Permalink
executable file 4398 lines (3634 sloc) 166 KB
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Bottle is a fast and simple micro-framework for small web applications. It
offers request dispatching (Routes) with URL parameter support, templates,
a built-in HTTP Server and adapters for many third party WSGI/HTTP-server and
template engines - all in a single file and with no dependencies other than the
Python Standard Library.
Homepage and documentation: http://bottlepy.org/
Copyright (c) 2017, Marcel Hellkamp.
License: MIT (see LICENSE for details)
"""
import sys
__author__ = 'Marcel Hellkamp'
__version__ = '0.13-dev'
__license__ = 'MIT'
###############################################################################
# Command-line interface ######################################################
###############################################################################
# INFO: Some server adapters need to monkey-patch std-lib modules before they
# are imported. This is why some of the command-line handling is done here, but
# the actual call to _main() is at the end of the file.
def _cli_parse(args): # pragma: no coverage
from argparse import ArgumentParser
parser = ArgumentParser(prog=args[0], usage="%(prog)s [options] package.module:app")
opt = parser.add_argument
opt("--version", action="store_true", help="show version number.")
opt("-b", "--bind", metavar="ADDRESS", help="bind socket to ADDRESS.")
opt("-s", "--server", default='wsgiref', help="use SERVER as backend.")
opt("-p", "--plugin", action="append", help="install additional plugin/s.")
opt("-c", "--conf", action="append", metavar="FILE",
help="load config values from FILE.")
opt("-C", "--param", action="append", metavar="NAME=VALUE",
help="override config values.")
opt("--debug", action="store_true", help="start server in debug mode.")
opt("--reload", action="store_true", help="auto-reload on file changes.")
opt('app', help='WSGI app entry point.', nargs='?')
cli_args = parser.parse_args(args[1:])
return cli_args, parser
def _cli_patch(cli_args): # pragma: no coverage
parsed_args, _ = _cli_parse(cli_args)
opts = parsed_args
if opts.server:
if opts.server.startswith('gevent'):
import gevent.monkey
gevent.monkey.patch_all()
elif opts.server.startswith('eventlet'):
import eventlet
eventlet.monkey_patch()
if __name__ == '__main__':
_cli_patch(sys.argv)
###############################################################################
# Imports and Python 2/3 unification ##########################################
###############################################################################
import base64, cgi, email.utils, functools, hmac, imp, itertools, mimetypes,\
os, re, tempfile, threading, time, warnings, weakref, hashlib
from types import FunctionType
from datetime import date as datedate, datetime, timedelta
from tempfile import TemporaryFile
from traceback import format_exc, print_exc
from unicodedata import normalize
try:
from ujson import dumps as json_dumps, loads as json_lds
except ImportError:
from json import dumps as json_dumps, loads as json_lds
# inspect.getargspec was removed in Python 3.6, use
# Signature-based version where we can (Python 3.3+)
try:
from inspect import signature
def getargspec(func):
params = signature(func).parameters
args, varargs, keywords, defaults = [], None, None, []
for name, param in params.items():
if param.kind == param.VAR_POSITIONAL:
varargs = name
elif param.kind == param.VAR_KEYWORD:
keywords = name
else:
args.append(name)
if param.default is not param.empty:
defaults.append(param.default)
return (args, varargs, keywords, tuple(defaults) or None)
except ImportError:
try:
from inspect import getfullargspec
def getargspec(func):
spec = getfullargspec(func)
kwargs = makelist(spec[0]) + makelist(spec.kwonlyargs)
return kwargs, spec[1], spec[2], spec[3]
except ImportError:
from inspect import getargspec
py3k = sys.version_info.major > 2
# Workaround for the "print is a keyword/function" Python 2/3 dilemma
# and a fallback for mod_wsgi (resticts stdout/err attribute access)
try:
_stdout, _stderr = sys.stdout.write, sys.stderr.write
except IOError:
_stdout = lambda x: sys.stdout.write(x)
_stderr = lambda x: sys.stderr.write(x)
# Lots of stdlib and builtin differences.
if py3k:
import http.client as httplib
import _thread as thread
from urllib.parse import urljoin, SplitResult as UrlSplitResult
from urllib.parse import urlencode, quote as urlquote, unquote as urlunquote
urlunquote = functools.partial(urlunquote, encoding='latin1')
from http.cookies import SimpleCookie, Morsel, CookieError
from collections import MutableMapping as DictMixin
import pickle
from io import BytesIO
import configparser
basestring = str
unicode = str
json_loads = lambda s: json_lds(touni(s))
callable = lambda x: hasattr(x, '__call__')
imap = map
def _raise(*a):
raise a[0](a[1]).with_traceback(a[2])
else: # 2.x
import httplib
import thread
from urlparse import urljoin, SplitResult as UrlSplitResult
from urllib import urlencode, quote as urlquote, unquote as urlunquote
from Cookie import SimpleCookie
from itertools import imap
import cPickle as pickle
from StringIO import StringIO as BytesIO
import ConfigParser as configparser
from collections import MutableMapping as DictMixin
unicode = unicode
json_loads = json_lds
exec(compile('def _raise(*a): raise a[0], a[1], a[2]', '<py3fix>', 'exec'))
# Some helpers for string/byte handling
def tob(s, enc='utf8'):
if isinstance(s, unicode):
return s.encode(enc)
return bytes("" if s is None else s)
def touni(s, enc='utf8', err='strict'):
if isinstance(s, bytes):
return s.decode(enc, err)
return unicode("" if s is None else s)
tonat = touni if py3k else tob
# 3.2 fixes cgi.FieldStorage to accept bytes (which makes a lot of sense).
# A bug in functools causes it to break if the wrapper is an instance method
def update_wrapper(wrapper, wrapped, *a, **ka):
try:
functools.update_wrapper(wrapper, wrapped, *a, **ka)
except AttributeError:
pass
# These helpers are used at module level and need to be defined first.
# And yes, I know PEP-8, but sometimes a lower-case classname makes more sense.
def depr(major, minor, cause, fix):
text = "Warning: Use of deprecated feature or API. (Deprecated in Bottle-%d.%d)\n"\
"Cause: %s\n"\
"Fix: %s\n" % (major, minor, cause, fix)
if DEBUG == 'strict':
raise DeprecationWarning(text)
warnings.warn(text, DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=3)
return DeprecationWarning(text)
def makelist(data): # This is just too handy
if isinstance(data, (tuple, list, set, dict)):
return list(data)
elif data:
return [data]
else:
return []
class DictProperty(object):
""" Property that maps to a key in a local dict-like attribute. """
def __init__(self, attr, key=None, read_only=False):
self.attr, self.key, self.read_only = attr, key, read_only
def __call__(self, func):
functools.update_wrapper(self, func, updated=[])
self.getter, self.key = func, self.key or func.__name__
return self
def __get__(self, obj, cls):
if obj is None: return self
key, storage = self.key, getattr(obj, self.attr)
if key not in storage: storage[key] = self.getter(obj)
return storage[key]
def __set__(self, obj, value):
if self.read_only: raise AttributeError("Read-Only property.")
getattr(obj, self.attr)[self.key] = value
def __delete__(self, obj):
if self.read_only: raise AttributeError("Read-Only property.")
del getattr(obj, self.attr)[self.key]
class cached_property(object):
""" A property that is only computed once per instance and then replaces
itself with an ordinary attribute. Deleting the attribute resets the
property. """
def __init__(self, func):
update_wrapper(self, func)
self.func = func
def __get__(self, obj, cls):
if obj is None: return self
value = obj.__dict__[self.func.__name__] = self.func(obj)
return value
class lazy_attribute(object):
""" A property that caches itself to the class object. """
def __init__(self, func):
functools.update_wrapper(self, func, updated=[])
self.getter = func
def __get__(self, obj, cls):
value = self.getter(cls)
setattr(cls, self.__name__, value)
return value
###############################################################################
# Exceptions and Events #######################################################
###############################################################################
class BottleException(Exception):
""" A base class for exceptions used by bottle. """
pass
###############################################################################
# Routing ######################################################################
###############################################################################
class RouteError(BottleException):
""" This is a base class for all routing related exceptions """
class RouteReset(BottleException):
""" If raised by a plugin or request handler, the route is reset and all
plugins are re-applied. """
class RouterUnknownModeError(RouteError):
pass
class RouteSyntaxError(RouteError):
""" The route parser found something not supported by this router. """
class RouteBuildError(RouteError):
""" The route could not be built. """
def _re_flatten(p):
""" Turn all capturing groups in a regular expression pattern into
non-capturing groups. """
if '(' not in p:
return p
return re.sub(r'(\\*)(\(\?P<[^>]+>|\((?!\?))', lambda m: m.group(0) if
len(m.group(1)) % 2 else m.group(1) + '(?:', p)
class Router(object):
""" A Router is an ordered collection of route->target pairs. It is used to
efficiently match WSGI requests against a number of routes and return
the first target that satisfies the request. The target may be anything,
usually a string, ID or callable object. A route consists of a path-rule
and a HTTP method.
The path-rule is either a static path (e.g. `/contact`) or a dynamic
path that contains wildcards (e.g. `/wiki/<page>`). The wildcard syntax
and details on the matching order are described in docs:`routing`.
"""
default_pattern = '[^/]+'
default_filter = 're'
#: The current CPython regexp implementation does not allow more
#: than 99 matching groups per regular expression.
_MAX_GROUPS_PER_PATTERN = 99
def __init__(self, strict=False):
self.rules = [] # All rules in order
self._groups = {} # index of regexes to find them in dyna_routes
self.builder = {} # Data structure for the url builder
self.static = {} # Search structure for static routes
self.dyna_routes = {}
self.dyna_regexes = {} # Search structure for dynamic routes
#: If true, static routes are no longer checked first.
self.strict_order = strict
self.filters = {
're': lambda conf: (_re_flatten(conf or self.default_pattern),
None, None),
'int': lambda conf: (r'-?\d+', int, lambda x: str(int(x))),
'float': lambda conf: (r'-?[\d.]+', float, lambda x: str(float(x))),
'path': lambda conf: (r'.+?', None, None)
}
def add_filter(self, name, func):
""" Add a filter. The provided function is called with the configuration
string as parameter and must return a (regexp, to_python, to_url) tuple.
The first element is a string, the last two are callables or None. """
self.filters[name] = func
rule_syntax = re.compile('(\\\\*)'
'(?:(?::([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*)?()(?:#(.*?)#)?)'
