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/**********************************************************************

sprintf.c -

$Author$
$Date$
created at: Fri Oct 15 10:39:26 JST 1993

Copyright (C) 1993-2003 Yukihiro Matsumoto
Copyright (C) 2000 Network Applied Communication Laboratory, Inc.
Copyright (C) 2000 Information-technology Promotion Agency, Japan

**********************************************************************/

#include "ruby.h"
#include "re.h"
#include <ctype.h>
#include <math.h>

#define BIT_DIGITS(N) (((N)*146)/485 + 1) /* log2(10) =~ 146/485 */
#define BITSPERDIG (SIZEOF_BDIGITS*CHAR_BIT)
#define EXTENDSIGN(n, l) (((~0 << (n)) >> (((n)*(l)) % BITSPERDIG)) & ~(~0 << (n)))

static void fmt_setup _((char*,int,int,int,int));

static char*
remove_sign_bits(str, base)
    char *str;
    int base;
{
    char *s, *t;
    
    s = t = str;

    if (base == 16) {
while (*t == 'f') {
t++;
}
    }
    else if (base == 8) {
*t |= EXTENDSIGN(3, strlen(t));
while (*t == '7') {
t++;
}
    }
    else if (base == 2) {
while (*t == '1') {
t++;
}
    }
    if (t > s) {
while (*t) *s++ = *t++;
*s = '\0';
    }

    return str;
}

static char
sign_bits(base, p)
    int base;
    const char *p;
{
    char c = '.';

    switch (base) {
      case 16:
if (*p == 'X') c = 'F';
else c = 'f';
break;
      case 8:
c = '7'; break;
      case 2:
c = '1'; break;
    }
    return c;
}

#define FNONE 0
#define FSHARP 1
#define FMINUS 2
#define FPLUS 4
#define FZERO 8
#define FSPACE 16
#define FWIDTH 32
#define FPREC 64
#define FPREC0 128

#define CHECK(l) do {\
while (blen + (l) >= bsiz) {\
bsiz*=2;\
}\
rb_str_resize(result, bsiz);\
buf = RSTRING(result)->ptr;\
} while (0)

#define PUSH(s, l) do { \
CHECK(l);\
memcpy(&buf[blen], s, l);\
blen += (l);\
} while (0)

#define GETARG() (nextvalue != Qundef ? nextvalue : \
posarg < 0 ? \
(rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "unnumbered(%d) mixed with numbered", nextarg), 0) : \
(posarg = nextarg++, GETNTHARG(posarg)))

#define GETPOSARG(n) (posarg > 0 ? \
(rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "numbered(%d) after unnumbered(%d)", n, posarg), 0) : \
((n < 1) ? (rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "invalid index - %d$", n), 0) : \
(posarg = -1, GETNTHARG(n))))

#define GETNTHARG(nth) \
((nth >= argc) ? (rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "too few arguments"), 0) : argv[nth])

#define GETNUM(n, val) \
for (; p < end && ISDIGIT(*p); p++) { \
int next_n = 10 * n + (*p - '0'); \
if (next_n / 10 != n) {\
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, #val " too big"); \
} \
n = next_n; \
} \
if (p >= end) { \
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "malformed format string - %%*[0-9]"); \
}

#define GETASTER(val) do { \
t = p++; \
n = 0; \
GETNUM(n, val); \
if (*p == '$') { \
tmp = GETPOSARG(n); \
} \
else { \
tmp = GETARG(); \
p = t; \
} \
val = NUM2INT(tmp); \
} while (0)


