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"""
Investment Accelerator Model WIth Government
Attempt at the simplest possible investment accelerator model. Has a number of
simplifications; no attempt to reflect more standard models.
Since we have a more advanced production function, need to add inventories. This was
not done in the existing framework, so extending the business sector class
locally.
Uses a lot of lagged information to ensure solution stability.
Base it off Model SIM, but beef up the business sector. By implication, all prices
are fixed.
"""
from sfc_models.objects import *
from sfc_models.examples.Quick2DPlot import Quick2DPlot
from sfc_models.sector import Sector
from sfc_models.utils import Logger
# Create the new business sector class
class BusinessWithInvestment(FixedMarginBusiness):
def __init__(self, country, code, long_name=''):
if long_name == '':
long_name = 'Business with Investment {0} in Country {1}'.format(code, country.Code)
labour_input_name = 'LAB'
output_name = 'GOOD'
profit_margin=0.0
FixedMarginBusiness.__init__(self, country, code, long_name, profit_margin,
labour_input_name, output_name)
self.AddVariable('INV', 'Inventory', 'LAG_INV + PROD - SUP_GOOD - INVEST')
self.AddVariable('LAG_INV', 'Lagged Inventory', 'INV(k-1)')
# Target inventory = 1*market demand
# Production = (expected demand) + (desired change in inventory)
# expected demand = investment + previous market demand
# desired change in inventory = .5*(previous market demand - existing inventory).
self.AddVariable('PROD', 'Production Level', 'max(0,INVEST + LAG_SUP_GOOD + .1*(LAG_SUP_GOOD - LAG_INV))')
self.AddVariable('INVSALES', 'Inventory/Sales Ratio', 'INV/SUP_GOOD')
self.AddVariable('CAPITAL', 'Stock of Capital', '0.95*LAG_CAP + INVEST')
# Production function: Y = K(t-1)^.5 N^.5
# N = Number of hours = P^2 / (K(t-1)
self.AddVariable('NUMHOURS', 'Number of Hours Demanded', '(PROD*PROD)/LAG_CAP')
self.AddVariable('WAGERATE', 'Wage rate', 'DEM_LAB/NUMHOURS')
self.AddVariable('LAG_HOURS', 'Lagged Number of Hours', 'NUMHOURS(k-1)')
self.AddVariable('LAG_CAP', 'Lagged Capital', 'CAPITAL(k-1)')
self.AddVariable('LAG_PROD', 'Lagged Production', 'PROD(k-1)')
self.AddVariable('LAG_SUP_GOOD', 'Lagged Supply to market', 'SUP_GOOD(k-1)')
# Target capital = (alpha_capital)*(previous # of hours worked)
self.AddVariable('ALPHA_CAPITAL', 'Multiplier for target capital', '1.')
self.AddVariable('CAPITAL_TARGET', 'Target Level for capital', 'ALPHA_CAPITAL*LAG_HOURS')
self.AddVariable('INVEST', 'Gross Investment', 'max(0., .05*LAG_CAP + .1*(CAPITAL_TARGET-LAG_CAP))')
self.AddVariable('CAPITAL_RATIO', 'Ratio of Capital to target', 'CAPITAL/CAPITAL_TARGET')