'|(?:<([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*)?(?::([a-zA-Z_]*)'
'(?::((?:\\\\.|[^\\\\>]+)+)?)?)?>))')
def _itertokens(self, rule):
offset, prefix = 0, ''
for match in self.rule_syntax.finditer(rule):
prefix += rule[offset:match.start()]
g = match.groups()
if g[2] is not None:
depr(0, 13, "Use of old route syntax.",
"Use <name> instead of :name in routes.")
if len(g[0]) % 2: # Escaped wildcard
prefix += match.group(0)[len(g[0]):]
offset = match.end()
continue
if prefix:
yield prefix, None, None
name, filtr, conf = g[4:7] if g[2] is None else g[1:4]
yield name, filtr or 'default', conf or None
offset, prefix = match.end(), ''
if offset <= len(rule) or prefix:
yield prefix + rule[offset:], None, None
def add(self, rule, method, target, name=None):
""" Add a new rule or replace the target for an existing rule. """
anons = 0 # Number of anonymous wildcards found
keys = [] # Names of keys
pattern = '' # Regular expression pattern with named groups
filters = [] # Lists of wildcard input filters
builder = [] # Data structure for the URL builder
is_static = True
for key, mode, conf in self._itertokens(rule):
if mode:
is_static = False
if mode == 'default': mode = self.default_filter
mask, in_filter, out_filter = self.filters[mode](conf)
if not key:
pattern += '(?:%s)' % mask
key = 'anon%d' % anons
anons += 1
else:
pattern += '(?P<%s>%s)' % (key, mask)
keys.append(key)
if in_filter: filters.append((key, in_filter))
builder.append((key, out_filter or str))
elif key:
pattern += re.escape(key)
builder.append((None, key))
self.builder[rule] = builder
if name: self.builder[name] = builder
if is_static and not self.strict_order:
self.static.setdefault(method, {})
self.static[method][self.build(rule)] = (target, None)
return
try:
re_pattern = re.compile('^(%s)$' % pattern)
re_match = re_pattern.match
except re.error as e:
raise RouteSyntaxError("Could not add Route: %s (%s)" % (rule, e))
if filters:
def getargs(path):
url_args = re_match(path).groupdict()
for name, wildcard_filter in filters:
try:
url_args[name] = wildcard_filter(url_args[name])
except ValueError:
raise HTTPError(400, 'Path has wrong format.')
return url_args
elif re_pattern.groupindex:
def getargs(path):
return re_match(path).groupdict()
else:
getargs = None
flatpat = _re_flatten(pattern)
whole_rule = (rule, flatpat, target, getargs)
if (flatpat, method) in self._groups:
if DEBUG:
msg = 'Route <%s %s> overwrites a previously defined route'
warnings.warn(msg % (method, rule), RuntimeWarning)
self.dyna_routes[method][
self._groups[flatpat, method]] = whole_rule
else:
self.dyna_routes.setdefault(method, []).append(whole_rule)
self._groups[flatpat, method] = len(self.dyna_routes[method]) - 1
self._compile(method)
def _compile(self, method):
all_rules = self.dyna_routes[method]
comborules = self.dyna_regexes[method] = []
maxgroups = self._MAX_GROUPS_PER_PATTERN
for x in range(0, len(all_rules), maxgroups):
some = all_rules[x:x + maxgroups]
combined = (flatpat for (_, flatpat, _, _) in some)
combined = '|'.join('(^%s$)' % flatpat for flatpat in combined)
combined = re.compile(combined).match
rules = [(target, getargs) for (_, _, target, getargs) in some]
comborules.append((combined, rules))
def build(self, _name, *anons, **query):
""" Build an URL by filling the wildcards in a rule. """
builder = self.builder.get(_name)
if not builder:
raise RouteBuildError("No route with that name.", _name)
try:
for i, value in enumerate(anons):
query['anon%d' % i] = value
url = ''.join([f(query.pop(n)) if n else f for (n, f) in builder])
return url if not query else url + '?' + urlencode(query)
except KeyError as E:
raise RouteBuildError('Missing URL argument: %r' % E.args[0])
def match(self, environ):
""" Return a (target, url_args) tuple or raise HTTPError(400/404/405). """
verb = environ['REQUEST_METHOD'].upper()
path = environ['PATH_INFO'] or '/'
if verb == 'HEAD':
methods = ['PROXY', verb, 'GET', 'ANY']
else:
methods = ['PROXY', verb, 'ANY']
for method in methods:
if method in self.static and path in self.static[method]:
target, getargs = self.static[method][path]
return target, getargs(path) if getargs else {}
elif method in self.dyna_regexes:
for combined, rules in self.dyna_regexes[method]:
match = combined(path)
if match:
target, getargs = rules[match.lastindex - 1]
return target, getargs(path) if getargs else {}
# No matching route found. Collect alternative methods for 405 response
allowed = set([])
nocheck = set(methods)
for method in set(self.static) - nocheck:
if path in self.static[method]:
allowed.add(verb)
for method in set(self.dyna_regexes) - allowed - nocheck:
for combined, rules in self.dyna_regexes[method]:
match = combined(path)
if match:
allowed.add(method)
if allowed:
allow_header = ",".join(sorted(allowed))
raise HTTPError(405, "Method not allowed.", Allow=allow_header)
# No matching route and no alternative method found. We give up
raise HTTPError(404, "Not found: " + repr(path))
class Route(object):
""" This class wraps a route callback along with route specific metadata and
configuration and applies Plugins on demand. It is also responsible for
turing an URL path rule into a regular expression usable by the Router.
"""
def __init__(self, app, rule, method, callback,
name=None,
plugins=None,
skiplist=None, **config):
#: The application this route is installed to.
self.app = app
#: The path-rule string (e.g. ``/wiki/<page>``).
self.rule = rule
#: The HTTP method as a string (e.g. ``GET``).
self.method = method
#: The original callback with no plugins applied. Useful for introspection.
self.callback = callback
#: The name of the route (if specified) or ``None``.
self.name = name or None
#: A list of route-specific plugins (see :meth:`Bottle.route`).
self.plugins = plugins or []
#: A list of plugins to not apply to this route (see :meth:`Bottle.route`).
self.skiplist = skiplist or []
#: Additional keyword arguments passed to the :meth:`Bottle.route`
#: decorator are stored in this dictionary. Used for route-specific
#: plugin configuration and meta-data.
self.config = app.config._make_overlay()
self.config.load_dict(config)
@cached_property
def call(self):
""" The route callback with all plugins applied. This property is
created on demand and then cached to speed up subsequent requests."""
return self._make_callback()
def reset(self):
""" Forget any cached values. The next time :attr:`call` is accessed,
all plugins are re-applied. """
self.__dict__.pop('call', None)
def prepare(self):
""" Do all on-demand work immediately (useful for debugging)."""
self.call
def all_plugins(self):
""" Yield all Plugins affecting this route. """
unique = set()
for p in reversed(self.app.plugins + self.plugins):
if True in self.skiplist: break
name = getattr(p, 'name', False)
if name and (name in self.skiplist or name in unique): continue
if p in self.skiplist or type(p) in self.skiplist: continue
if name: unique.add(name)
yield p
def _make_callback(self):
callback = self.callback
for plugin in self.all_plugins():
try:
if hasattr(plugin, 'apply'):
callback = plugin.apply(callback, self)
else:
callback = plugin(callback)
except RouteReset: # Try again with changed configuration.
return self._make_callback()
if not callback is self.callback:
update_wrapper(callback, self.callback)
return callback
def get_undecorated_callback(self):
""" Return the callback. If the callback is a decorated function, try to
recover the original function. """
func = self.callback
func = getattr(func, '__func__' if py3k else 'im_func', func)
closure_attr = '__closure__' if py3k else 'func_closure'
while hasattr(func, closure_attr) and getattr(func, closure_attr):
attributes = getattr(func, closure_attr)
func = attributes[0].cell_contents
# in case of decorators with multiple arguments
if not isinstance(func, FunctionType):
# pick first FunctionType instance from multiple arguments
func = filter(lambda x: isinstance(x, FunctionType),
map(lambda x: x.cell_contents, attributes))
func = list(func)[0] # py3 support
return func
def get_callback_args(self):
""" Return a list of argument names the callback (most likely) accepts
as keyword arguments. If the callback is a decorated function, try
to recover the original function before inspection. """
return getargspec(self.get_undecorated_callback())[0]
def get_config(self, key, default=None):
""" Lookup a config field and return its value, first checking the
route.config, then route.app.config."""
depr(0, 13, "Route.get_config() is deprectated.",
"The Route.config property already includes values from the"
" application config for missing keys. Access it directly.")
return self.config.get(key, default)
def __repr__(self):
cb = self.get_undecorated_callback()
return '<%s %r %r>' % (self.method, self.rule, cb)
###############################################################################
# Application Object ###########################################################
###############################################################################
class Bottle(object):
""" Each Bottle object represents a single, distinct web application and
consists of routes, callbacks, plugins, resources and configuration.
Instances are callable WSGI applications.
:param catchall: If true (default), handle all exceptions. Turn off to
let debugging middleware handle exceptions.
"""
@lazy_attribute
def _global_config(cls):
cfg = ConfigDict()
cfg.meta_set('catchall', 'validate', bool)
return cfg
def __init__(self, **kwargs):
#: A :class:`ConfigDict` for app specific configuration.
self.config = self._global_config._make_overlay()
self.config._add_change_listener(
functools.partial(self.trigger_hook, 'config'))
self.config.update({
"catchall": True
})
if kwargs.get('catchall') is False:
depr(0,13, "Bottle(catchall) keyword argument.",
"The 'catchall' setting is now part of the app "
"configuration. Fix: `app.config['catchall'] = False`")
self.config['catchall'] = False
if kwargs.get('autojson') is False:
depr(0, 13, "Bottle(autojson) keyword argument.",
"The 'autojson' setting is now part of the app "
"configuration. Fix: `app.config['json.enable'] = False`")
self.config['json.disable'] = True
self._mounts = []
#: A :class:`ResourceManager` for application files
self.resources = ResourceManager()
self.routes = [] # List of installed :class:`Route` instances.
self.router = Router() # Maps requests to :class:`Route` instances.
self.error_handler = {}
# Core plugins
self.plugins = [] # List of installed plugins.
self.install(JSONPlugin())
self.install(TemplatePlugin())
#: If true, most exceptions are caught and returned as :exc:`HTTPError`
catchall = DictProperty('config', 'catchall')
__hook_names = 'before_request', 'after_request', 'app_reset', 'config'
__hook_reversed = {'after_request'}
@cached_property
def _hooks(self):
return dict((name, []) for name in self.__hook_names)
def add_hook(self, name, func):
""" Attach a callback to a hook. Three hooks are currently implemented:
before_request
Executed once before each request. The request context is
available, but no routing has happened yet.
after_request
Executed once after each request regardless of its outcome.
app_reset
Called whenever :meth:`Bottle.reset` is called.
"""
if name in self.__hook_reversed:
self._hooks[name].insert(0, func)
else:
self._hooks[name].append(func)
def remove_hook(self, name, func):
""" Remove a callback from a hook. """
if name in self._hooks and func in self._hooks[name]:
self._hooks[name].remove(func)
return True
def trigger_hook(self, __name, *args, **kwargs):
""" Trigger a hook and return a list of results. """
return [hook(*args, **kwargs) for hook in self._hooks[__name][:]]
def hook(self, name):
""" Return a decorator that attaches a callback to a hook. See
:meth:`add_hook` for details."""
def decorator(func):
self.add_hook(name, func)
return func
return decorator
def _mount_wsgi(self, prefix, app, **options):
segments = [p for p in prefix.split('/') if p]
if not segments:
raise ValueError('WSGI applications cannot be mounted to "/".')
path_depth = len(segments)
def mountpoint_wrapper():
try:
request.path_shift(path_depth)
rs = HTTPResponse([])
def start_response(status, headerlist, exc_info=None):
if exc_info:
_raise(*exc_info)
rs.status = status
for name, value in headerlist:
rs.add_header(name, value)
return rs.body.append
body = app(request.environ, start_response)
rs.body = itertools.chain(rs.body, body) if rs.body else body
return rs
finally:
request.path_shift(-path_depth)
options.setdefault('skip', True)
options.setdefault('method', 'PROXY')
options.setdefault('mountpoint', {'prefix': prefix, 'target': app})
options['callback'] = mountpoint_wrapper
self.route('/%s/<:re:.*>' % '/'.join(segments), **options)
if not prefix.endswith('/'):
self.route('/' + '/'.join(segments), **options)
def _mount_app(self, prefix, app, **options):
if app in self._mounts or '_mount.app' in app.config:
depr(0, 13, "Application mounted multiple times. Falling back to WSGI mount.",
"Clone application before mounting to a different location.")
return self._mount_wsgi(prefix, app, **options)
if options:
depr(0, 13, "Unsupported mount options. Falling back to WSGI mount.",
"Do not specify any route options when mounting bottle application.")
return self._mount_wsgi(prefix, app, **options)
if not prefix.endswith("/"):
depr(0, 13, "Prefix must end in '/'. Falling back to WSGI mount.",
"Consider adding an explicit redirect from '/prefix' to '/prefix/' in the parent application.")
return self._mount_wsgi(prefix, app, **options)
self._mounts.append(app)
app.config['_mount.prefix'] = prefix
app.config['_mount.app'] = self
for route in app.routes:
route.rule = prefix + route.rule.lstrip('/')
self.add_route(route)
def mount(self, prefix, app, **options):
""" Mount an application (:class:`Bottle` or plain WSGI) to a specific
URL prefix. Example::
parent_app.mount('/prefix/', child_app)
:param prefix: path prefix or `mount-point`.
:param app: an instance of :class:`Bottle` or a WSGI application.
