Component extensions (or, more simply, components) allow Brave to receive asynchronous updates to core functionality without needing to update Brave itself. Currently, Brave uses components to download the data files associated with Ad Block, HTTPS Everywhere, and Tracking Protection.
Installation and Updates
On startup, Brave installs its registered components via https://laptop-updates.brave.com/extensions. If already installed, Brave verifies that the components are up-to-date. Once installed/verified, Brave checks for new updates every 5 hours.
Performing an On-Demand Update Check
To perform an on-demand update check of your installed components, visit chrome://components/ in Brave and press the appropriate "Check for update" button.