# Pro-Forma Profits: 20% of sales - depreciation.
self.AddVariable('PROFORMA', 'Pro-Forma Profits (Lagged)', '0.20*LAG_SUP_GOOD - .05*LAG_CAP')
self.AddVariable('DIVPAID', 'Dividends Paid', '.055* LAG_F + 0.8*PROFORMA')
self.AddVariable('DEM_LAB', 'Demand For Labour', '0.8*PROD')
def _GenerateEquations(self):
# self.AddVariable('SUP_GOOD', 'Supply of goods', '<TO BE DETERMINED>')
wage_share = 1.0 - self.ProfitMargin
Logger('Searching for Market Sector with Code {0} in parent country', priority=4,
data_to_format=(self.OutputName,))
# Since we have inventories, profits are volume of sales * profit margin
self.SetEquationRightHandSide('PROF', '.1 * SUP_GOOD')
for s in self.Parent.SectorList:
if s.Code == 'HH':
Logger('Adding dividend flow', priority=5)
self.AddCashFlow('-DIV', 'DIVPAID', 'Dividends paid', is_income=False)
s.AddCashFlow('DIV', self.GetVariableName('DIVPAID'), 'Dividends received', is_income=True)
break
def build_model(small_gov=False):
mod = Model()
mod.EquationSolver.TraceStep = 10
mod.EquationSolver.ParameterSolveInitialSteadyState = True
mod.EquationSolver.MaxTime = 100
# Create first country - Canada. (This model only has one country.)
can = Country(mod, 'CA', 'Canada')
# Create sectors
gov = ConsolidatedGovernment(can, 'GOV', 'Government')
hh = Household(can, 'HH', 'Household')
# A literally non-profit business sector
bus = BusinessWithInvestment(can, 'BUS', 'Business Sector')
# Create the linkages between sectors - tax flow, markets - labour ('LAB'), goods ('GOOD')
if small_gov:
taxrate = .1
else:
taxrate = .2
tax = TaxFlow(can, 'TF', 'TaxFlow', taxrate)
labour = Market(can, 'LAB', 'Labour market')
goods = Market(can, 'GOOD', 'Goods market')
# Initial conditions
bus.AddInitialCondition('CAPITAL', 100.)
bus.AddInitialCondition('PROD', 100.)
bus.AddInitialCondition('INV', 95.)
# bus.AddInitialCondition('LAG_INV', 100.)
# bus.AddInitialCondition('LAG_SUP_GOOD', 95.)
bus.AddInitialCondition('SUP_GOOD', 95.)
bus.AddInitialCondition('NUMHOURS', 100.)
# Initialise money holdings
bizcash = 69
hhcash = 76.
gov.AddInitialCondition('F', -(bizcash+hhcash))
hh.AddInitialCondition('F', hhcash)
bus.AddInitialCondition('F', bizcash)
# Need to set the exogenous variable - Government demand for Goods ("G" in economist symbology)
#mod.AddExogenous('GOV', 'DEM_GOOD', '[19.,] * 20 + [25.]*100')
if small_gov:
mod.AddExogenous('GOV', 'DEM_GOOD', '[9.5,] * 105')
else:
mod.AddExogenous('GOV', 'DEM_GOOD', '[19.,] * 105')
mod.AddExogenous('BUS', 'ALPHA_CAPITAL', '[1.,] * 5 + [.9] * 100')
# Build the model
mod.main()
return mod
def main():
# The next line of code sets the name of the output files based on the code file's name.
# This means that if you paste this code into a new file, get a new log name.
register_standard_logs('output', __file__)
# Create model, which holds all entities
big_mod = build_model(small_gov=False)
small_mod = build_model(small_gov=True)
# First set of charts: short-term effects
CUT = 100
k = small_mod.GetTimeSeries('k', cutoff=CUT)
goods_small = small_mod.GetTimeSeries('BUS__PROD', cutoff=CUT)
goods_big = big_mod.GetTimeSeries('BUS__PROD', cutoff=CUT)
# fisc_bal = mod.GetTimeSeries('GOV__FISC_BAL', cutoff=CUT)
# profit = mod.GetTimeSeries('BUS__PROFORMA', cutoff=CUT)
# Fix initial conditions
# profit[0] = 14.
p = Quick2DPlot([k, k], [goods_small, goods_big], 'National Output', filename='accelerator_gummint.png',
run_now=False)
p.Legend = ('Small Government', 'Big Government')
p.DoPlot()
# Quick2DPlot(k, fisc_bal, 'Government Fiscal Balance - Long Run',
# filename='recession_investment_08.png')
# Quick2DPlot(k, profit, 'Business Sector (Pro-Forma) Profits',
# filename='recession_investment_09.png')
if __name__ == '__main__':
main()
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