Plugins from the parent application are not applied to the routes
of the mounted child application. If you need plugins in the child
application, install them separately.
While it is possible to use path wildcards within the prefix path
(:class:`Bottle` childs only), it is highly discouraged.
The prefix path must end with a slash. If you want to access the
root of the child application via `/prefix` in addition to
`/prefix/`, consider adding a route with a 307 redirect to the
parent application.
"""
if not prefix.startswith('/'):
raise ValueError("Prefix must start with '/'")
if isinstance(app, Bottle):
return self._mount_app(prefix, app, **options)
else:
return self._mount_wsgi(prefix, app, **options)
def merge(self, routes):
""" Merge the routes of another :class:`Bottle` application or a list of
:class:`Route` objects into this application. The routes keep their
'owner', meaning that the :data:`Route.app` attribute is not
changed. """
if isinstance(routes, Bottle):
routes = routes.routes
for route in routes:
self.add_route(route)
def install(self, plugin):
""" Add a plugin to the list of plugins and prepare it for being
applied to all routes of this application. A plugin may be a simple
decorator or an object that implements the :class:`Plugin` API.
"""
if hasattr(plugin, 'setup'): plugin.setup(self)
if not callable(plugin) and not hasattr(plugin, 'apply'):
raise TypeError("Plugins must be callable or implement .apply()")
self.plugins.append(plugin)
self.reset()
return plugin
def uninstall(self, plugin):
""" Uninstall plugins. Pass an instance to remove a specific plugin, a type
object to remove all plugins that match that type, a string to remove
all plugins with a matching ``name`` attribute or ``True`` to remove all
plugins. Return the list of removed plugins. """
removed, remove = [], plugin
for i, plugin in list(enumerate(self.plugins))[::-1]:
if remove is True or remove is plugin or remove is type(plugin) \
or getattr(plugin, 'name', True) == remove:
removed.append(plugin)
del self.plugins[i]
if hasattr(plugin, 'close'): plugin.close()
if removed: self.reset()
return removed
def reset(self, route=None):
""" Reset all routes (force plugins to be re-applied) and clear all
caches. If an ID or route object is given, only that specific route
is affected. """
if route is None: routes = self.routes
elif isinstance(route, Route): routes = [route]
else: routes = [self.routes[route]]
for route in routes:
route.reset()
if DEBUG:
for route in routes:
route.prepare()
self.trigger_hook('app_reset')
def close(self):
""" Close the application and all installed plugins. """
for plugin in self.plugins:
if hasattr(plugin, 'close'): plugin.close()
def run(self, **kwargs):
""" Calls :func:`run` with the same parameters. """
run(self, **kwargs)
def match(self, environ):
""" Search for a matching route and return a (:class:`Route` , urlargs)
tuple. The second value is a dictionary with parameters extracted
from the URL. Raise :exc:`HTTPError` (404/405) on a non-match."""
return self.router.match(environ)
def get_url(self, routename, **kargs):
""" Return a string that matches a named route """
scriptname = request.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '').strip('/') + '/'
location = self.router.build(routename, **kargs).lstrip('/')
return urljoin(urljoin('/', scriptname), location)
def add_route(self, route):
""" Add a route object, but do not change the :data:`Route.app`
attribute."""
self.routes.append(route)
self.router.add(route.rule, route.method, route, name=route.name)
if DEBUG: route.prepare()
def route(self,
path=None,
method='GET',
callback=None,
name=None,
apply=None,
skip=None, **config):
""" A decorator to bind a function to a request URL. Example::
@app.route('/hello/<name>')
def hello(name):
return 'Hello %s' % name
The ``<name>`` part is a wildcard. See :class:`Router` for syntax
details.
:param path: Request path or a list of paths to listen to. If no
path is specified, it is automatically generated from the
signature of the function.
:param method: HTTP method (`GET`, `POST`, `PUT`, ...) or a list of
methods to listen to. (default: `GET`)
:param callback: An optional shortcut to avoid the decorator
syntax. ``route(..., callback=func)`` equals ``route(...)(func)``
:param name: The name for this route. (default: None)
:param apply: A decorator or plugin or a list of plugins. These are
applied to the route callback in addition to installed plugins.
:param skip: A list of plugins, plugin classes or names. Matching
plugins are not installed to this route. ``True`` skips all.
Any additional keyword arguments are stored as route-specific
configuration and passed to plugins (see :meth:`Plugin.apply`).
"""
if callable(path): path, callback = None, path
plugins = makelist(apply)
skiplist = makelist(skip)
def decorator(callback):
if isinstance(callback, basestring): callback = load(callback)
for rule in makelist(path) or yieldroutes(callback):
for verb in makelist(method):
verb = verb.upper()
route = Route(self, rule, verb, callback,
name=name,
plugins=plugins,
skiplist=skiplist, **config)
self.add_route(route)
return callback
return decorator(callback) if callback else decorator
def get(self, path=None, method='GET', **options):
""" Equals :meth:`route`. """
return self.route(path, method, **options)
def post(self, path=None, method='POST', **options):
""" Equals :meth:`route` with a ``POST`` method parameter. """
return self.route(path, method, **options)
def put(self, path=None, method='PUT', **options):
""" Equals :meth:`route` with a ``PUT`` method parameter. """
return self.route(path, method, **options)
def delete(self, path=None, method='DELETE', **options):
""" Equals :meth:`route` with a ``DELETE`` method parameter. """
return self.route(path, method, **options)
def patch(self, path=None, method='PATCH', **options):
""" Equals :meth:`route` with a ``PATCH`` method parameter. """
return self.route(path, method, **options)
def error(self, code=500, callback=None):
""" Register an output handler for a HTTP error code. Can
be used as a decorator or called directly ::
def error_handler_500(error):
return 'error_handler_500'
app.error(code=500, callback=error_handler_500)
@app.error(404)
def error_handler_404(error):
return 'error_handler_404'
"""
def decorator(callback):
if isinstance(callback, basestring): callback = load(callback)
self.error_handler[int(code)] = callback
return callback
return decorator(callback) if callback else decorator
def default_error_handler(self, res):
return tob(template(ERROR_PAGE_TEMPLATE, e=res, template_settings=dict(name='__ERROR_PAGE_TEMPLATE')))
def _handle(self, environ):
path = environ['bottle.raw_path'] = environ['PATH_INFO']
if py3k:
environ['PATH_INFO'] = path.encode('latin1').decode('utf8', 'ignore')
environ['bottle.app'] = self
request.bind(environ)
response.bind()
try:
while True: # Remove in 0.14 together with RouteReset
out = None
try:
self.trigger_hook('before_request')
route, args = self.router.match(environ)
environ['route.handle'] = route
environ['bottle.route'] = route
environ['route.url_args'] = args
out = route.call(**args)
break
except HTTPResponse as E:
out = E
break
except RouteReset:
depr(0, 13, "RouteReset exception deprecated",
"Call route.call() after route.reset() and "
"return the result.")
route.reset()
continue
finally:
if isinstance(out, HTTPResponse):
out.apply(response)
try:
self.trigger_hook('after_request')
except HTTPResponse as E:
out = E
out.apply(response)
except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError):
raise
except Exception as E:
if not self.catchall: raise
stacktrace = format_exc()
environ['wsgi.errors'].write(stacktrace)
environ['wsgi.errors'].flush()
out = HTTPError(500, "Internal Server Error", E, stacktrace)
out.apply(response)
return out
def _cast(self, out, peek=None):
""" Try to convert the parameter into something WSGI compatible and set
correct HTTP headers when possible.
Support: False, str, unicode, dict, HTTPResponse, HTTPError, file-like,
iterable of strings and iterable of unicodes
"""
# Empty output is done here
if not out:
if 'Content-Length' not in response:
response['Content-Length'] = 0
return []
# Join lists of byte or unicode strings. Mixed lists are NOT supported
if isinstance(out, (tuple, list))\
and isinstance(out[0], (bytes, unicode)):
out = out[0][0:0].join(out) # b'abc'[0:0] -> b''
# Encode unicode strings
if isinstance(out, unicode):
out = out.encode(response.charset)
# Byte Strings are just returned
if isinstance(out, bytes):
if 'Content-Length' not in response:
response['Content-Length'] = len(out)
return [out]
# HTTPError or HTTPException (recursive, because they may wrap anything)
# TODO: Handle these explicitly in handle() or make them iterable.
if isinstance(out, HTTPError):
out.apply(response)
out = self.error_handler.get(out.status_code,
self.default_error_handler)(out)
return self._cast(out)
if isinstance(out, HTTPResponse):
out.apply(response)
return self._cast(out.body)
# File-like objects.
if hasattr(out, 'read'):
if 'wsgi.file_wrapper' in request.environ:
return request.environ['wsgi.file_wrapper'](out)
elif hasattr(out, 'close') or not hasattr(out, '__iter__'):
return WSGIFileWrapper(out)
# Handle Iterables. We peek into them to detect their inner type.
try:
iout = iter(out)
first = next(iout)
while not first:
first = next(iout)
except StopIteration:
return self._cast('')
except HTTPResponse as E:
first = E
except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError):
raise
except Exception as error:
if not self.catchall: raise
first = HTTPError(500, 'Unhandled exception', error, format_exc())
# These are the inner types allowed in iterator or generator objects.
if isinstance(first, HTTPResponse):
return self._cast(first)
elif isinstance(first, bytes):
new_iter = itertools.chain([first], iout)
elif isinstance(first, unicode):
encoder = lambda x: x.encode(response.charset)
new_iter = imap(encoder, itertools.chain([first], iout))
else:
msg = 'Unsupported response type: %s' % type(first)
return self._cast(HTTPError(500, msg))
if hasattr(out, 'close'):
new_iter = _closeiter(new_iter, out.close)
return new_iter
def wsgi(self, environ, start_response):
""" The bottle WSGI-interface. """
try:
out = self._cast(self._handle(environ))
# rfc2616 section 4.3
if response._status_code in (100, 101, 204, 304)\
or environ['REQUEST_METHOD'] == 'HEAD':
if hasattr(out, 'close'): out.close()
out = []
start_response(response._status_line, response.headerlist)
return out
except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError):
raise
except Exception as E:
if not self.catchall: raise
err = '<h1>Critical error while processing request: %s</h1>' \
% html_escape(environ.get('PATH_INFO', '/'))
if DEBUG:
err += '<h2>Error:</h2>\n<pre>\n%s\n</pre>\n' \
'<h2>Traceback:</h2>\n<pre>\n%s\n</pre>\n' \
% (html_escape(repr(E)), html_escape(format_exc()))
environ['wsgi.errors'].write(err)
environ['wsgi.errors'].flush()
headers = [('Content-Type', 'text/html; charset=UTF-8')]
start_response('500 INTERNAL SERVER ERROR', headers, sys.exc_info())
return [tob(err)]
def __call__(self, environ, start_response):
""" Each instance of :class:'Bottle' is a WSGI application. """
return self.wsgi(environ, start_response)
def __enter__(self):
""" Use this application as default for all module-level shortcuts. """
default_app.push(self)
return self
def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback):
default_app.pop()
def __setattr__(self, name, value):
if name in self.__dict__:
raise AttributeError("Attribute %s already defined. Plugin conflict?" % name)
self.__dict__[name] = value
###############################################################################
# HTTP and WSGI Tools ##########################################################
###############################################################################
class BaseRequest(object):
""" A wrapper for WSGI environment dictionaries that adds a lot of
convenient access methods and properties. Most of them are read-only.
Adding new attributes to a request actually adds them to the environ
dictionary (as 'bottle.request.ext.<name>'). This is the recommended
way to store and access request-specific data.
"""
__slots__ = ('environ', )
#: Maximum size of memory buffer for :attr:`body` in bytes.
MEMFILE_MAX = 102400
def __init__(self, environ=None):
""" Wrap a WSGI environ dictionary. """
#: The wrapped WSGI environ dictionary. This is the only real attribute.
#: All other attributes actually are read-only properties.
self.environ = {} if environ is None else environ
self.environ['bottle.request'] = self
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.app', read_only=True)
def app(self):
""" Bottle application handling this request. """
raise RuntimeError('This request is not connected to an application.')
