['Message.Body.Html.Data'] = html_body
if text_body is not None:
params['Message.Body.Text.Data'] = text_body
if(format not in ("text", "html")):
raise ValueError("'format' argument must be 'text' or 'html'")
if(not (html_body or text_body)):
raise ValueError("No text or html body found for mail")
self._build_list_params(params, to_addresses,
if cc_addresses:
self._build_list_params(params, cc_addresses,
if bcc_addresses:
self._build_list_params(params, bcc_addresses,
if reply_addresses:
self._build_list_params(params, reply_addresses,
return self._make_request('SendEmail', params)
def send_raw_email(self, raw_message, source=None, destinations=None):
"""Sends an email message, with header and content specified by the
client. The SendRawEmail action is useful for sending multipart MIME
emails, with attachments or inline content. The raw text of the message
must comply with Internet email standards; otherwise, the message
cannot be sent.
:type source: string
:param source: The sender's email address. Amazon's docs say:
If you specify the Source parameter, then bounce notifications and
complaints will be sent to this email address. This takes precedence
over any Return-Path header that you might include in the raw text of
the message.
:type raw_message: string
:param raw_message: The raw text of the message. The client is
responsible for ensuring the following:
- Message must contain a header and a body, separated by a blank line.
- All required header fields must be present.
- Each part of a multipart MIME message must be formatted properly.
- MIME content types must be among those supported by Amazon SES.
Refer to the Amazon SES Developer Guide for more details.
- Content must be base64-encoded, if MIME requires it.
:type destinations: list of strings or string
:param destinations: A list of destinations for the message.
if isinstance(raw_message, six.text_type):
raw_message = raw_message.encode('utf-8')
params = {
'RawMessage.Data': base64.b64encode(raw_message),
if source:
params['Source'] = source
if destinations:
self._build_list_params(params, destinations,
return self._make_request('SendRawEmail', params)
def list_verified_email_addresses(self):
"""Fetch a list of the email addresses that have been verified.
:rtype: dict
:returns: A ListVerifiedEmailAddressesResponse structure. Note that
keys must be unicode strings.
return self._make_request('ListVerifiedEmailAddresses')
def get_send_quota(self):
"""Fetches the user's current activity limits.
:rtype: dict
:returns: A GetSendQuotaResponse structure. Note that keys must be
unicode strings.
return self._make_request('GetSendQuota')
def get_send_statistics(self):
"""Fetches the user's sending statistics. The result is a list of data
points, representing the last two weeks of sending activity.
Each data point in the list contains statistics for a 15-minute
:rtype: dict
:returns: A GetSendStatisticsResponse structure. Note that keys must be
unicode strings.
return self._make_request('GetSendStatistics')
def delete_verified_email_address(self, email_address):
"""Deletes the specified email address from the list of verified
:type email_adddress: string
:param email_address: The email address to be removed from the list of
verified addreses.
:rtype: dict
:returns: A DeleteVerifiedEmailAddressResponse structure. Note that
keys must be unicode strings.
return self._make_request('DeleteVerifiedEmailAddress', {
'EmailAddress': email_address,
def verify_email_address(self, email_address):
"""Verifies an email address. This action causes a confirmation email
message to be sent to the specified address.
:type email_adddress: string
:param email_address: The email address to be verified.
:rtype: dict
:returns: A VerifyEmailAddressResponse structure. Note that keys must
be unicode strings.
return self._make_request('VerifyEmailAddress', {
'EmailAddress': email_address,
def verify_domain_dkim(self, domain):
Returns a set of DNS records, or tokens, that must be published in the
domain name's DNS to complete the DKIM verification process. These
tokens are DNS ``CNAME`` records that point to DKIM public keys hosted
by Amazon SES. To complete the DKIM verification process, these tokens
must be published in the domain's DNS. The tokens must remain
published in order for Easy DKIM signing to function correctly.
After the tokens are added to the domain's DNS, Amazon SES will be able
to DKIM-sign email originating from that domain. To enable or disable
Easy DKIM signing for a domain, use the ``SetIdentityDkimEnabled``
action. For more information about Easy DKIM, go to the `Amazon SES
Developer Guide
:type domain: string
:param domain: The domain name.
return self._make_request('VerifyDomainDkim', {
'Domain': domain,
def set_identity_dkim_enabled(self, identity, dkim_enabled):
"""Enables or disables DKIM signing of email sent from an identity.
