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bi-LSTM sequence tagger

Bidirectional Long-Short Term Memory sequence tagger

This is an extended version (structbilty) of the earlier bi-LSTM tagger by Plank et al., (2016).

If you use this tagger please cite:

@inproceedings{plank-etal-2016,
    title = "Multilingual Part-of-Speech Tagging with Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Models and Auxiliary Loss",
    author = "Plank, Barbara  and
      S{\o}gaard, Anders  and
      Goldberg, Yoav",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)",
    month = aug,
    year = "2016",
    address = "Berlin, Germany",
    publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics",
    url = "https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P16-2067",
    doi = "10.18653/v1/P16-2067",
    pages = "412--418",
}

For the version called DsDs, please cite: https://aclanthology.coli.uni-saarland.de/papers/D18-1061/d18-1061

Installation

pip3 install --user -r requirements.txt

Example command

Training the tagger:

python src/structbilty.py --dynet-mem 1500 --train data/da-ud-train.conllu --iters 10 --model da

Training with patience (requires a dev set):

python src/structbilty.py --dynet-mem 1500 --train data/da-ud-train.conllu --dev data/da-ud-dev.conllu --iters 50 --model da --patience 2

Testing and getting the output predictions:

python src/structbilty.py --model da --test data/da-ud-test.conllu --output predictions/test-da.out

Training and testing in two steps (--model for both saving and loading):

mkdir -p predictions
python src/structbilty.py --dynet-mem 1500 --train data/da-ud-train.conllu --iters 10 --model da

python src/structbilty.py --model da --test data/da-ud-test.conllu --output predictions/test-da.out

By default, the model uses a softmax decoder. You can use a CRF for BIO sequence tagging with the --crf option. The model uses accuracy as default output. If you use the tagger for NER or similar, make sure to not rely on accuracy but use span-F1 or similar.

Embeddings

The Polyglot embeddings (Al-Rfou et al., 2013) can be downloaded from here (0.6GB)

You can load generic word embeddings by using --embeds WORD_EMBEDS_FILE (as the Polyglot ones above). Note that the dimensions of embeddings should match the --in_dim option.

Bilty also supports loading additional embeddings from the input files. This can be enabled by --embeds_in_file FILE. It expects the train/dev/test files to be in the following format:

word1<tab>tag1<tab>emb=val1,val2,val3,...
word2<tab>tag1<tab>emb=val1,val2,val3,...
...

Note that the dimensions of embeddings should match the --embeds_in_file_dim option.

We also provide scripts to generate these files for four commonly used embeddings types (Polyglot, Fasttext, ELMo and BERT), which can be found in the embeds folder. If we for example want to use BERT embeddings we need to run the following commands:

python3 embeds/transf.py bert-base-multilingual-cased data/da-ud-train.conllu
python3 embeds/transf.py bert-base-multilingual-cased data/da-ud-dev.conllu
python3 embeds/transf.py bert-base-multilingual-cased data/da-ud-test.conllu

This creates .bert files which can be used as input to Bilty when --embeds_in_file is enabled.

Similar scripts for Poly are in the embeds folder. For now the language for most of these is hardcoded in the scripts, please modify *.prep.py accordingly.

Please note that this option does not support the --raw option.

Options:

You can see the options by running:

python src/structbilty.py --help

A great option is DyNet autobatching (Neubig et al., 2017). It speeds up training considerably ( ~20%). You can activate it with:

python src/structbilty.sh --dynet-autobatch 1

Major changes:

  • major refactoring of internal data handling
  • renaming to structbilty
  • --pred-layer is no longer required
  • a single --model options handles both saving and loading model parameters
  • the option of running a CRF has been added
  • the tagger can handle additional lexical features (see our DsDs paper, EMNLP 2018) below
  • grouping of arguments
  • simplebilty is deprecated (still available in the former release)
  • best to run it on a simple CPU

References

# default reference
@inproceedings{plank-etal-2016,
    title = "Multilingual Part-of-Speech Tagging with Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Models and Auxiliary Loss",
    author = "Plank, Barbara  and
      S{\o}gaard, Anders  and
      Goldberg, Yoav",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)",
    month = aug,
    year = "2016",
    address = "Berlin, Germany",
    publisher = "Association for Computational Linguistics",
    url = "https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P16-2067",
    doi = "10.18653/v1/P16-2067",
    pages = "412--418",
}

# for DdDs
@InProceedings{plank-agic:2018,
  author = 	"Plank, Barbara
		and Agi{\'{c}}, {\v{Z}}eljko",
  title = 	"Distant Supervision from Disparate Sources for Low-Resource Part-of-Speech Tagging",
  booktitle = 	"Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing",
  year = 	"2018",
  publisher = 	"Association for Computational Linguistics",
  pages = 	"614--620",
  location = 	"Brussels, Belgium",
  url = 	"http://aclweb.org/anthology/D18-1061"
}


Installation from source (alternative)

You can compile dynet from source. Clone it into a directory of your choice called DYNETDIR:

mkdir $DYNETDIR
git clone https://github.com/clab/dynet

Follow the instructions in the Dynet documentation (use -DPYTHON, see http://dynet.readthedocs.io/en/latest/python.html).

And compile dynet:

cmake .. -DEIGEN3_INCLUDE_DIR=$HOME/tools/eigen/ -DPYTHON=`which python`

(if you have a GPU, use: [note: non-deterministic behavior]):

cmake .. -DEIGEN3_INCLUDE_DIR=$HOME/tools/eigen/ -DPYTHON=`which python` -DBACKEND=cuda

(You may need to set you PYTHONPATH to include Dynet's build/python)

After successful installation open python and import dynet, you can test if the installation worked with:

>>> import dynet
[dynet] random seed: 2809331847
[dynet] allocating memory: 512MB
[dynet] memory allocation done.
>>> dynet.__version__
2.0

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Bidirectional Long-Short Term Memory tagger (bi-LSTM) (in DyNet) -- hierarchical (with word and character embeddings)

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