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.route', read_only=True)
def route(self):
""" The bottle :class:`Route` object that matches this request. """
raise RuntimeError('This request is not connected to a route.')
@DictProperty('environ', 'route.url_args', read_only=True)
def url_args(self):
""" The arguments extracted from the URL. """
raise RuntimeError('This request is not connected to a route.')
@property
def path(self):
""" The value of ``PATH_INFO`` with exactly one prefixed slash (to fix
broken clients and avoid the "empty path" edge case). """
return '/' + self.environ.get('PATH_INFO', '').lstrip('/')
@property
def method(self):
""" The ``REQUEST_METHOD`` value as an uppercase string. """
return self.environ.get('REQUEST_METHOD', 'GET').upper()
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.headers', read_only=True)
def headers(self):
""" A :class:`WSGIHeaderDict` that provides case-insensitive access to
HTTP request headers. """
return WSGIHeaderDict(self.environ)
def get_header(self, name, default=None):
""" Return the value of a request header, or a given default value. """
return self.headers.get(name, default)
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.cookies', read_only=True)
def cookies(self):
""" Cookies parsed into a :class:`FormsDict`. Signed cookies are NOT
decoded. Use :meth:`get_cookie` if you expect signed cookies. """
cookies = SimpleCookie(self.environ.get('HTTP_COOKIE', '')).values()
return FormsDict((c.key, c.value) for c in cookies)
def get_cookie(self, key, default=None, secret=None, digestmod=hashlib.sha256):
""" Return the content of a cookie. To read a `Signed Cookie`, the
`secret` must match the one used to create the cookie (see
:meth:`BaseResponse.set_cookie`). If anything goes wrong (missing
cookie or wrong signature), return a default value. """
value = self.cookies.get(key)
if secret:
# See BaseResponse.set_cookie for details on signed cookies.
if value and value.startswith('!') and '?' in value:
sig, msg = map(tob, value[1:].split('?', 1))
hash = hmac.new(tob(secret), msg, digestmod=digestmod).digest()
if _lscmp(sig, base64.b64encode(hash)):
dst = pickle.loads(base64.b64decode(msg))
if dst and dst[0] == key:
return dst[1]
return default
return value or default
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.query', read_only=True)
def query(self):
""" The :attr:`query_string` parsed into a :class:`FormsDict`. These
values are sometimes called "URL arguments" or "GET parameters", but
not to be confused with "URL wildcards" as they are provided by the
:class:`Router`. """
get = self.environ['bottle.get'] = FormsDict()
pairs = _parse_qsl(self.environ.get('QUERY_STRING', ''))
for key, value in pairs:
get[key] = value
return get
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.forms', read_only=True)
def forms(self):
""" Form values parsed from an `url-encoded` or `multipart/form-data`
encoded POST or PUT request body. The result is returned as a
:class:`FormsDict`. All keys and values are strings. File uploads
are stored separately in :attr:`files`. """
forms = FormsDict()
for name, item in self.POST.allitems():
if not isinstance(item, FileUpload):
forms[name] = item
return forms
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.params', read_only=True)
def params(self):
""" A :class:`FormsDict` with the combined values of :attr:`query` and
:attr:`forms`. File uploads are stored in :attr:`files`. """
params = FormsDict()
for key, value in self.query.allitems():
params[key] = value
for key, value in self.forms.allitems():
params[key] = value
return params
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.files', read_only=True)
def files(self):
""" File uploads parsed from `multipart/form-data` encoded POST or PUT
request body. The values are instances of :class:`FileUpload`.
"""
files = FormsDict()
for name, item in self.POST.allitems():
if isinstance(item, FileUpload):
files[name] = item
return files
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.json', read_only=True)
def json(self):
""" If the ``Content-Type`` header is ``application/json`` or
``application/json-rpc``, this property holds the parsed content
of the request body. Only requests smaller than :attr:`MEMFILE_MAX`
are processed to avoid memory exhaustion.
Invalid JSON raises a 400 error response.
"""
ctype = self.environ.get('CONTENT_TYPE', '').lower().split(';')[0]
if ctype in ('application/json', 'application/json-rpc'):
b = self._get_body_string()
if not b:
return None
try:
return json_loads(b)
except (ValueError, TypeError):
raise HTTPError(400, 'Invalid JSON')
return None
def _iter_body(self, read, bufsize):
maxread = max(0, self.content_length)
while maxread:
part = read(min(maxread, bufsize))
if not part: break
yield part
maxread -= len(part)
@staticmethod
def _iter_chunked(read, bufsize):
err = HTTPError(400, 'Error while parsing chunked transfer body.')
rn, sem, bs = tob('\r\n'), tob(';'), tob('')
while True:
header = read(1)
while header[-2:] != rn:
c = read(1)
header += c
if not c: raise err
if len(header) > bufsize: raise err
size, _, _ = header.partition(sem)
try:
maxread = int(tonat(size.strip()), 16)
except ValueError:
raise err
if maxread == 0: break
buff = bs
while maxread > 0:
if not buff:
buff = read(min(maxread, bufsize))
part, buff = buff[:maxread], buff[maxread:]
if not part: raise err
yield part
maxread -= len(part)
if read(2) != rn:
raise err
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.body', read_only=True)
def _body(self):
try:
read_func = self.environ['wsgi.input'].read
except KeyError:
self.environ['wsgi.input'] = BytesIO()
return self.environ['wsgi.input']
body_iter = self._iter_chunked if self.chunked else self._iter_body
body, body_size, is_temp_file = BytesIO(), 0, False
for part in body_iter(read_func, self.MEMFILE_MAX):
body.write(part)
body_size += len(part)
if not is_temp_file and body_size > self.MEMFILE_MAX:
body, tmp = TemporaryFile(mode='w+b'), body
body.write(tmp.getvalue())
del tmp
is_temp_file = True
self.environ['wsgi.input'] = body
body.seek(0)
return body
def _get_body_string(self):
""" read body until content-length or MEMFILE_MAX into a string. Raise
HTTPError(413) on requests that are to large. """
clen = self.content_length
if clen > self.MEMFILE_MAX:
raise HTTPError(413, 'Request entity too large')
if clen < 0: clen = self.MEMFILE_MAX + 1
data = self.body.read(clen)
if len(data) > self.MEMFILE_MAX: # Fail fast
raise HTTPError(413, 'Request entity too large')
return data
@property
def body(self):
""" The HTTP request body as a seek-able file-like object. Depending on
:attr:`MEMFILE_MAX`, this is either a temporary file or a
:class:`io.BytesIO` instance. Accessing this property for the first
time reads and replaces the ``wsgi.input`` environ variable.
Subsequent accesses just do a `seek(0)` on the file object. """
self._body.seek(0)
return self._body
@property
def chunked(self):
""" True if Chunked transfer encoding was. """
return 'chunked' in self.environ.get(
'HTTP_TRANSFER_ENCODING', '').lower()
#: An alias for :attr:`query`.
GET = query
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.post', read_only=True)
def POST(self):
""" The values of :attr:`forms` and :attr:`files` combined into a single
:class:`FormsDict`. Values are either strings (form values) or
instances of :class:`cgi.FieldStorage` (file uploads).
"""
post = FormsDict()
# We default to application/x-www-form-urlencoded for everything that
# is not multipart and take the fast path (also: 3.1 workaround)
if not self.content_type.startswith('multipart/'):
pairs = _parse_qsl(tonat(self._get_body_string(), 'latin1'))
for key, value in pairs:
post[key] = value
return post
safe_env = {'QUERY_STRING': ''} # Build a safe environment for cgi
for key in ('REQUEST_METHOD', 'CONTENT_TYPE', 'CONTENT_LENGTH'):
if key in self.environ: safe_env[key] = self.environ[key]
args = dict(fp=self.body, environ=safe_env, keep_blank_values=True)
if py3k:
args['encoding'] = 'utf8'
data = cgi.FieldStorage(**args)
self['_cgi.FieldStorage'] = data #http://bugs.python.org/issue18394
data = data.list or []
for item in data:
if item.filename:
post[item.name] = FileUpload(item.file, item.name,
item.filename, item.headers)
else:
post[item.name] = item.value
return post
@property
def url(self):
""" The full request URI including hostname and scheme. If your app
lives behind a reverse proxy or load balancer and you get confusing
results, make sure that the ``X-Forwarded-Host`` header is set
correctly. """
return self.urlparts.geturl()
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.urlparts', read_only=True)
def urlparts(self):
""" The :attr:`url` string as an :class:`urlparse.SplitResult` tuple.
The tuple contains (scheme, host, path, query_string and fragment),
but the fragment is always empty because it is not visible to the
server. """
env = self.environ
http = env.get('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_PROTO') \
or env.get('wsgi.url_scheme', 'http')
host = env.get('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_HOST') or env.get('HTTP_HOST')
if not host:
# HTTP 1.1 requires a Host-header. This is for HTTP/1.0 clients.
host = env.get('SERVER_NAME', '127.0.0.1')
port = env.get('SERVER_PORT')
if port and port != ('80' if http == 'http' else '443'):
host += ':' + port
path = urlquote(self.fullpath)
return UrlSplitResult(http, host, path, env.get('QUERY_STRING'), '')
@property
def fullpath(self):
""" Request path including :attr:`script_name` (if present). """
return urljoin(self.script_name, self.path.lstrip('/'))
@property
def query_string(self):
""" The raw :attr:`query` part of the URL (everything in between ``?``
and ``#``) as a string. """
return self.environ.get('QUERY_STRING', '')
@property
def script_name(self):
""" The initial portion of the URL's `path` that was removed by a higher
level (server or routing middleware) before the application was
called. This script path is returned with leading and tailing
slashes. """
script_name = self.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '').strip('/')
return '/' + script_name + '/' if script_name else '/'
def path_shift(self, shift=1):
""" Shift path segments from :attr:`path` to :attr:`script_name` and
vice versa.
:param shift: The number of path segments to shift. May be negative
to change the shift direction. (default: 1)
"""
script, path = path_shift(self.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '/'), self.path, shift)
self['SCRIPT_NAME'], self['PATH_INFO'] = script, path
@property
def content_length(self):
""" The request body length as an integer. The client is responsible to
set this header. Otherwise, the real length of the body is unknown
and -1 is returned. In this case, :attr:`body` will be empty. """
return int(self.environ.get('CONTENT_LENGTH') or -1)
@property
def content_type(self):
""" The Content-Type header as a lowercase-string (default: empty). """
return self.environ.get('CONTENT_TYPE', '').lower()
@property
def is_xhr(self):
""" True if the request was triggered by a XMLHttpRequest. This only
works with JavaScript libraries that support the `X-Requested-With`
header (most of the popular libraries do). """
requested_with = self.environ.get('HTTP_X_REQUESTED_WITH', '')
return requested_with.lower() == 'xmlhttprequest'
@property
def is_ajax(self):
""" Alias for :attr:`is_xhr`. "Ajax" is not the right term. """
return self.is_xhr
@property
def auth(self):
""" HTTP authentication data as a (user, password) tuple. This
implementation currently supports basic (not digest) authentication
only. If the authentication happened at a higher level (e.g. in the
front web-server or a middleware), the password field is None, but
the user field is looked up from the ``REMOTE_USER`` environ
variable. On any errors, None is returned. """
basic = parse_auth(self.environ.get('HTTP_AUTHORIZATION', ''))
if basic: return basic
ruser = self.environ.get('REMOTE_USER')
if ruser: return (ruser, None)
return None
@property
def remote_route(self):
""" A list of all IPs that were involved in this request, starting with
the client IP and followed by zero or more proxies. This does only
work if all proxies support the ```X-Forwarded-For`` header. Note
that this information can be forged by malicious clients. """
proxy = self.environ.get('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR')
if proxy: return [ip.strip() for ip in proxy.split(',')]
remote = self.environ.get('REMOTE_ADDR')
return [remote] if remote else []
@property
def remote_addr(self):
""" The client IP as a string. Note that this information can be forged
by malicious clients. """
route = self.remote_route
return route[0] if route else None
def copy(self):
""" Return a new :class:`Request` with a shallow :attr:`environ` copy. """
return Request(self.environ.copy())
def get(self, value, default=None):
return self.environ.get(value, default)
def __getitem__(self, key):
return self.environ[key]
def __delitem__(self, key):
self[key] = ""
del (self.environ[key])
def __iter__(self):
return iter(self.environ)
def __len__(self):
return len(self.environ)
def keys(self):
return self.environ.keys()
def __setitem__(self, key, value):
""" Change an environ value and clear all caches that depend on it. """
if self.environ.get('bottle.request.readonly'):
raise KeyError('The environ dictionary is read-only.')
