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NAME
    Data::Rmap - recursive map, apply a block to a data structure

SYNOPSIS
     $ perl -MData::Rmap -e 'print rmap { $_ } 1, [2,3], \\4, "\n"'
     1234

     $ perl -MData::Rmap=:all
     rmap_all { print (ref($_) || "?") ,"\n" } \@array, \%hash, \*glob;

     # OUTPUT (Note: a GLOB always has a SCALAR, hence the last two items)
     # ARRAY
     # HASH
     # GLOB
     # SCALAR
     # ?

     # Upper-case your leaves in-place
     $array = [ "a", "b", "c" ];
     $hash  = { key => "a value" };
     rmap { $_ = uc $_; } $array, $hash;

     use Data::Dumper; $Data::Dumper::Terse=1; $Data::Dumper::Indent=0;
     print Dumper($array), " ", Dumper($hash), "\n";

     # OUTPUT
     # ['A','B','C'] {'key' => 'A VALUE'}

     # Simple array dumper.  
     # Uses $self->recurse method to alter traversal order 
     ($dump) = rmap_to {

        return "'$_'" unless ref($_); # scalars are quoted and returned

        my $self = shift;
        # use $self->recurse to grab results and wrap them
        return '[ ' . join(', ', $self->recurse() ) . ' ]';

      } ARRAY|VALUE,  [ 1, [ 2, [ [ 3 ], 4 ] ], 5 ];  

     print "$dump\n";
     # OUTPUT
     # [ '1', [ '2', [ [ '3' ], '4' ] ], '5' ]

DESCRIPTION
     rmap BLOCK LIST

    Recursively evaluate a BLOCK over a list of data structures (locally
    setting $_ to each element) and return the list composed of the results
    of such evaluations. $_ can be used to modify the elements.

    Data::Rmap currently traverses HASH, ARRAY, SCALAR and GLOB reference
    types and ignores others. Depending on which rmap_* wrapper is used, the
    BLOCK is called for only scalar values, arrays, hashes, references, all
    elements or a customizable combination.

    The list of data structures is traversed pre-order in a depth-first
    fashion. That is, the BLOCK is called for the container reference before
    is it called for it's elements (although see "recurse" below for
    post-order). The values of a hash are traversed in the usual "values"
    order which may affect some applications.

    If the "cut" subroutine is called in the BLOCK then the traversal stops
    for that branch, say if you "cut" an array then the code is never called
    for it's elements (or their sub-elements). To simultaneously return
    values and cut, simply pass the return list to cut:
    "cut('add','to','returned');"

    The first parameter to the BLOCK is an object which maintains the state
    of the traversal. Methods available on this object are described in
    "State Object" below.

EXPORTS
    By default:

     rmap, rmap_all, cut

    Optionally:

     rmap_scalar rmap_hash rmap_array rmap_ref rmap_to
     :types => [ qw(NONE VALUE HASH ARRAY SCALAR REF OBJECT ALL) ],
     :all => ... # everything

Functions
    The various names are just wrappers which select when to call the code
    BLOCK. rmap_all always calls it, the others are more selective while
    rmap_to takes an extra parameter permitting you to provide selection
    criteria. Furthermore, you can always just rmap_all and skip nodes which
    are not of interest.

    rmap_to { ... } $want, @data_structures;
        Most general first.

        Recurse the @data_structures and apply the BLOCK to elements
        selected by $want. The $want parameter is the bitwise "or" of
        whatever types you choose (imported with :types):

         VALUE  - non-reference scalar, eg. 1
         HASH   - hash reference
         ARRAY  - array reference
         SCALAR - scalar refernce, eg. \1
         REF    - higher-level reference, eg. \\1, \\{}
                  B<NOT> any reference type, see <Scalar::Util>'s reftype:
                  perl -MScalar::Util=reftype -le 'print map reftype($_), \1, \\1'
         GLOB   - glob reference, eg. \*x  
                  (scalar, hash and array recursed)
         ALL    - all of the above
         NONE   - none of the above

        So to call the block for arrays and scalar values do:

         use Data::Rmap ':all';         # or qw(:types rmap_to)
         rmap { ... } ARRAY|VALUE, @data_structures;

        (ALL & !GLOB) might also be handy.

        The remainder of the wrappers are given in terms of the $want for
        rmap_to.

    rmap { ... } @list;
        Recurse and call the BLOCK on non-reference scalar values. $want =
        VALUE

    rmap_all BLOCK LIST
        Recurse and call the BLOCK on everything. $want = ALL

    rmap_scalar { ... } @list
        Recurse and call the BLOCK on non-collection scalars. $want =
        VALUE|SCALAR|REF

    rmap_hash
        Recurse and call the BLOCK on hash refs. $want = HASH

    rmap_array
        Recurse and call the BLOCK on array refs. $want = ARRAY

    rmap_ref
        Recurse and call the BLOCK on all references (not GLOBS). $want =
        HASH|ARRAY|SCALAR|REF

        Note: rmap_ref isn't the same as rmap_to {} REF

    cut(@list)
        Don't traverse sub-elements and return the @list immediately. For
        example, if $_ is an ARRAY reference, then the array's elements are
        not traversed.