/*
* call-seq:
* format(format_string [, arguments...] ) => string
* sprintf(format_string [, arguments...] ) => string
*
* Returns the string resulting from applying <i>format_string</i> to
* any additional arguments. Within the format string, any characters
* other than format sequences are copied to the result. A format
* sequence consists of a percent sign, followed by optional flags,
* width, and precision indicators, then terminated with a field type
* character. The field type controls how the corresponding
* <code>sprintf</code> argument is to be interpreted, while the flags
* modify that interpretation. The field type characters are listed
* in the table at the end of this section. The flag characters are:
*
* Flag | Applies to | Meaning
* ---------+--------------+-----------------------------------------
* space | bdeEfgGiouxX | Leave a space at the start of
* | | positive numbers.
* ---------+--------------+-----------------------------------------
* (digit)$ | all | Specifies the absolute argument number
* | | for this field. Absolute and relative
* | | argument numbers cannot be mixed in a
* | | sprintf string.
* ---------+--------------+-----------------------------------------
* # | beEfgGoxX | Use an alternative format. For the
* | | conversions `o', `x', `X', and `b',
* | | prefix the result with ``0'', ``0x'', ``0X'',
* | | and ``0b'', respectively. For `e',
* | | `E', `f', `g', and 'G', force a decimal
* | | point to be added, even if no digits follow.
* | | For `g' and 'G', do not remove trailing zeros.
* ---------+--------------+-----------------------------------------
* + | bdeEfgGiouxX | Add a leading plus sign to positive numbers.
* ---------+--------------+-----------------------------------------
* - | all | Left-justify the result of this conversion.
* ---------+--------------+-----------------------------------------
* 0 (zero) | bdeEfgGiouxX | Pad with zeros, not spaces.
* ---------+--------------+-----------------------------------------
* * | all | Use the next argument as the field width.
* | | If negative, left-justify the result. If the
* | | asterisk is followed by a number and a dollar
* | | sign, use the indicated argument as the width.
*
*
* The field width is an optional integer, followed optionally by a
* period and a precision. The width specifies the minimum number of
* characters that will be written to the result for this field. For
* numeric fields, the precision controls the number of decimal places
* displayed. For string fields, the precision determines the maximum
* number of characters to be copied from the string. (Thus, the format
* sequence <code>%10.10s</code> will always contribute exactly ten
* characters to the result.)
*
* The field types are:
*
* Field | Conversion
* ------+--------------------------------------------------------------
* b | Convert argument as a binary number.
* c | Argument is the numeric code for a single character.
* d | Convert argument as a decimal number.
* E | Equivalent to `e', but uses an uppercase E to indicate
* | the exponent.
* e | Convert floating point argument into exponential notation
* | with one digit before the decimal point. The precision
* | determines the number of fractional digits (defaulting to six).
* f | Convert floating point argument as [-]ddd.ddd,
* | where the precision determines the number of digits after
* | the decimal point.
* G | Equivalent to `g', but use an uppercase `E' in exponent form.
* g | Convert a floating point number using exponential form
* | if the exponent is less than -4 or greater than or
* | equal to the precision, or in d.dddd form otherwise.
* i | Identical to `d'.
* o | Convert argument as an octal number.
* p | The valuing of argument.inspect.
* s | Argument is a string to be substituted. If the format
* | sequence contains a precision, at most that many characters
* | will be copied.
* u | Treat argument as an unsigned decimal number. Negative integers
* | are displayed as a 32 bit two's complement plus one for the
* | underlying architecture; that is, 2 ** 32 + n. However, since
* | Ruby has no inherent limit on bits used to represent the
* | integer, this value is preceded by two dots (..) in order to
* | indicate a infinite number of leading sign bits.
* X | Convert argument as a hexadecimal number using uppercase
* | letters. Negative numbers will be displayed with two
* | leading periods (representing an infinite string of
* | leading 'FF's.
* x | Convert argument as a hexadecimal number.
* | Negative numbers will be displayed with two
* | leading periods (representing an infinite string of
* | leading 'ff's.
*
* Examples:
*
* sprintf("%d %04x", 123, 123) #=> "123 007b"
* sprintf("%08b '%4s'", 123, 123) #=> "01111011 ' 123'"
* sprintf("%1$*2$s %2$d %1$s", "hello", 8) #=> " hello 8 hello"
* sprintf("%1$*2$s %2$d", "hello", -8) #=> "hello -8"
* sprintf("%+g:% g:%-g", 1.23, 1.23, 1.23) #=> "+1.23: 1.23:1.23"
* sprintf("%u", -123) #=> "..4294967173"
*/

VALUE
rb_f_sprintf(argc, argv)
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
{
    return rb_str_format(argc - 1, argv + 1, GETNTHARG(0));
}

VALUE
rb_str_format(argc, argv, fmt)
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
    VALUE fmt;
{
    const char *p, *end;
    char *buf;
    int blen, bsiz;
    VALUE result;

    int width, prec, flags = FNONE;
    int nextarg = 1;
    int posarg = 0;
    int tainted = 0;
    VALUE nextvalue;
    VALUE tmp;
    VALUE str;