self.environ[key] = value
todelete = ()
if key == 'wsgi.input':
todelete = ('body', 'forms', 'files', 'params', 'post', 'json')
elif key == 'QUERY_STRING':
todelete = ('query', 'params')
elif key.startswith('HTTP_'):
todelete = ('headers', 'cookies')
for key in todelete:
self.environ.pop('bottle.request.' + key, None)
def __repr__(self):
return '<%s: %s %s>' % (self.__class__.__name__, self.method, self.url)
def __getattr__(self, name):
""" Search in self.environ for additional user defined attributes. """
try:
var = self.environ['bottle.request.ext.%s' % name]
return var.__get__(self) if hasattr(var, '__get__') else var
except KeyError:
raise AttributeError('Attribute %r not defined.' % name)
def __setattr__(self, name, value):
if name == 'environ': return object.__setattr__(self, name, value)
key = 'bottle.request.ext.%s' % name
if key in self.environ:
raise AttributeError("Attribute already defined: %s" % name)
self.environ[key] = value
def __delattr__(self, name, value):
try:
del self.environ['bottle.request.ext.%s' % name]
except KeyError:
raise AttributeError("Attribute not defined: %s" % name)
def _hkey(key):
if '\n' in key or '\r' in key or '\0' in key:
raise ValueError("Header names must not contain control characters: %r" % key)
return key.title().replace('_', '-')
def _hval(value):
value = tonat(value)
if '\n' in value or '\r' in value or '\0' in value:
raise ValueError("Header value must not contain control characters: %r" % value)
return value
class HeaderProperty(object):
def __init__(self, name, reader=None, writer=None, default=''):
self.name, self.default = name, default
self.reader, self.writer = reader, writer
self.__doc__ = 'Current value of the %r header.' % name.title()
def __get__(self, obj, _):
if obj is None: return self
value = obj.get_header(self.name, self.default)
return self.reader(value) if self.reader else value
def __set__(self, obj, value):
obj[self.name] = self.writer(value) if self.writer else value
def __delete__(self, obj):
del obj[self.name]
class BaseResponse(object):
""" Storage class for a response body as well as headers and cookies.
This class does support dict-like case-insensitive item-access to
headers, but is NOT a dict. Most notably, iterating over a response
yields parts of the body and not the headers.
:param body: The response body as one of the supported types.
:param status: Either an HTTP status code (e.g. 200) or a status line
including the reason phrase (e.g. '200 OK').
:param headers: A dictionary or a list of name-value pairs.
Additional keyword arguments are added to the list of headers.
Underscores in the header name are replaced with dashes.
"""
default_status = 200
default_content_type = 'text/html; charset=UTF-8'
# Header blacklist for specific response codes
# (rfc2616 section 10.2.3 and 10.3.5)
bad_headers = {
204: frozenset(('Content-Type', 'Content-Length')),
304: frozenset(('Allow', 'Content-Encoding', 'Content-Language',
'Content-Length', 'Content-Range', 'Content-Type',
'Content-Md5', 'Last-Modified'))
}
def __init__(self, body='', status=None, headers=None, **more_headers):
self._cookies = None
self._headers = {}
self.body = body
self.status = status or self.default_status
if headers:
if isinstance(headers, dict):
headers = headers.items()
for name, value in headers:
self.add_header(name, value)
if more_headers:
for name, value in more_headers.items():
self.add_header(name, value)
def copy(self, cls=None):
""" Returns a copy of self. """
cls = cls or BaseResponse
assert issubclass(cls, BaseResponse)
copy = cls()
copy.status = self.status
copy._headers = dict((k, v[:]) for (k, v) in self._headers.items())
if self._cookies:
copy._cookies = SimpleCookie()
copy._cookies.load(self._cookies.output(header=''))
return copy
def __iter__(self):
return iter(self.body)
def close(self):
if hasattr(self.body, 'close'):
self.body.close()
@property
def status_line(self):
""" The HTTP status line as a string (e.g. ``404 Not Found``)."""
return self._status_line
@property
def status_code(self):
""" The HTTP status code as an integer (e.g. 404)."""
return self._status_code
def _set_status(self, status):
if isinstance(status, int):
code, status = status, _HTTP_STATUS_LINES.get(status)
elif ' ' in status:
status = status.strip()
code = int(status.split()[0])
else:
raise ValueError('String status line without a reason phrase.')
if not 100 <= code <= 999:
raise ValueError('Status code out of range.')
self._status_code = code
self._status_line = str(status or ('%d Unknown' % code))
def _get_status(self):
return self._status_line
status = property(
_get_status, _set_status, None,
''' A writeable property to change the HTTP response status. It accepts
either a numeric code (100-999) or a string with a custom reason
phrase (e.g. "404 Brain not found"). Both :data:`status_line` and
:data:`status_code` are updated accordingly. The return value is
always a status string. ''')
del _get_status, _set_status
@property
def headers(self):
""" An instance of :class:`HeaderDict`, a case-insensitive dict-like
view on the response headers. """
hdict = HeaderDict()
hdict.dict = self._headers
return hdict
def __contains__(self, name):
return _hkey(name) in self._headers
def __delitem__(self, name):
del self._headers[_hkey(name)]
def __getitem__(self, name):
return self._headers[_hkey(name)][-1]
def __setitem__(self, name, value):
self._headers[_hkey(name)] = [_hval(value)]
def get_header(self, name, default=None):
""" Return the value of a previously defined header. If there is no
header with that name, return a default value. """
return self._headers.get(_hkey(name), [default])[-1]
def set_header(self, name, value):
""" Create a new response header, replacing any previously defined
headers with the same name. """
self._headers[_hkey(name)] = [_hval(value)]
def add_header(self, name, value):
""" Add an additional response header, not removing duplicates. """
self._headers.setdefault(_hkey(name), []).append(_hval(value))
def iter_headers(self):
""" Yield (header, value) tuples, skipping headers that are not
allowed with the current response status code. """
return self.headerlist
@property
def headerlist(self):
""" WSGI conform list of (header, value) tuples. """
out = []
headers = list(self._headers.items())
if 'Content-Type' not in self._headers:
headers.append(('Content-Type', [self.default_content_type]))
if self._status_code in self.bad_headers:
bad_headers = self.bad_headers[self._status_code]
headers = [h for h in headers if h[0] not in bad_headers]
out += [(name, val) for (name, vals) in headers for val in vals]
if self._cookies:
for c in self._cookies.values():
out.append(('Set-Cookie', _hval(c.OutputString())))
if py3k:
out = [(k, v.encode('utf8').decode('latin1')) for (k, v) in out]
return out
content_type = HeaderProperty('Content-Type')
content_length = HeaderProperty('Content-Length', reader=int)
expires = HeaderProperty(
'Expires',
reader=lambda x: datetime.utcfromtimestamp(parse_date(x)),
writer=lambda x: http_date(x))
@property
def charset(self, default='UTF-8'):
""" Return the charset specified in the content-type header (default: utf8). """
if 'charset=' in self.content_type:
return self.content_type.split('charset=')[-1].split(';')[0].strip()
return default
def set_cookie(self, name, value, secret=None, digestmod=hashlib.sha256, **options):
""" Create a new cookie or replace an old one. If the `secret` parameter is
set, create a `Signed Cookie` (described below).
:param name: the name of the cookie.
:param value: the value of the cookie.
:param secret: a signature key required for signed cookies.
Additionally, this method accepts all RFC 2109 attributes that are
supported by :class:`cookie.Morsel`, including:
:param max_age: maximum age in seconds. (default: None)
:param expires: a datetime object or UNIX timestamp. (default: None)
:param domain: the domain that is allowed to read the cookie.
(default: current domain)
:param path: limits the cookie to a given path (default: current path)
:param secure: limit the cookie to HTTPS connections (default: off).
:param httponly: prevents client-side javascript to read this cookie
(default: off, requires Python 2.6 or newer).
:param same_site: disables third-party use for a cookie.
Allowed attributes: `lax` and `strict`.
In strict mode the cookie will never be sent.
In lax mode the cookie is only sent with a top-level GET request.
If neither `expires` nor `max_age` is set (default), the cookie will
expire at the end of the browser session (as soon as the browser
window is closed).
Signed cookies may store any pickle-able object and are
cryptographically signed to prevent manipulation. Keep in mind that
cookies are limited to 4kb in most browsers.
Warning: Pickle is a potentially dangerous format. If an attacker
gains access to the secret key, he could forge cookies that execute
code on server side if unpickeld. Using pickle is discouraged and
support for it will be removed in later versions of bottle.
Warning: Signed cookies are not encrypted (the client can still see
the content) and not copy-protected (the client can restore an old
cookie). The main intention is to make pickling and unpickling
save, not to store secret information at client side.
"""
if not self._cookies:
self._cookies = SimpleCookie()
# To add "SameSite" cookie support.
Morsel._reserved['same-site'] = 'SameSite'
if secret:
if not isinstance(value, basestring):
depr(0, 13, "Pickling of arbitrary objects into cookies is "
"deprecated.", "Only store strings in cookies. "
"JSON strings are fine, too.")
encoded = base64.b64encode(pickle.dumps([name, value], -1))
sig = base64.b64encode(hmac.new(tob(secret), encoded,
digestmod=digestmod).digest())
value = touni(tob('!') + sig + tob('?') + encoded)
elif not isinstance(value, basestring):
raise TypeError('Secret key required for non-string cookies.')
# Cookie size plus options must not exceed 4kb.
if len(name) + len(value) > 3800:
raise ValueError('Content does not fit into a cookie.')
self._cookies[name] = value
for key, value in options.items():
if key == 'max_age':
if isinstance(value, timedelta):
value = value.seconds + value.days * 24 * 3600
if key == 'expires':
if isinstance(value, (datedate, datetime)):
value = value.timetuple()
elif isinstance(value, (int, float)):
value = time.gmtime(value)
value = time.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT", value)
# check values for SameSite cookie, because it's not natively supported by http.cookies.
if key == 'same_site' and value.lower() not in ('lax', 'strict'):
raise CookieError("Invalid attribute %r" % (key,))
if key in ('secure', 'httponly') and not value:
continue
self._cookies[name][key.replace('_', '-')] = value
def delete_cookie(self, key, **kwargs):
""" Delete a cookie. Be sure to use the same `domain` and `path`
settings as used to create the cookie. """
kwargs['max_age'] = -1
kwargs['expires'] = 0
self.set_cookie(key, '', **kwargs)
def __repr__(self):
out = ''
for name, value in self.headerlist:
out += '%s: %s\n' % (name.title(), value.strip())
return out
def _local_property():
ls = threading.local()
def fget(_):
try:
return ls.var
except AttributeError:
raise RuntimeError("Request context not initialized.")
def fset(_, value):
ls.var = value
def fdel(_):
del ls.var
return property(fget, fset, fdel, 'Thread-local property')
class LocalRequest(BaseRequest):
""" A thread-local subclass of :class:`BaseRequest` with a different
set of attributes for each thread. There is usually only one global
instance of this class (:data:`request`). If accessed during a
request/response cycle, this instance always refers to the *current*
request (even on a multithreaded server). """
bind = BaseRequest.__init__
environ = _local_property()
class LocalResponse(BaseResponse):
""" A thread-local subclass of :class:`BaseResponse` with a different
set of attributes for each thread. There is usually only one global
instance of this class (:data:`response`). Its attributes are used
to build the HTTP response at the end of the request/response cycle.