        If there's two paths to an element, both will need to be cut.

State Object
    The first parameter to the BLOCK is an object which maintains most of
    the traversal state (except current node, which is $_). *You will ignore
    it most of the time*. The "recurse" method may be useful. Other methods
    should only be used in throw away tools, see TODO

    Methods:

    recurse
        Process child nodes of $_ now and return the result.

        This makes it easier to perform post-order and in-order processing
        of a structure. Note that since the same "seen list" is used, the
        child nodes aren't reprocessed.

    code
        The code reference of the BLOCK itself. Possible useful in some
        situations.

    seen
        (Warning: I'm undecided whether this method should be public)

        Reference to the HASH used to track where we have visited. You may
        want to modify it in some situations (though I haven't yet). Beware
        circular references. The (current) convention used for the key is in
        the source.

    want
        (Warning: I'm undecided whether this method should be public)

        The $want state described in rmap_to.

EXAMPLES
     # command-line play
     $ perl -MData::Rmap -le 'print join ":", rmap { $_ } 1,2,[3..5],\\6'
     1:2:3:4:5:6

     # Linearly number questions on a set of pages
     my $qnum = 1;
     rmap_hash {
         $_->{qnum} = $qnum++ if($_->{qn});
     } @pages;

     # Grep recursively, finding ALL objects
     use Scalar::Util qw(blessed);
     my @objects = rmap_ref {
         blessed($_) ? $_ : ();
     } $data_structure;

     # Grep recursively, finding public objects (note the cut)
     use Scalar::Util qw(blessed);
     my @objects = rmap_ref {
         blessed($_) ?  cut($_) : ();
     } $data_structure;

     # Return a modified structure
     # (result flattening means we must cheat by cloning then modifying)
     use Storable qw(dclone);
     use Lingua::EN::Numbers::Easy;

     $words = [ 1, \2, { key => 3 } ];
     $nums = dclone $words;
     rmap { $_ = $N{$_} || $_ } $nums; 

     # Make an assertion about a structure
     use Data::Dump;
     rmap_ref {
        blessed($_) && $_->isa('Question') && defined($_->name)
            or die "Question doesn't have a name:", dump($_);
     } @pages;

     # Traverse a tree using localize state
     $tree = [
         one =>
         two =>
         [   
             three_one =>
             three_two =>
             [   
                 three_three_one =>
             ],
             three_four =>
         ],
         four =>
         [   
             [   
                 five_one_one =>
             ],
         ],
     ];

     @path = ('q');
     rmap_to {
         if(ref $_) {
             local(@path) = (@path, 1); # ARRAY adds a new level to the path
             $_[0]->recurse(); # does stuff within local(@path)'s scope
         } else {
             print join('.', @path), " = $_ \n"; # show the scalar's path
         }
         $path[-1]++; # bump last element (even when it was an aref)
     } ARRAY|VALUE, $tree;

     # OUTPUT
     # q.1 = one 
     # q.2 = two 
     # q.3.1 = three_one 
     # q.3.2 = three_two 
     # q.3.3.1 = three_three_one 
     # q.3.4 = three_four 
     # q.4 = four 
     # q.5.1.1 = five_one_one 

Troubleshooting
    Beware comma after block:

     rmap { print }, 1..3;
                   ^-------- bad news, you get and empty list:
     rmap(sub { print $_; }), 1..3;

    If you don't import a function, perl's confusion may produce:

     $ perl -MData::Rmap -le 'rmap_scalar { print } 1'
     Can't call method "rmap_scalar" without a package or object reference...

     $ perl -MData::Rmap -le 'rmap_scalar { $_++ } 1'
     Can't call method "rmap_scalar" without a package or object reference...

    If there's two paths to an element, both will need to be cut.

    If there's two paths to an element, one will be taken randomly when
    there is an intervening hash.

TODO
    put for @_ iin wrapper to allow parameters in a different wrapper, solve
    localizing problem.

    Note that the package/class name of the "State Object" is subject to
    change.

    The want and seen accessors may change or become useful dynamic
    mutators.

    Store custom localized data about the traversal. Seems too difficult and
    ugly when compare to doing it at the call site. Should support multiple
    reentrancy so avoid the symbol table.

    "rmap_args { } $data_structure, @args" form to pass parameters. Could
    potentially help localizing needs. (Maybe only recurse last item)

    Benchmark. Use array based object and/or direct access internally.

    rmap_objects shortcut for Scalar::Utils::blessed (Let me know of other
    useful rmap_??? wrappers)

    Think about permitting different callback for different types. The
    prototype syntax is a bit too flaky....

    Ensure that no memory leaks are possible, leaking the closure.

    Read http://www.cs.vu.nl/boilerplate/

SEE ALSO
    map, grep, Storable's dclone, Scalar::Util's reftype and blessed

    Faint traces of treemap:

     http://www.perlmonks.org/index.pl?node_id=60829

AUTHOR
    Brad Bowman <rmap@bereft.net> Copyright (C) 2004 All rights reserved.

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