#define CHECK_FOR_WIDTH(f) \
if ((f) & FWIDTH) { \
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "width given twice"); \
} \
if ((f) & FPREC0) { \
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "width after precision"); \
}
#define CHECK_FOR_FLAGS(f) \
if ((f) & FWIDTH) { \
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "flag after width"); \
} \
if ((f) & FPREC0) { \
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "flag after precision"); \
}

    ++argc;
    --argv;
    if (OBJ_TAINTED(fmt)) tainted = 1;
    StringValue(fmt);
    fmt = rb_str_new4(fmt);
    p = RSTRING(fmt)->ptr;
    end = p + RSTRING(fmt)->len;
    blen = 0;
    bsiz = 120;
    result = rb_str_buf_new(bsiz);
    buf = RSTRING(result)->ptr;

    for (; p < end; p++) {
const char *t;
int n;

for (t = p; t < end && *t != '%'; t++) ;
PUSH(p, t - p);
if (t >= end) {
/* end of fmt string */
goto sprint_exit;
}
p = t + 1; /* skip `%' */

width = prec = -1;
nextvalue = Qundef;
      retry:
switch (*p) {
default:
if (ISPRINT(*p))
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "malformed format string - %%%c", *p);
else
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "malformed format string");
break;

case ' ':
CHECK_FOR_FLAGS(flags);
flags |= FSPACE;
p++;
goto retry;

case '#':
CHECK_FOR_FLAGS(flags);
flags |= FSHARP;
p++;
goto retry;

case '+':
CHECK_FOR_FLAGS(flags);
flags |= FPLUS;
p++;
goto retry;

case '-':
CHECK_FOR_FLAGS(flags);
flags |= FMINUS;
p++;
goto retry;

case '0':
CHECK_FOR_FLAGS(flags);
flags |= FZERO;
p++;
goto retry;

case '1': case '2': case '3': case '4':
case '5': case '6': case '7': case '8': case '9':
n = 0;
GETNUM(n, width);
if (*p == '$') {
if (nextvalue != Qundef) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "value given twice - %d$", n);
}
nextvalue = GETPOSARG(n);
p++;
goto retry;
}
CHECK_FOR_WIDTH(flags);
width = n;
flags |= FWIDTH;
goto retry;

case '*':
CHECK_FOR_WIDTH(flags);
flags |= FWIDTH;
GETASTER(width);
if (width < 0) {
flags |= FMINUS;
width = -width;
}
p++;
goto retry;

case '.':
if (flags & FPREC0) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "precision given twice");
}
flags |= FPREC|FPREC0;

prec = 0;
p++;
if (*p == '*') {
GETASTER(prec);
if (prec < 0) { /* ignore negative precision */
flags &= ~FPREC;
}
p++;
goto retry;
}

GETNUM(prec, precision);
goto retry;

case '\n':
case '\0':
p--;
case '%':
if (flags != FNONE) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "illegal format character - %%");
}
PUSH("%", 1);
break;

case 'c':
{
VALUE val = GETARG();
char c;

if (!(flags & FMINUS))
while (--width > 0)
PUSH(" ", 1);
c = NUM2INT(val) & 0xff;
PUSH(&c, 1);
while (--width > 0)
PUSH(" ", 1);
}
break;

case 's':
case 'p':
{
VALUE arg = GETARG();
long len;

if (*p == 'p') arg = rb_inspect(arg);
str = rb_obj_as_string(arg);
if (OBJ_TAINTED(str)) tainted = 1;
len = RSTRING(str)->len;
if (flags&FPREC) {
if (prec < len) {
len = prec;
}
}
/* need to adjust multi-byte string pos */
if (flags&FWIDTH) {
if (width > len) {
CHECK(width);
width -= len;
if (!(flags&FMINUS)) {
while (width--) {
buf[blen++] = ' ';
}
}
memcpy(&buf[blen], RSTRING_PTR(str), len);
blen += len;
if (flags&FMINUS) {
while (width--) {
buf[blen++] = ' ';
}
}
break;
}
}
PUSH(RSTRING(str)->ptr, len);
}
break;

case 'd':
case 'i':
case 'o':
case 'x':
case 'X':
case 'b':
case 'B':
case 'u':
{
volatile VALUE val = GETARG();
char fbuf[32], nbuf[64], *s, *t;
const char *prefix = 0;
int sign = 0;
char sc = 0;
long v = 0;
int base, bignum = 0;
int len, pos;
volatile VALUE tmp;
                volatile VALUE tmp1;

