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Note: This project is effectively abandoned at this point. I won't be making any more changes or releases, and issues will be ignored.

Picoparse is a very small parser / scanner library for Python. It is built to make constructing parsers straight forward, and without the complications regular expressions bring to the table. The design is inspired by the Parsec library from Haskell.

Picoparse will lazily scan input as needed and provides smart backtracking facilities. The core library is not specific to text and will work over any iterable type.


  • The picoparse package is the core of the parser library.
  • picoparse.text contains a few useful tools for building text oriented parsers.
  • examples/ is an example implementation of a parser for a reasonable subset of xml.
  • examples/ is an example implementation of infix arithmetic parser and evaluator.
  • runs all the test cases found in tests


You can install the latest release with easy_install or (presumably) pip; e.g:

easy_install picoparse

Alternatively, you can get the source as a tarball or with git and install with:

python install 

Using Picoparse

Parsers are functions that consume input by calling smaller parsers, and returning a value. run_parser is used to call your top-level parser and provide it with an input stream eg:

run_parser(my_toplevel_parser, file(input_file).read())

It is recommended that you examine examples/ to see a worked example.

An important idea with Picoparse is 'specialising' an existing parser by using functools.partial to generate a new parser function. Eg, to create a parser that consumes an 'a':

a = partial(one_of, 'a')  # roughly equivalent to a = lambda: one_of('a')

and to make a parser that accepts many 'a's:

many_as = partial(many, a)


The most detailed example is examples/ however this might be overwhelming initially. This example is intended to be as a tutorial; it covers a broach range of the features of picoparse as it builds up an minimal (and not fully conformant) XML parser. To get there it includes a sub parser to handle the XML specs character classes.

The simplest are examples/ and examples/ however these never got the tutorial treatment. These paren examples count nested parenthesis and brackets. The first one is about the simplest parser you could consider. The second version shows how we can use partial application to specialize one parser into specific ones. This highlights the 'parser combinator' aspect of the design.

examples/ is an example of a simple, general, infix expression parser. If you know exactly which operators you want, there are more sophisticated models that you can use, but they are quite confusing on first examination.

Lastly there is examples/ which is a direct mapping of the email address RFC's grammar into picoparse functions. This is the most complex of the examples but should give you an indication how easy it can be to convert formal grammars into pure python.


A few notes on style; Picoparse is takes advantage of the features of python that support functional programming. If you are new to this, it's worth doing some reading about it. In particular the parsers we create are a style called Parser Combinators; this is basically a fancy way of say that our parsers are functions and that some parsers are created by combining existing parsers. The most obvious example here is something like many which takes another parser as its argument. You'll see more detail about this in the examples, particularly the xml example.

The parser combinator style is a special case of whats known as a Recursive Decent (or LL for Left-Left) parser. Each parser function recurses down into more specialized parsers. What makes it special is that it has Infinite Lookahead through a feature of the design where it backtracks when it fails to parse. Lookahead means that that parser can look at a number of tokens ahead of where you currently are. Traditional recursive decent parser have a fixed lookahead (usually one or two tokens).

A word on tokens; in traditional parsers the design is split into two parts: Lexical Analysis and Parsing. The lexical analysis (or lexing or tokenization) takes a stream of characters and returns a stream of tokens, the parser would then consume this stream of tokens. Parser Combinators let you do both stages at once. Picoparse is general enough that if you do wish to have a separate lexing stage, you can write your parser in terms of tokens instead of characters.

These two characteristics make parser combinators amazingly expressive. You have the full power of your programming language to bring to bare, and you can describe things with remarkable ease (e.g. how the xml parser parsers characters with a parser made from parsing a formal specification directly from the xml spec for example of this). The trade of is that its not as fast on as some more traditional methods; hence the library is designed to make the development of small or experimental parsers easy and enjoyable rather than focusing on raw speed.

For more detail on how picoparse handles backtracking you will want to look at the primative parsers choice, fail, commit and the decorator tri. Choice describes a series of options to try parsing the input with in order. Fail tells the system that the current path doesn't match. Commit indicates that this path has reached a point where the system is not allowed to backtrack past. Typically you only need to worry about committing for performance reasons. If you need to get more detail on this you'll need to examine the BufferWalker class. Note: The BufferWalker has accumulated a bunch of features and needs refactoring but neither author has had a chance to undertake this yet.

How do I…

Heres is a glossary of parsers and combinators organised by outcome to help learn to use Picoparse. Look at doc comments for specifics.

Match input

Matching input is done by calling primitive parsers.

  • picoparse.one_of Match one item in the input stream that is equal to the argument. Requires that the item supports ==.
  • picoparse.not_one_of Match one item that is not equal to the argument.
  • picoparse.satisfies Matches one item that satisfies a guard function.
  • picoparse.any_token Matches one of any item.
  • picoparse.eof Matches the end of input.
  • picoparse.text.whitespace_char Matches a single whitespace character
  • picoparse.text.newline Matches a single newline character
  • picoparse.text.quote Match one single or double quote

Match multiple items

Matching multiple items is achieved by passing a primitive parser to a combinator function. These parsers are all greedy

  • picoparse.many Matches a parser zero or more times.
  • picoparse.many1 Matches a parser one or more times.
  • picoparse.many_until Matches a parser zero or more times until the terminating parser matches.
  • picoparse.many_until1 Matches a parser one or more times until the terminating parser matches.
  • picoparse.sep Matches a parser zero or more times, with a separator being matched between each pair.
  • picoparse.sep1 Matches a parser one or more times, with a separator being matched between each pair.
  • picoparse.optional Matches a parser zero or one times.
  • picoparse.text.whitespace Match zero or more whitespace characters
  • picoparse.text.whitespace1 Match one or more whitespace characters

Make a choice

Choosing between possible parsers is achieved with the choice combinator, often assisted by tri.

  • picoparse.choice Match one of the parsers passed in order. If none match, the choice fails to match as well.
  • picoparse.tri should decorate a parser that consumes multiple pieces of input. You can picoparse.commit to the choice if you know that no other choice should succeed. (see calculator and xml examples for this in use.) tri will automatically commit if it reaches the end of the decorated parser.

Match a sequence

  • picoparse.string will apply one_of in for each item in the iterable argument. Note that this is any string of matches, not just for character parsing.
  • picoparse.text.caseless_string will match the given str without regard for upper or lower case (text only)
  • picoparse.cue for something ignorable that cues you to what you really want to match. eg, matching "#x" in a hex parser
  • picoparse.follow for something ignorable that follows what you really want to match. eg, matching "l" after a long integer.
  • picoparse.seq for matching a specific set of (possibly named) parsers.

Matching something wrapped

  • picoparse.text.lexeme match a parser with optional whitespace on either side.
  • picoparse.text.quoted Match a parser with in single or double quote characters until a matching quote is found.

Tracking development and reporting bugs

This project is tracked with GIT via GitHub, and uses a Bugs Everywhere bug tracker for tracking bugs.

See also

Also implementing similar ideas in python are PyParsing and Pysec.


[Abandoned] Small parser construction library for Python. Regular Expression free







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