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A simple event-based I/O library
C
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pollers
CHANGES
Makefile Cygwin isn't happy with values.h/MAXINT so convert to limits.h/INT_MAX
README
atom.c
atom.h
iotest.c Cygwin isn't happy with values.h/MAXINT so convert to limits.h/INT_MAX
poller.c
poller.h
socket.c
socket.h
testclient.c
testmock.c
testserver.c

README


                             IO Atom

                  unified edge-triggered polling



This library aims to make event-driven programming easy on any
common architecture.


GOALS

- Zero memory management (or, you manage memory however you like, we don't
  allocate or free anything at all)
- Easily embeddable into any app.
- Frickin fast.


API

Note that the select and poll pollers are level-triggered because their
underlying calls are level-triggered.  All other pollers are edge-triggered.
There is no harm at all in using a level-based API as if it were
edge-triggered (just slightly worse performance, but if you're using
select or poll you're deep in mud anyway), so there's no need to change
your code when you switch pollers.



ATOMS

An io_atom associates a file descriptor with an event callback routine.
Every time an event occurs on the file descriptor, your callback
routine is called.

You allocate the atom yourself.  Because io_atoms are so small, you should
just embed them directly in your data structures.  For instance:

		struct my_comm {
			io_atom io;			<-- add io_atom
			int my_field;
			... etc.
		}
		
If you call io_socket_listen or io_socket_accept, the atom will be
initialized for you.  Otherwise, you can call io_atom_init to initialize
it yourself.


SPECIFY THE EVENTS YOUR ATOM IS INTERESTED IN

Now that you have an atom and a callback routine, you need to add it
to a poller using io_add.  You can specify the following flags:
	
	IO_READ: the callback will be called when there are read events on the fd.
	IO_WRITE: called when there are write events.
	IO_EXCEPT: deprecated, probably going away.  used to handle oob data.

To receive events, either IO_READ or IO_WRITE must be set.  To change
the events an atom is interested in use io_set.
	

POLL FOR EVENTS

To get events, use something like this for your main loop:

    if(io_poller_init(&poller, IO_POLLER_ANY) < 0) {
        perror("io_init");
        exit(1);
    }

	for(;;) {
		if(io_wait(&poller, INT_MAX) < 0) {
			perror("io_wait");
		}
		io_dispatch(&poller);
	}

io_wait idles until either the timeout expires or there's an event that
needs to be handled.

The reason io_wait and io_dispatch are separate is that sometimes you
have global structures that need to be updated just before your event
callbacks fire.  In this case we don't so we dispatch immediately.

io_dispatch calls the callback routine of each fd that has an event.
It's safe to add or remove io_atoms inside your callback routines.



HANDLING EVENTS

Here is a typical event handler:
	
	(TODO; look in socktest.c, connection_proc())

1. You use io_resolve_parent() to convert the callback's io_atom
into your structure that contains the atom.

2. You look for IO_READ (a read event has happened) or IO_WRITE in
the flags parameter.  One of these will be set (or IO_EXCEPT, but it's
going away).

3. Read or write to exhaustion.  In other words, move as much data as
you can until you receive an error (probably -EWOULDBLOCK).
Use io_read or io_write to make dealing with POSIX a little easier.

That's all!


WHY READ TO EXHAUSTION?

This library is edge-triggered, not level triggered.  This makes things a
little faster but it does have one requirement: when you receive an event
on a file descriptor, you MUST read it to exhaustion!  If not, the remaining
data will sit on the fd's buffer until another event fires.  If you notice
your connections hanging, almost certainly you're not reading or writing
to exhaustion.  (this also means that you must somehow perform nonblocking
reads and writes; if you use io_socket_connect and io_socket_accept then
nonblocking mode will be set for you).


ON ENABLING AND DISABLING EVENTS

Normally your atoms will have IO_READ enabled and IO_WRITE disabled.
This way you handle all incoming data the moment it arrives.

If you can't manage to drain the incoming read buffer, then you should
disable the IO_READ event.  This will cause the kernel to NAK further
incoming packets, slowing down the source.  Once you've managed to
free up room in your read buffer, re-enable the IO_READ event so that
you can start pulling data from the kernel again.

You probably are not interested in receiving IO_WRITE notifications.
However, if the remote can't accept data fast enough, data will start
piling up in the kernel's write buffers until IO_WRITE don't succeed
fully.

You could run with IO_WRITE disabled but it's probably not necessary since
there could never be a write notification on an empty buffer anyway.
(we're edge triggered, remember?)  Therefore, it's probably easiest just
to leave IO_WRITE enabled for all sockets that you handle.


SELECTING A POLLER

Right now you can select a poller from the command line:
	-DUSE_EPOLL (todo)
	-DUSE_POLL
	-DUSE_SELECT
If you don't specify a poller, select is used by default.
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