switch (*p) {
case 'd':
case 'i':
sign = 1; break;
case 'o':
case 'x':
case 'X':
case 'b':
case 'B':
case 'u':
default:
if (flags&(FPLUS|FSPACE)) sign = 1;
break;
}
if (flags & FSHARP) {
switch (*p) {
case 'o':
prefix = "0"; break;
case 'x':
prefix = "0x"; break;
case 'X':
prefix = "0X"; break;
case 'b':
prefix = "0b"; break;
case 'B':
prefix = "0B"; break;
}
if (prefix) {
width -= strlen(prefix);
}
}

bin_retry:
switch (TYPE(val)) {
case T_FLOAT:
val = rb_dbl2big(RFLOAT(val)->value);
if (FIXNUM_P(val)) goto bin_retry;
bignum = 1;
break;
case T_STRING:
val = rb_str_to_inum(val, 0, Qtrue);
goto bin_retry;
case T_BIGNUM:
bignum = 1;
break;
case T_FIXNUM:
v = FIX2LONG(val);
break;
default:
val = rb_Integer(val);
goto bin_retry;
}

switch (*p) {
case 'o':
base = 8; break;
case 'x':
case 'X':
base = 16; break;
case 'b':
case 'B':
base = 2; break;
case 'u':
case 'd':
case 'i':
default:
base = 10; break;
}

if (!bignum) {
if (base == 2) {
val = rb_int2big(v);
goto bin_retry;
}
if (sign) {
char c = *p;
if (c == 'i') c = 'd'; /* %d and %i are identical */
if (v < 0) {
v = -v;
sc = '-';
width--;
}
else if (flags & FPLUS) {
sc = '+';
width--;
}
else if (flags & FSPACE) {
sc = ' ';
width--;
}
sprintf(fbuf, "%%l%c", c);
sprintf(nbuf, fbuf, v);
s = nbuf;
goto format_integer;
}
s = nbuf;
if (v < 0) {
if (base == 10) {
rb_warning("negative number for %%u specifier");
}
if (!(flags&(FPREC|FZERO))) {
strcpy(s, "..");
s += 2;
}
}
sprintf(fbuf, "%%l%c", *p == 'X' ? 'x' : *p);
sprintf(s, fbuf, v);
if (v < 0) {
char d = 0;

remove_sign_bits(s, base);
switch (base) {
case 16:
d = 'f'; break;
case 8:
d = '7'; break;
}
if (d && *s != d) {
memmove(s+1, s, strlen(s)+1);
*s = d;
}
}
s = nbuf;
goto format_integer;
}

if (sign) {
tmp = rb_big2str(val, base);
s = RSTRING(tmp)->ptr;
if (s[0] == '-') {
s++;
sc = '-';
                        width--;
}
else if (flags & FPLUS) {
sc = '+';
                        width--;
}
else if (flags & FSPACE) {
sc = ' ';
                        width--;
}
goto format_integer;
}
if (!RBIGNUM(val)->sign) {
val = rb_big_clone(val);
rb_big_2comp(val);
}
tmp1 = tmp = rb_big2str0(val, base, RBIGNUM(val)->sign);
s = RSTRING(tmp)->ptr;
if (*s == '-') {
if (base == 10) {
rb_warning("negative number for %%u specifier");
}
remove_sign_bits(++s, base);
tmp = rb_str_new(0, 3+strlen(s));
t = RSTRING(tmp)->ptr;
if (!(flags&(FPREC|FZERO))) {
strcpy(t, "..");
t += 2;
}
switch (base) {
case 16:
if (s[0] != 'f') strcpy(t++, "f"); break;
case 8:
if (s[0] != '7') strcpy(t++, "7"); break;
case 2:
if (s[0] != '1') strcpy(t++, "1"); break;
}
strcpy(t, s);
bignum = 2;
}
s = RSTRING(tmp)->ptr;

format_integer:
pos = -1;
len = strlen(s);

