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diverstidy: A tidy package for detection and standardization of geographic, population, and diversity-related terminology in unstructured text data

Authors: Brandon Kramer
License: MIT

Installation

You can install this package using the devtools package:

install.packages("devtools")
devtools::install_github("brandonleekramer/diverstidy") 

The diverstidy package provides several functions that help detect patterns in unstandardized text data for analyses of geographies, populations, other forms of diversity. Currently, there are 17 different functions that detect terms across the following subdomains of diversity-related research: ancestry, culture, disability, discrimination, diversity, equity, inclusion, linguistic, migration, population, race/ethnicity, religious, sex/gender, sexuality, social class, and US OMB population terms. Although somewhat simple, the intuition behind these functions is to detect the quantity of diversity-related terms show up in a given text entry. To do this, each function depends on a curated dictionary of terms that fall under these 17 domains of topics, which can be called using the data(diversity_dictionary) function. There are a number of case studies, but the primary uses of these functions are to examine historical trends in term usage and/or to detect potential biases in text.

Standardizing countries and continents with detect_geographies()

Imagine that you just scraped a bunch of data from a social media like Twitter or code hosting platform like GitHub. You want to find out where the usersโ€™ information is coming from, but only have messy text data where users write they currently live. You could develop some regex to catch these countries, but this is incredibly time consuming to develop and regex can run very slow when matching over large text corpora. detect_geographies() is capable of not only detecting and standardizing messy text data into countries, but also includes data on more than 35,000 cities to maximize the accuracy of the detection process. Moreover, it uses a โ€œfunnel matchingsโ€ technique that makes the progress goes much faster (currently ~40 mins for 3 million entries). You can choose to recode your desired outcome to countries, continents, a number of regions defined by the United Nations, country names in seven different languages, and cute little emoji flags! If you need the flexibility of detect_geographies() but a different country coding scheme, check out the countrycode package for ~40 different options.

library(tidyverse)
library(tidyorgs)
library(diverstidy)
data(github_users)
github_users %>%
  detect_geographies(login, location, "country", email) %>% 
  detect_geographies(login, country, "iso_2") %>% 
  detect_geographies(login, country, "flag") %>% 
  select(login, location, country, iso_2, flag)
## # A tibble: 460 ร— 5
##    login        location                  country        iso_2 flag 
##    <chr>        <chr>                     <chr>          <chr> <chr>
##  1 mcollina     In the clouds above Italy Italy          IT    ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น   
##  2 geoffeg      St. Louis, MO             United States  US    ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ   
##  3 diegopacheco Porto Alegre, RS - Brazil Brazil         BR    ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท   
##  4 ephur        San Antonio, TX           United States  US    ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ   
##  5 paneq        Poland, Wrocaw            Poland         PL    ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑ   
##  6 michaeljones Manchester, UK            United Kingdom GB    ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง   
##  7 wjimenez5271 Sunnyvale, CA             United States  US    ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ   
##  8 simongog     Karlsruhe                 Germany        DE    ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช   
##  9 dalpo        Vicenza, Italy            Italy          IT    ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น   
## 10 shouze       Marseille, France         France         FR    ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท   
## # โ€ฆ with 450 more rows

Analyzing historical trends with detect_*_terms()

These functions help users quickly analyze changes in terms over time using one of the seventeen dictionaries available on diversity-related topics. In essence, the functions rely on curated dictionaries with dozens of terms in each category. You can simply use the functions from each category to detect how many terms relating to sex/gender or race/ethnicity show up in the text and then summarize to see how they change over time. These functions could also be used to examine diversity-related trends in social media profiles like Twitter or LinkedIn.

library(tidyverse)
library(diverstidy)
data(pubmed_data)
pubmed_data %>%
  detect_racialethnic_terms(fk_pmid, abstract) %>%
  detect_sexgender_terms(fk_pmid, abstract) %>% 
  detect_socialclass_terms(fk_pmid, abstract) %>% 
  group_by(year) %>% 
  summarize(racial_ethnic = sum(racial_ethnic),
            sex_gender = sum(sex_gender),
            social_class = sum(social_class)) %>% 
  pivot_longer(!year, names_to = "category", values_to = "count") %>% 
  ggplot(aes(x=year, y=count, group=category)) +
  geom_line(aes(color=category), size = 1) +
  ggtitle("Change in Diversity-Related Terms Over Time") + theme_bw() 

Examining relationships between diversity terminology within texts

Sociologists are usually taught early on in their graduate careers that โ€œsex/gender is relational.โ€ Here, you can combine the diverstidy package with tidytext and tidygraph to make text networks that help reveal how sex/gender and other forms of diversity relate to other concepts in unstandardized text data. Here is a preliminary example that shows how population terms tend to cluster together in biomedical abstracts.

library(tidyverse)
library(diverstidy)
library(tidytext)
library(igraph)
library(ggraph)
library(tidygraph)
data(pubmed_data)
data(diversity_dictionary)
# create an edgelist of all terms mentioned more than 100 times together 
pubmed_graph <- pubmed_data %>%
  unnest_tokens(bigram, abstract, token = "ngrams", n = 2) %>%
  separate(bigram, c("word1", "word2"), sep = " ") %>% 
  count(word1, word2, sort = TRUE) %>%
  filter(n > 100) %>%
  graph_from_data_frame() 

# pull out the nodelist from that graph 
nodelist <- data.frame(id = c(1:(igraph::vcount(pubmed_graph))), 
                       name = igraph::V(pubmed_graph)$name)
# and join category data to all our diversity terms 
dictionary_terms <- diversity_dictionary %>% 
  unnest_legacy(name = strsplit(catch_terms, "\\|")) %>% 
  select(name, category)
nodelist <- nodelist %>% 
  left_join(dictionary_terms, by = "name") %>% 
  mutate(category = replace_na(category, "nothing"),
         category = str_replace(category, "race/ethnicity\\|us omb terms", "us omb terms"))
V(pubmed_graph)$category <- nodelist$category

# create a custom color palette and vector to only visualize certain words 
custom_colors <- colorRampPalette(c("#D3D3D3", RColorBrewer::brewer.pal(9, 'Spectral')))
graph_tbl <- pubmed_graph %>% 
  as_tbl_graph() %>% 
  activate(nodes) %>% 
  mutate(degree  = centrality_degree()) %>% 
  mutate(new_name = ifelse(str_detect(
    name, str_c("\\b(?i)(",paste0(dictionary_terms$name, collapse = "|"),")\\b")), name, no = ""))

# graph a text network of all our dictionary terms 
layout <- create_layout(graph_tbl, layout = 'igraph', algorithm = 'nicely')
ggraph(layout) +
  geom_edge_fan(aes(alpha = ..index..), show.legend = F) + 
  geom_node_point(aes(size = degree, color = as.factor(category)), show.legend = F) +
  geom_node_text(aes(label = new_name), vjust = 1, hjust = 1) +
  scale_color_manual(limits = as.factor(layout$category), 
                     values = custom_colors(nrow(layout))) +  theme_void()

Stay tuned for more functions that help with the detection of diverse populations from all around the world!

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A tidy package for detection and standardization of geographic, population, and diversity-related terminology in unstructured text data

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