"""
bind = BaseResponse.__init__
_status_line = _local_property()
_status_code = _local_property()
_cookies = _local_property()
_headers = _local_property()
body = _local_property()
Request = BaseRequest
Response = BaseResponse
class HTTPResponse(Response, BottleException):
def __init__(self, body='', status=None, headers=None, **more_headers):
super(HTTPResponse, self).__init__(body, status, headers, **more_headers)
def apply(self, other):
other._status_code = self._status_code
other._status_line = self._status_line
other._headers = self._headers
other._cookies = self._cookies
other.body = self.body
class HTTPError(HTTPResponse):
default_status = 500
def __init__(self,
status=None,
body=None,
exception=None,
traceback=None, **more_headers):
self.exception = exception
self.traceback = traceback
super(HTTPError, self).__init__(body, status, **more_headers)
###############################################################################
# Plugins ######################################################################
###############################################################################
class PluginError(BottleException):
pass
class JSONPlugin(object):
name = 'json'
api = 2
def __init__(self, json_dumps=json_dumps):
self.json_dumps = json_dumps
def setup(self, app):
app.config._define('json.enable', default=True, validate=bool,
help="Enable or disable automatic dict->json filter.")
app.config._define('json.ascii', default=False, validate=bool,
help="Use only 7-bit ASCII characters in output.")
app.config._define('json.indent', default=True, validate=bool,
help="Add whitespace to make json more readable.")
app.config._define('json.dump_func', default=None,
help="If defined, use this function to transform"
" dict into json. The other options no longer"
" apply.")
def apply(self, callback, route):
dumps = self.json_dumps
if not self.json_dumps: return callback
def wrapper(*a, **ka):
try:
rv = callback(*a, **ka)
except HTTPResponse as resp:
rv = resp
if isinstance(rv, dict):
#Attempt to serialize, raises exception on failure
json_response = dumps(rv)
#Set content type only if serialization successful
response.content_type = 'application/json'
return json_response
elif isinstance(rv, HTTPResponse) and isinstance(rv.body, dict):
rv.body = dumps(rv.body)
rv.content_type = 'application/json'
return rv
return wrapper
class TemplatePlugin(object):
""" This plugin applies the :func:`view` decorator to all routes with a
`template` config parameter. If the parameter is a tuple, the second
element must be a dict with additional options (e.g. `template_engine`)
or default variables for the template. """
name = 'template'
api = 2
def setup(self, app):
app.tpl = self
def apply(self, callback, route):
conf = route.config.get('template')
if isinstance(conf, (tuple, list)) and len(conf) == 2:
return view(conf[0], **conf[1])(callback)
elif isinstance(conf, str):
return view(conf)(callback)
else:
return callback
#: Not a plugin, but part of the plugin API. TODO: Find a better place.
class _ImportRedirect(object):
def __init__(self, name, impmask):
""" Create a virtual package that redirects imports (see PEP 302). """
self.name = name
self.impmask = impmask
self.module = sys.modules.setdefault(name, imp.new_module(name))
self.module.__dict__.update({
'__file__': __file__,
'__path__': [],
'__all__': [],
'__loader__': self
})
sys.meta_path.append(self)
def find_module(self, fullname, path=None):
if '.' not in fullname: return
packname = fullname.rsplit('.', 1)[0]
if packname != self.name: return
return self
def load_module(self, fullname):
if fullname in sys.modules: return sys.modules[fullname]
modname = fullname.rsplit('.', 1)[1]
realname = self.impmask % modname
__import__(realname)
module = sys.modules[fullname] = sys.modules[realname]
setattr(self.module, modname, module)
module.__loader__ = self
return module
###############################################################################
# Common Utilities #############################################################
###############################################################################
class MultiDict(DictMixin):
""" This dict stores multiple values per key, but behaves exactly like a
normal dict in that it returns only the newest value for any given key.
There are special methods available to access the full list of values.
"""
def __init__(self, *a, **k):
self.dict = dict((k, [v]) for (k, v) in dict(*a, **k).items())
def __len__(self):
return len(self.dict)
def __iter__(self):
return iter(self.dict)
def __contains__(self, key):
return key in self.dict
def __delitem__(self, key):
del self.dict[key]
def __getitem__(self, key):
return self.dict[key][-1]
def __setitem__(self, key, value):
self.append(key, value)
def keys(self):
return self.dict.keys()
if py3k:
def values(self):
return (v[-1] for v in self.dict.values())
def items(self):
return ((k, v[-1]) for k, v in self.dict.items())
def allitems(self):
return ((k, v) for k, vl in self.dict.items() for v in vl)
iterkeys = keys
itervalues = values
iteritems = items
iterallitems = allitems
else:
def values(self):
return [v[-1] for v in self.dict.values()]
def items(self):
return [(k, v[-1]) for k, v in self.dict.items()]
def iterkeys(self):
return self.dict.iterkeys()
def itervalues(self):
return (v[-1] for v in self.dict.itervalues())
def iteritems(self):
return ((k, v[-1]) for k, v in self.dict.iteritems())
def iterallitems(self):
return ((k, v) for k, vl in self.dict.iteritems() for v in vl)
def allitems(self):
return [(k, v) for k, vl in self.dict.iteritems() for v in vl]
def get(self, key, default=None, index=-1, type=None):
""" Return the most recent value for a key.
:param default: The default value to be returned if the key is not
present or the type conversion fails.
:param index: An index for the list of available values.
:param type: If defined, this callable is used to cast the value
into a specific type. Exception are suppressed and result in
the default value to be returned.
"""
try:
val = self.dict[key][index]
return type(val) if type else val
except Exception:
pass
return default
def append(self, key, value):
""" Add a new value to the list of values for this key. """
self.dict.setdefault(key, []).append(value)
def replace(self, key, value):
""" Replace the list of values with a single value. """
self.dict[key] = [value]
def getall(self, key):
""" Return a (possibly empty) list of values for a key. """
return self.dict.get(key) or []
#: Aliases for WTForms to mimic other multi-dict APIs (Django)
getone = get
getlist = getall
class FormsDict(MultiDict):
""" This :class:`MultiDict` subclass is used to store request form data.
Additionally to the normal dict-like item access methods (which return
unmodified data as native strings), this container also supports
attribute-like access to its values. Attributes are automatically de-
or recoded to match :attr:`input_encoding` (default: 'utf8'). Missing
attributes default to an empty string. """
#: Encoding used for attribute values.
input_encoding = 'utf8'
#: If true (default), unicode strings are first encoded with `latin1`
#: and then decoded to match :attr:`input_encoding`.
recode_unicode = True
def _fix(self, s, encoding=None):
if isinstance(s, unicode) and self.recode_unicode: # Python 3 WSGI
return s.encode('latin1').decode(encoding or self.input_encoding)
elif isinstance(s, bytes): # Python 2 WSGI
return s.decode(encoding or self.input_encoding)
else:
return s
def decode(self, encoding=None):
""" Returns a copy with all keys and values de- or recoded to match
:attr:`input_encoding`. Some libraries (e.g. WTForms) want a
unicode dictionary. """
copy = FormsDict()
enc = copy.input_encoding = encoding or self.input_encoding
copy.recode_unicode = False
for key, value in self.allitems():
copy.append(self._fix(key, enc), self._fix(value, enc))
return copy
def getunicode(self, name, default=None, encoding=None):
""" Return the value as a unicode string, or the default. """
try:
return self._fix(self[name], encoding)
except (UnicodeError, KeyError):
return default
def __getattr__(self, name, default=unicode()):
# Without this guard, pickle generates a cryptic TypeError:
if name.startswith('__') and name.endswith('__'):
return super(FormsDict, self).__getattr__(name)
return self.getunicode(name, default=default)
class HeaderDict(MultiDict):
""" A case-insensitive version of :class:`MultiDict` that defaults to
replace the old value instead of appending it. """
def __init__(self, *a, **ka):
self.dict = {}
if a or ka: self.update(*a, **ka)
def __contains__(self, key):
return _hkey(key) in self.dict
def __delitem__(self, key):
del self.dict[_hkey(key)]
def __getitem__(self, key):
return self.dict[_hkey(key)][-1]
def __setitem__(self, key, value):
self.dict[_hkey(key)] = [_hval(value)]
def append(self, key, value):
self.dict.setdefault(_hkey(key), []).append(_hval(value))
def replace(self, key, value):
self.dict[_hkey(key)] = [_hval(value)]
def getall(self, key):
return self.dict.get(_hkey(key)) or []
def get(self, key, default=None, index=-1):
return MultiDict.get(self, _hkey(key), default, index)
def filter(self, names):
for name in (_hkey(n) for n in names):
if name in self.dict:
del self.dict[name]
class WSGIHeaderDict(DictMixin):
""" This dict-like class wraps a WSGI environ dict and provides convenient
access to HTTP_* fields. Keys and values are native strings
(2.x bytes or 3.x unicode) and keys are case-insensitive. If the WSGI
environment contains non-native string values, these are de- or encoded
using a lossless 'latin1' character set.
The API will remain stable even on changes to the relevant PEPs.
Currently PEP 333, 444 and 3333 are supported. (PEP 444 is the only one
that uses non-native strings.)
"""
#: List of keys that do not have a ``HTTP_`` prefix.
cgikeys = ('CONTENT_TYPE', 'CONTENT_LENGTH')
def __init__(self, environ):
self.environ = environ
def _ekey(self, key):
""" Translate header field name to CGI/WSGI environ key. """
key = key.replace('-', '_').upper()
if key in self.cgikeys:
return key
return 'HTTP_' + key
def raw(self, key, default=None):
""" Return the header value as is (may be bytes or unicode). """
return self.environ.get(self._ekey(key), default)
def __getitem__(self, key):
val = self.environ[self._ekey(key)]
if py3k:
if isinstance(val, unicode):
val = val.encode('latin1').decode('utf8')
else:
val = val.decode('utf8')
return val
def __setitem__(self, key, value):
raise TypeError("%s is read-only." % self.__class__)
def __delitem__(self, key):
raise TypeError("%s is read-only." % self.__class__)
def __iter__(self):
for key in self.environ:
if key[:5] == 'HTTP_':
yield _hkey(key[5:])
elif key in self.cgikeys:
yield _hkey(key)
def keys(self):
return [x for x in self]
def __len__(self):
return len(self.keys())
def __contains__(self, key):
return self._ekey(key) in self.environ
_UNSET = object()
class ConfigDict(dict):
""" A dict-like configuration storage with additional support for
namespaces, validators, meta-data, overlays and more.
This dict-like class is heavily optimized for read access. All read-only
methods as well as item access should be as fast as the built-in dict.
"""
__slots__ = ('_meta', '_change_listener', '_overlays', '_virtual_keys', '_source', '__weakref__')
def __init__(self):
self._meta = {}
self._change_listener = []
#: Weak references of overlays that need to be kept in sync.
self._overlays = []
#: Config that is the source for this overlay.
self._source = None
#: Keys of values copied from the source (values we do not own)
self._virtual_keys = set()
def load_module(self, path, squash=True):
"""Load values from a Python module.
Example modue ``config.py``::
DEBUG = True
SQLITE = {
"db": ":memory:"
}
>>> c = ConfigDict()
>>> c.load_module('config')
{DEBUG: True, 'SQLITE.DB': 'memory'}
>>> c.load_module("config", False)
{'DEBUG': True, 'SQLITE': {'DB': 'memory'}}
:param squash: If true (default), dictionary values are assumed to
represent namespaces (see :meth:`load_dict`).
"""
config_obj = load(path)
obj = {key: getattr(config_obj, key) for key in dir(config_obj)
if key.isupper()}
if squash:
self.load_dict(obj)
else:
self.update(obj)
return self
def load_config(self, filename, **options):
""" Load values from an ``*.ini`` style config file.
A configuration file consists of sections, each led by a
``[section]`` header, followed by key/value entries separated by
either ``=`` or ``:``. Section names and keys are case-insensitive.
Leading and trailing whitespace is removed from keys and values.
Values can be omitted, in which case the key/value delimiter may
also be left out. Values can also span multiple lines, as long as
they are indented deeper than the first line of the value. Commends
are prefixed by ``#`` or ``;`` and may only appear on their own on
an otherwise empty line.