if (*p == 'X') {
char *pp = s;
while (*pp) {
*pp = toupper(*pp);
pp++;
}
}
if ((flags&(FZERO|FPREC)) == FZERO) {
prec = width;
width = 0;
}
else {
if (prec < len) prec = len;
width -= prec;
}
if (!(flags&FMINUS)) {
CHECK(width);
while (width-- > 0) {
buf[blen++] = ' ';
}
}
if (sc) PUSH(&sc, 1);
if (prefix) {
int plen = strlen(prefix);
PUSH(prefix, plen);
}
CHECK(prec - len);
if (!bignum && v < 0) {
char c = sign_bits(base, p);
while (len < prec--) {
buf[blen++] = c;
}
}
else {
char c;

if (!sign && bignum && !RBIGNUM(val)->sign)
c = sign_bits(base, p);
else
c = '0';
while (len < prec--) {
buf[blen++] = c;
}
}
PUSH(s, len);
CHECK(width);
while (width-- > 0) {
buf[blen++] = ' ';
}
}
break;

case 'f':
case 'g':
case 'G':
case 'e':
case 'E':
{
VALUE val = GETARG();
double fval;
int i, need = 6;
char fbuf[32];

fval = RFLOAT(rb_Float(val))->value;
#if defined(_WIN32) && !defined(__BORLANDC__)
if (isnan(fval) || isinf(fval)) {
const char *expr;

if (isnan(fval)) {
expr = "NaN";
}
else {
expr = "Inf";
}
need = strlen(expr);
if ((!isnan(fval) && fval < 0.0) || (flags & FPLUS))
need++;
else if (flags & FSPACE)
need++;
if ((flags & FWIDTH) && need < width)
need = width;

CHECK(need);
sprintf(&buf[blen], "%*s", need, "");
if (flags & FMINUS) {
if (!isnan(fval) && fval < 0.0)
buf[blen++] = '-';
else if (flags & FPLUS)
buf[blen++] = '+';
else if (flags & FSPACE)
blen++;
strncpy(&buf[blen], expr, strlen(expr));
}
else if (flags & FZERO) {
if (!isnan(fval) && fval < 0.0) {
buf[blen++] = '-';
need--;
}
else if (flags & FPLUS) {
buf[blen++] = '+';
need--;
}
else if (flags & FSPACE) {
blen++;
need--;
}
while (need-- - strlen(expr) > 0) {
buf[blen++] = '0';
}
strncpy(&buf[blen], expr, strlen(expr));
}
else {
if (!isnan(fval) && fval < 0.0)
buf[blen + need - strlen(expr) - 1] = '-';
else if (flags & FPLUS)
buf[blen + need - strlen(expr) - 1] = '+';
strncpy(&buf[blen + need - strlen(expr)], expr,
strlen(expr));
}
blen += strlen(&buf[blen]);
break;
}
#endif /* defined(_WIN32) && !defined(__BORLANDC__) */
fmt_setup(fbuf, *p, flags, width, prec);
need = 0;
if (*p != 'e' && *p != 'E') {
i = INT_MIN;
frexp(fval, &i);
if (i > 0)
need = BIT_DIGITS(i);
}
need += (flags&FPREC) ? prec : 6;
if ((flags&FWIDTH) && need < width)
need = width;
need += 20;

CHECK(need);
sprintf(&buf[blen], fbuf, fval);
blen += strlen(&buf[blen]);
}
break;
}
flags = FNONE;
    }

  sprint_exit:
    /* XXX - We cannot validiate the number of arguments if (digit)$ style used.
*/
    if (posarg >= 0 && nextarg < argc) {
const char *mesg = "too many arguments for format string";
if (RTEST(ruby_debug)) rb_raise(rb_eArgError, mesg);
if (RTEST(ruby_verbose)) rb_warn(mesg);
    }
    rb_str_resize(result, blen);

    if (tainted) OBJ_TAINT(result);
    return result;
}

static void
fmt_setup(buf, c, flags, width, prec)
    char *buf;
    int c;
    int flags, width, prec;
{
    *buf++ = '%';
    if (flags & FSHARP) *buf++ = '#';
    if (flags & FPLUS) *buf++ = '+';
    if (flags & FMINUS) *buf++ = '-';
    if (flags & FZERO) *buf++ = '0';
    if (flags & FSPACE) *buf++ = ' ';

    if (flags & FWIDTH) {
sprintf(buf, "%d", width);
buf += strlen(buf);
    }

    if (flags & FPREC) {
sprintf(buf, ".%d", prec);
buf += strlen(buf);
    }

    *buf++ = c;
    *buf = '\0';
}
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