* If Easy DKIM signing is enabled for a domain name identity (e.g.,
* ``example.com``),
then Amazon SES will DKIM-sign all email sent by addresses under that
domain name (e.g., ``user@example.com``)
* If Easy DKIM signing is enabled for an email address, then Amazon SES
will DKIM-sign all email sent by that email address.
For email addresses (e.g., ``user@example.com``), you can only enable
Easy DKIM signing if the corresponding domain (e.g., ``example.com``)
has been set up for Easy DKIM using the AWS Console or the
``VerifyDomainDkim`` action.
:type identity: string
:param identity: An email address or domain name.
:type dkim_enabled: bool
:param dkim_enabled: Specifies whether or not to enable DKIM signing.
return self._make_request('SetIdentityDkimEnabled', {
'Identity': identity,
'DkimEnabled': 'true' if dkim_enabled else 'false'
def get_identity_dkim_attributes(self, identities):
"""Get attributes associated with a list of verified identities.
Given a list of verified identities (email addresses and/or domains),
returns a structure describing identity notification attributes.
:type identities: list
:param identities: A list of verified identities (email addresses
and/or domains).
params = {}
self._build_list_params(params, identities, 'Identities.member')
return self._make_request('GetIdentityDkimAttributes', params)
def list_identities(self):
"""Returns a list containing all of the identities (email addresses
and domains) for a specific AWS Account, regardless of
verification status.
:rtype: dict
:returns: A ListIdentitiesResponse structure. Note that
keys must be unicode strings.
return self._make_request('ListIdentities')
def get_identity_verification_attributes(self, identities):
"""Given a list of identities (email addresses and/or domains),
returns the verification status and (for domain identities)
the verification token for each identity.
:type identities: list of strings or string
:param identities: List of identities.
:rtype: dict
:returns: A GetIdentityVerificationAttributesResponse structure.
Note that keys must be unicode strings.
params = {}
self._build_list_params(params, identities,
return self._make_request('GetIdentityVerificationAttributes', params)
def verify_domain_identity(self, domain):
"""Verifies a domain.
:type domain: string
:param domain: The domain to be verified.
:rtype: dict
:returns: A VerifyDomainIdentityResponse structure. Note that
keys must be unicode strings.
return self._make_request('VerifyDomainIdentity', {
'Domain': domain,
def verify_email_identity(self, email_address):
"""Verifies an email address. This action causes a confirmation
email message to be sent to the specified address.
:type email_adddress: string
:param email_address: The email address to be verified.
:rtype: dict
:returns: A VerifyEmailIdentityResponse structure. Note that keys must
be unicode strings.
return self._make_request('VerifyEmailIdentity', {
'EmailAddress': email_address,
def delete_identity(self, identity):
"""Deletes the specified identity (email address or domain) from
the list of verified identities.
:type identity: string
:param identity: The identity to be deleted.
:rtype: dict
:returns: A DeleteIdentityResponse structure. Note that keys must
be unicode strings.
return self._make_request('DeleteIdentity', {
'Identity': identity,
def set_identity_notification_topic(self, identity, notification_type, sns_topic=None):
"""Sets an SNS topic to publish bounce or complaint notifications for
emails sent with the given identity as the Source. Publishing to topics
may only be disabled when feedback forwarding is enabled.
:type identity: string
:param identity: An email address or domain name.
:type notification_type: string
:param notification_type: The type of feedback notifications that will
be published to the specified topic.
Valid Values: Bounce | Complaint | Delivery
:type sns_topic: string or None
:param sns_topic: The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the Amazon Simple
Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topic.
params = {
'Identity': identity,
'NotificationType': notification_type
if sns_topic:
params['SnsTopic'] = sns_topic
return self._make_request('SetIdentityNotificationTopic', params)
def set_identity_feedback_forwarding_enabled(self, identity, forwarding_enabled=True):
Enables or disables SES feedback notification via email.
Feedback forwarding may only be disabled when both complaint and
bounce topics are set.
:type identity: string
:param identity: An email address or domain name.
:type forwarding_enabled: bool
:param forwarding_enabled: Specifies whether or not to enable feedback forwarding.
return self._make_request('SetIdentityFeedbackForwardingEnabled', {
'Identity': identity,
'ForwardingEnabled': 'true' if forwarding_enabled else 'false'