Both section and key names may contain dots (``.``) as namespace
separators. The actual configuration parameter name is constructed
by joining section name and key name together and converting to
lower case.
The special sections ``bottle`` and ``ROOT`` refer to the root
namespace and the ``DEFAULT`` section defines default values for all
other sections.
With Python 3, extended string interpolation is enabled.
:param filename: The path of a config file, or a list of paths.
:param options: All keyword parameters are passed to the underlying
:class:`python:configparser.ConfigParser` constructor call.
"""
options.setdefault('allow_no_value', True)
if py3k:
options.setdefault('interpolation',
configparser.ExtendedInterpolation())
conf = configparser.ConfigParser(**options)
conf.read(filename)
for section in conf.sections():
for key in conf.options(section):
value = conf.get(section, key)
if section not in ['bottle', 'ROOT']:
key = section + '.' + key
self[key.lower()] = value
return self
def load_dict(self, source, namespace=''):
""" Load values from a dictionary structure. Nesting can be used to
represent namespaces.
>>> c = ConfigDict()
>>> c.load_dict({'some': {'namespace': {'key': 'value'} } })
{'some.namespace.key': 'value'}
"""
for key, value in source.items():
if isinstance(key, basestring):
nskey = (namespace + '.' + key).strip('.')
if isinstance(value, dict):
self.load_dict(value, namespace=nskey)
else:
self[nskey] = value
else:
raise TypeError('Key has type %r (not a string)' % type(key))
return self
def update(self, *a, **ka):
""" If the first parameter is a string, all keys are prefixed with this
namespace. Apart from that it works just as the usual dict.update().
>>> c = ConfigDict()
>>> c.update('some.namespace', key='value')
"""
prefix = ''
if a and isinstance(a[0], basestring):
prefix = a[0].strip('.') + '.'
a = a[1:]
for key, value in dict(*a, **ka).items():
self[prefix + key] = value
def setdefault(self, key, value):
if key not in self:
self[key] = value
return self[key]
def __setitem__(self, key, value):
if not isinstance(key, basestring):
raise TypeError('Key has type %r (not a string)' % type(key))
self._virtual_keys.discard(key)
value = self.meta_get(key, 'filter', lambda x: x)(value)
if key in self and self[key] is value:
return
self._on_change(key, value)
dict.__setitem__(self, key, value)
for overlay in self._iter_overlays():
overlay._set_virtual(key, value)
def __delitem__(self, key):
if key not in self:
raise KeyError(key)
if key in self._virtual_keys:
raise KeyError("Virtual keys cannot be deleted: %s" % key)
if self._source and key in self._source:
# Not virtual, but present in source -> Restore virtual value
dict.__delitem__(self, key)
self._set_virtual(key, self._source[key])
else: # not virtual, not present in source. This is OUR value
self._on_change(key, None)
dict.__delitem__(self, key)
for overlay in self._iter_overlays():
overlay._delete_virtual(key)
def _set_virtual(self, key, value):
""" Recursively set or update virtual keys. Do nothing if non-virtual
value is present. """
if key in self and key not in self._virtual_keys:
return # Do nothing for non-virtual keys.
self._virtual_keys.add(key)
if key in self and self[key] is not value:
self._on_change(key, value)
dict.__setitem__(self, key, value)
for overlay in self._iter_overlays():
overlay._set_virtual(key, value)
def _delete_virtual(self, key):
""" Recursively delete virtual entry. Do nothing if key is not virtual.
"""
if key not in self._virtual_keys:
return # Do nothing for non-virtual keys.
if key in self:
self._on_change(key, None)
dict.__delitem__(self, key)
self._virtual_keys.discard(key)
for overlay in self._iter_overlays():
overlay._delete_virtual(key)
def _on_change(self, key, value):
for cb in self._change_listener:
if cb(self, key, value):
return True
def _add_change_listener(self, func):
self._change_listener.append(func)
return func
def meta_get(self, key, metafield, default=None):
""" Return the value of a meta field for a key. """
return self._meta.get(key, {}).get(metafield, default)
def meta_set(self, key, metafield, value):
""" Set the meta field for a key to a new value. """
self._meta.setdefault(key, {})[metafield] = value
def meta_list(self, key):
""" Return an iterable of meta field names defined for a key. """
return self._meta.get(key, {}).keys()
def _define(self, key, default=_UNSET, help=_UNSET, validate=_UNSET):
""" (Unstable) Shortcut for plugins to define own config parameters. """
if default is not _UNSET:
self.setdefault(key, default)
if help is not _UNSET:
self.meta_set(key, 'help', help)
if validate is not _UNSET:
self.meta_set(key, 'validate', validate)
def _iter_overlays(self):
for ref in self._overlays:
overlay = ref()
if overlay is not None:
yield overlay
def _make_overlay(self):
""" (Unstable) Create a new overlay that acts like a chained map: Values
missing in the overlay are copied from the source map. Both maps
share the same meta entries.
Entries that were copied from the source are called 'virtual'. You
can not delete virtual keys, but overwrite them, which turns them
into non-virtual entries. Setting keys on an overlay never affects
its source, but may affect any number of child overlays.
Other than collections.ChainMap or most other implementations, this
approach does not resolve missing keys on demand, but instead
actively copies all values from the source to the overlay and keeps
track of virtual and non-virtual keys internally. This removes any
lookup-overhead. Read-access is as fast as a build-in dict for both
virtual and non-virtual keys.
Changes are propagated recursively and depth-first. A failing
on-change handler in an overlay stops the propagation of virtual
values and may result in an partly updated tree. Take extra care
here and make sure that on-change handlers never fail.
Used by Route.config
"""
# Cleanup dead references
self._overlays[:] = [ref for ref in self._overlays if ref() is not None]
overlay = ConfigDict()
overlay._meta = self._meta
overlay._source = self
self._overlays.append(weakref.ref(overlay))
for key in self:
overlay._set_virtual(key, self[key])
return overlay
class AppStack(list):
""" A stack-like list. Calling it returns the head of the stack. """
def __call__(self):
""" Return the current default application. """
return self.default
def push(self, value=None):
""" Add a new :class:`Bottle` instance to the stack """
if not isinstance(value, Bottle):
value = Bottle()
self.append(value)
return value
new_app = push
@property
def default(self):
try:
return self[-1]
except IndexError:
return self.push()
class WSGIFileWrapper(object):
def __init__(self, fp, buffer_size=1024 * 64):
self.fp, self.buffer_size = fp, buffer_size
for attr in ('fileno', 'close', 'read', 'readlines', 'tell', 'seek'):
if hasattr(fp, attr): setattr(self, attr, getattr(fp, attr))
def __iter__(self):
buff, read = self.buffer_size, self.read
while True:
part = read(buff)
if not part: return
yield part
class _closeiter(object):
""" This only exists to be able to attach a .close method to iterators that
do not support attribute assignment (most of itertools). """
def __init__(self, iterator, close=None):
self.iterator = iterator
self.close_callbacks = makelist(close)
def __iter__(self):
return iter(self.iterator)
def close(self):
for func in self.close_callbacks:
func()
class ResourceManager(object):
""" This class manages a list of search paths and helps to find and open
application-bound resources (files).
:param base: default value for :meth:`add_path` calls.
:param opener: callable used to open resources.
:param cachemode: controls which lookups are cached. One of 'all',
'found' or 'none'.
"""
def __init__(self, base='./', opener=open, cachemode='all'):
self.opener = opener
self.base = base
self.cachemode = cachemode
#: A list of search paths. See :meth:`add_path` for details.
self.path = []
#: A cache for resolved paths. ``res.cache.clear()`` clears the cache.
self.cache = {}
def add_path(self, path, base=None, index=None, create=False):
""" Add a new path to the list of search paths. Return False if the
path does not exist.
:param path: The new search path. Relative paths are turned into
an absolute and normalized form. If the path looks like a file
(not ending in `/`), the filename is stripped off.
:param base: Path used to absolutize relative search paths.
Defaults to :attr:`base` which defaults to ``os.getcwd()``.
:param index: Position within the list of search paths. Defaults
to last index (appends to the list).
The `base` parameter makes it easy to reference files installed
along with a python module or package::
res.add_path('./resources/', __file__)
"""
base = os.path.abspath(os.path.dirname(base or self.base))
path = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(base, os.path.dirname(path)))
path += os.sep
if path in self.path:
self.path.remove(path)
if create and not os.path.isdir(path):
os.makedirs(path)
if index is None:
self.path.append(path)
else:
self.path.insert(index, path)
self.cache.clear()
return os.path.exists(path)
def __iter__(self):
""" Iterate over all existing files in all registered paths. """
search = self.path[:]
while search:
path = search.pop()
if not os.path.isdir(path): continue
for name in os.listdir(path):
full = os.path.join(path, name)
if os.path.isdir(full): search.append(full)
else: yield full
def lookup(self, name):
""" Search for a resource and return an absolute file path, or `None`.
The :attr:`path` list is searched in order. The first match is
returend. Symlinks are followed. The result is cached to speed up
future lookups. """
if name not in self.cache or DEBUG:
for path in self.path:
fpath = os.path.join(path, name)
if os.path.isfile(fpath):
if self.cachemode in ('all', 'found'):
self.cache[name] = fpath
return fpath
if self.cachemode == 'all':
self.cache[name] = None
return self.cache[name]
def open(self, name, mode='r', *args, **kwargs):
""" Find a resource and return a file object, or raise IOError. """
fname = self.lookup(name)
if not fname: raise IOError("Resource %r not found." % name)
return self.opener(fname, mode=mode, *args, **kwargs)
class FileUpload(object):
def __init__(self, fileobj, name, filename, headers=None):
""" Wrapper for file uploads. """
#: Open file(-like) object (BytesIO buffer or temporary file)
self.file = fileobj
#: Name of the upload form field
self.name = name
#: Raw filename as sent by the client (may contain unsafe characters)
self.raw_filename = filename
#: A :class:`HeaderDict` with additional headers (e.g. content-type)
self.headers = HeaderDict(headers) if headers else HeaderDict()
content_type = HeaderProperty('Content-Type')
content_length = HeaderProperty('Content-Length', reader=int, default=-1)
def get_header(self, name, default=None):
""" Return the value of a header within the mulripart part. """
return self.headers.get(name, default)
@cached_property
def filename(self):
""" Name of the file on the client file system, but normalized to ensure
file system compatibility. An empty filename is returned as 'empty'.
Only ASCII letters, digits, dashes, underscores and dots are
allowed in the final filename. Accents are removed, if possible.
Whitespace is replaced by a single dash. Leading or tailing dots
or dashes are removed. The filename is limited to 255 characters.
"""
fname = self.raw_filename
if not isinstance(fname, unicode):
fname = fname.decode('utf8', 'ignore')
fname = normalize('NFKD', fname)
fname = fname.encode('ASCII', 'ignore').decode('ASCII')
fname = os.path.basename(fname.replace('\\', os.path.sep))
fname = re.sub(r'[^a-zA-Z0-9-_.\s]', '', fname).strip()
fname = re.sub(r'[-\s]+', '-', fname).strip('.-')
return fname[:255] or 'empty'
def _copy_file(self, fp, chunk_size=2 ** 16):
read, write, offset = self.file.read, fp.write, self.file.tell()
while 1:
buf = read(chunk_size)
if not buf: break
write(buf)
self.file.seek(offset)
def save(self, destination, overwrite=False, chunk_size=2 ** 16):
""" Save file to disk or copy its content to an open file(-like) object.
If *destination* is a directory, :attr:`filename` is added to the
path. Existing files are not overwritten by default (IOError).
:param destination: File path, directory or file(-like) object.
:param overwrite: If True, replace existing files. (default: False)
:param chunk_size: Bytes to read at a time. (default: 64kb)
"""
if isinstance(destination, basestring): # Except file-likes here
if os.path.isdir(destination):
destination = os.path.join(destination, self.filename)
if not overwrite and os.path.exists(destination):
raise IOError('File exists.')
with open(destination, 'wb') as fp:
self._copy_file(fp, chunk_size)
else:
self._copy_file(destination, chunk_size)
###############################################################################
# Application Helper ###########################################################
###############################################################################
def abort(code=500, text='Unknown Error.'):
""" Aborts execution and causes a HTTP error. """
raise HTTPError(code, text)
def redirect(url, code=None):
""" Aborts execution and causes a 303 or 302 redirect, depending on
the HTTP protocol version. """
if not code:
code = 303 if request.get('SERVER_PROTOCOL') == "HTTP/1.1" else 302
res = response.copy(cls=HTTPResponse)
res.status = code
res.body = ""
res.set_header('Location', urljoin(request.url, url))
raise res
def _file_iter_range(fp, offset, bytes, maxread=1024 * 1024):
""" Yield chunks from a range in a file. No chunk is bigger than maxread."""
fp.seek(offset)
while bytes > 0:
part = fp.read(min(bytes, maxread))
if not part: break
bytes -= len(part)
yield part
def static_file(filename, root,
mimetype=True,
download=False,
charset='UTF-8',
etag=None):
""" Open a file in a safe way and return an instance of :exc:`HTTPResponse`
that can be sent back to the client.
:param filename: Name or path of the file to send, relative to ``root``.
:param root: Root path for file lookups. Should be an absolute directory
path.
:param mimetype: Provide the content-type header (default: guess from
file extension)
:param download: If True, ask the browser to open a `Save as...` dialog
instead of opening the file with the associated program. You can
specify a custom filename as a string. If not specified, the
original filename is used (default: False).
:param charset: The charset for files with a ``text/*`` mime-type.
(default: UTF-8)
:param etag: Provide a pre-computed ETag header. If set to ``False``,
ETag handling is disabled. (default: auto-generate ETag header)
While checking user input is always a good idea, this function provides
additional protection against malicious ``filename`` parameters from
breaking out of the ``root`` directory and leaking sensitive information
to an attacker.
Read-protected files or files outside of the ``root`` directory are
answered with ``403 Access Denied``. Missing files result in a
``404 Not Found`` response. Conditional requests (``If-Modified-Since``,
``If-None-Match``) are answered with ``304 Not Modified`` whenever
possible. ``HEAD`` and ``Range`` requests (used by download managers to
check or continue partial downloads) are also handled automatically.
"""
root = os.path.join(os.path.abspath(root), '')
filename = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(root, filename.strip('/\\')))
headers = dict()
if not filename.startswith(root):
return HTTPError(403, "Access denied.")
if not os.path.exists(filename) or not os.path.isfile(filename):
return HTTPError(404, "File does not exist.")
if not os.access(filename, os.R_OK):
return HTTPError(403, "You do not have permission to access this file.")
if mimetype is True:
if download and download is not True:
mimetype, encoding = mimetypes.guess_type(download)
else:
mimetype, encoding = mimetypes.guess_type(filename)
if encoding: headers['Content-Encoding'] = encoding
if mimetype:
if (mimetype[:5] == 'text/' or mimetype == 'application/javascript')\
and charset and 'charset' not in mimetype:
mimetype += '; charset=%s' % charset
headers['Content-Type'] = mimetype
if download:
download = os.path.basename(filename if download is True else download)
headers['Content-Disposition'] = 'attachment; filename="%s"' % download
stats = os.stat(filename)
headers['Content-Length'] = clen = stats.st_size
lm = time.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT", time.gmtime(stats.st_mtime))
headers['Last-Modified'] = lm
headers['Date'] = time.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT", time.gmtime())
getenv = request.environ.get
if etag is None:
etag = '%d:%d:%d:%d:%s' % (stats.st_dev, stats.st_ino, stats.st_mtime,
clen, filename)
etag = hashlib.sha1(tob(etag)).hexdigest()
if etag:
headers['ETag'] = etag
check = getenv('HTTP_IF_NONE_MATCH')
if check and check == etag:
return HTTPResponse(status=304, **headers)
ims = getenv('HTTP_IF_MODIFIED_SINCE')
if ims:
ims = parse_date(ims.split(";")[0].strip())
if ims is not None and ims >= int(stats.st_mtime):
return HTTPResponse(status=304, **headers)
body = '' if request.method == 'HEAD' else open(filename, 'rb')
headers["Accept-Ranges"] = "bytes"
range_header = getenv('HTTP_RANGE')
if range_header:
ranges = list(parse_range_header(range_header, clen))
if not ranges:
return HTTPError(416, "Requested Range Not Satisfiable")
offset, end = ranges[0]
headers["Content-Range"] = "bytes %d-%d/%d" % (offset, end - 1, clen)
headers["Content-Length"] = str(end - offset)
if body: body = _file_iter_range(body, offset, end - offset)
return HTTPResponse(body, status=206, **headers)
return HTTPResponse(body, **headers)
###############################################################################
# HTTP Utilities and MISC (TODO) ###############################################
###############################################################################
def debug(mode=True):
""" Change the debug level.
There is only one debug level supported at the moment."""
global DEBUG
if mode: warnings.simplefilter('default')
DEBUG = bool(mode)
def http_date(value):
if isinstance(value, (datedate, datetime)):
value = value.utctimetuple()
elif isinstance(value, (int, float)):
value = time.gmtime(value)
if not isinstance(value, basestring):
value = time.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT", value)
return value
def parse_date(ims):
""" Parse rfc1123, rfc850 and asctime timestamps and return UTC epoch. """
try:
ts = email.utils.parsedate_tz(ims)
return time.mktime(ts[:8] + (0, )) - (ts[9] or 0) - time.timezone
except (TypeError, ValueError, IndexError, OverflowError):
return None
def parse_auth(header):
""" Parse rfc2617 HTTP authentication header string (basic) and return (user,pass) tuple or None"""
try:
method, data = header.split(None, 1)
if method.lower() == 'basic':
user, pwd = touni(base64.b64decode(tob(data))).split(':', 1)
return user, pwd
except (KeyError, ValueError):
return None
def parse_range_header(header, maxlen=0):
""" Yield (start, end) ranges parsed from a HTTP Range header. Skip
unsatisfiable ranges. The end index is non-inclusive."""
if not header or header[:6] != 'bytes=': return
ranges = [r.split('-', 1) for r in header[6:].split(',') if '-' in r]
for start, end in ranges:
try:
if not start: # bytes=-100 -> last 100 bytes
start, end = max(0, maxlen - int(end)), maxlen
elif not end: # bytes=100- -> all but the first 99 bytes
start, end = int(start), maxlen
else: # bytes=100-200 -> bytes 100-200 (inclusive)
start, end = int(start), min(int(end) + 1, maxlen)
if 0 <= start < end <= maxlen:
yield start, end
except ValueError:
pass
#: Header tokenizer used by _parse_http_header()
_hsplit = re.compile('(?:(?:"((?:[^"\\\\]+|\\\\.)*)")|([^;,=]+))([;,=]?)').findall
def _parse_http_header(h):
""" Parses a typical multi-valued and parametrised HTTP header (e.g. Accept headers) and returns a list of values
and parameters. For non-standard or broken input, this implementation may return partial results.
:param h: A header string (e.g. ``text/html,text/plain;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8``)
:return: List of (value, params) tuples. The second element is a (possibly empty) dict.
"""
values = []
if '"' not in h: # INFO: Fast path without regexp (~2x faster)
for value in h.split(','):
parts = value.split(';')
values.append((parts[0].strip(), {}))
for attr in parts[1:]:
name, value = attr.split('=', 1)
values[-1][1][name.strip()] = value.strip()
else:
lop, key, attrs = ',', None, {}
for quoted, plain, tok in _hsplit(h):
value = plain.strip() if plain else quoted.replace('\\"', '"')
if lop == ',':
attrs = {}
values.append((value, attrs))
elif lop == ';':
if tok == '=':
key = value
else:
attrs[value] = ''
elif lop == '=' and key:
attrs[key] = value
key = None
lop = tok
return values
def _parse_qsl(qs):
r = []
for pair in qs.replace(';', '&').split('&'):
if not pair: continue
nv = pair.split('=', 1)
if len(nv) != 2: nv.append('')
key = urlunquote(nv[0].replace('+', ' '))
value = urlunquote(nv[1].replace('+', ' '))
r.append((key, value))
return r
def _lscmp(a, b):
""" Compares two strings in a cryptographically safe way:
Runtime is not affected by length of common prefix. """
return not sum(0 if x == y else 1
for x, y in zip(a, b)) and len(a) == len(b)
def cookie_encode(data, key, digestmod=None):
""" Encode and sign a pickle-able object. Return a (byte) string """
depr(0, 13, "cookie_encode() will be removed soon.",
"Do not use this API directly.")
digestmod = digestmod or hashlib.sha256
msg = base64.b64encode(pickle.dumps(data, -1))
sig = base64.b64encode(hmac.new(tob(key), msg, digestmod=digestmod).digest())
return tob('!') + sig + tob('?') + msg
def cookie_decode(data, key, digestmod=None):
""" Verify and decode an encoded string. Return an object or None."""
depr(0, 13, "cookie_decode() will be removed soon.",
"Do not use this API directly.")
data = tob(data)
if cookie_is_encoded(data):
sig, msg = data.split(tob('?'), 1)
digestmod = digestmod or hashlib.sha256
hashed = hmac.new(tob(key), msg, digestmod=digestmod).digest()
if _lscmp(sig[1:], base64.b64encode(hashed)):
return pickle.loads(base64.b64decode(msg))
return None
def cookie_is_encoded(data):
""" Return True if the argument looks like a encoded cookie."""
depr(0, 13, "cookie_is_encoded() will be removed soon.",
"Do not use this API directly.")
return bool(data.startswith(tob('!')) and tob('?') in data)
def html_escape(string):
""" Escape HTML special characters ``&<>`` and quotes ``'"``. """
return string.replace('&', '&amp;').replace('<', '&lt;').replace('>', '&gt;')\
.replace('"', '&quot;').replace("'", '&#039;')
def html_quote(string):
""" Escape and quote a string to be used as an HTTP attribute."""
return '"%s"' % html_escape(string).replace('\n', '&#10;')\
.replace('\r', '&#13;').replace('\t', '&#9;')
def yieldroutes(func):
""" Return a generator for routes that match the signature (name, args)
of the func parameter. This may yield more than one route if the function
takes optional keyword arguments. The output is best described by example::
a() -> '/a'
b(x, y) -> '/b/<x>/<y>'
c(x, y=5) -> '/c/<x>' and '/c/<x>/<y>'
d(x=5, y=6) -> '/d' and '/d/<x>' and '/d/<x>/<y>'
"""
path = '/' + func.__name__.replace('__', '/').lstrip('/')
spec = getargspec(func)
argc = len(spec[0]) - len(spec[3] or [])
path += ('/<%s>' * argc) % tuple(spec[0][:argc])
yield path
for arg in spec[0][argc:]:
path += '/<%s>' % arg
yield path
def path_shift(script_name, path_info, shift=1):
""" Shift path fragments from PATH_INFO to SCRIPT_NAME and vice versa.
:return: The modified paths.
:param script_name: The SCRIPT_NAME path.
:param script_name: The PATH_INFO path.
:param shift: The number of path fragments to shift. May be negative to
change the shift direction. (default: 1)
"""
if shift == 0: return script_name, path_info
pathlist = path_info.strip('/').split('/')
scriptlist = script_name.strip('/').split('/')
if pathlist and pathlist[0] == '': pathlist = []
if scriptlist and scriptlist[0] == '': scriptlist = []
if 0 < shift <= len(pathlist):
moved = pathlist[:shift]
scriptlist = scriptlist + moved
pathlist = pathlist[shift:]
elif 0 > shift >= -len(scriptlist):
moved = scriptlist[shift:]
pathlist = moved + pathlist
scriptlist = scriptlist[:shift]
else:
empty = 'SCRIPT_NAME' if shift < 0 else 'PATH_INFO'
raise AssertionError("Cannot shift. Nothing left from %s" % empty)
new_script_name = '/' + '/'.join(scriptlist)
new_path_info = '/' + '/'.join(pathlist)
if path_info.endswith('/') and pathlist: new_path_info += '/'
return new_script_name, new_path_info