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Cross Site Request Forgery Middleware.
This module provides a middleware that implements protection
against request forgeries from other sites.
import itertools
import re
import random
from django.conf import settings
from django.core.urlresolvers import get_callable
from django.utils.cache import patch_vary_headers
from django.utils.hashcompat import md5_constructor
from django.utils.safestring import mark_safe
re.compile(r'(<form\W[^>]*\bmethod\s*=\s*(\'|"|)POST(\'|"|)\b[^>]*>)', re.IGNORECASE)
_HTML_TYPES = ('text/html', 'application/xhtml+xml')
# Use the system (hardware-based) random number generator if it exists.
if hasattr(random, 'SystemRandom'):
randrange = random.SystemRandom().randrange
randrange = random.randrange
_MAX_CSRF_KEY = 18446744073709551616L # 2 << 63
def _get_failure_view():
Returns the view to be used for CSRF rejections
return get_callable(settings.CSRF_FAILURE_VIEW)
def _get_new_csrf_key():
return md5_constructor("%s%s"
% (randrange(0, _MAX_CSRF_KEY), settings.SECRET_KEY)).hexdigest()
def _make_legacy_session_token(session_id):
return md5_constructor(settings.SECRET_KEY + session_id).hexdigest()
def get_token(request):
Returns the the CSRF token required for a POST form.
A side effect of calling this function is to make the the csrf_protect
decorator and the CsrfViewMiddleware add a CSRF cookie and a 'Vary: Cookie'
header to the outgoing response. For this reason, you may need to use this
function lazily, as is done by the csrf context processor.
request.META["CSRF_COOKIE_USED"] = True
return request.META.get("CSRF_COOKIE", None)
class CsrfViewMiddleware(object):
Middleware that requires a present and correct csrfmiddlewaretoken
for POST requests that have a CSRF cookie, and sets an outgoing
CSRF cookie.
This middleware should be used in conjunction with the csrf_token template
def process_view(self, request, callback, callback_args, callback_kwargs):
if getattr(callback, 'csrf_exempt', False):
return None
if getattr(request, 'csrf_processing_done', False):
return None
reject = lambda s: _get_failure_view()(request, reason=s)
def accept():
# Avoid checking the request twice by adding a custom attribute to
# request. This will be relevant when both decorator and middleware
# are used.
request.csrf_processing_done = True
return None
# If the user doesn't have a CSRF cookie, generate one and store it in the
# request, so it's available to the view. We'll store it in a cookie when
# we reach the response.
request.META["CSRF_COOKIE"] = request.COOKIES[settings.CSRF_COOKIE_NAME]
cookie_is_new = False
except KeyError:
# No cookie, so create one.
request.META["CSRF_COOKIE"] = _get_new_csrf_key()
cookie_is_new = True
if request.method == 'POST':
if getattr(request, '_dont_enforce_csrf_checks', False):
# Mechanism to turn off CSRF checks for test suite. It comes after
# the creation of CSRF cookies, so that everything else continues to
# work exactly the same (e.g. cookies are sent etc), but before the
# any branches that call reject()
return accept()
if request.is_ajax():
# .is_ajax() is based on the presence of X-Requested-With. In
# the context of a browser, this can only be sent if using
# XmlHttpRequest. Browsers implement careful policies for
# XmlHttpRequest:
# * Normally, only same-domain requests are allowed.
# * Some browsers (e.g. Firefox 3.5 and later) relax this
# carefully:
# * if it is a 'simple' GET or POST request (which can
# include no custom headers), it is allowed to be cross
# domain. These requests will not be recognized as AJAX.
# * if a 'preflight' check with the server confirms that the
# server is expecting and allows the request, cross domain
# requests even with custom headers are allowed. These
# requests will be recognized as AJAX, but can only get
# through when the developer has specifically opted in to
# allowing the cross-domain POST request.
# So in all cases, it is safe to allow these requests through.
return accept()
if request.is_secure():
# Strict referer checking for HTTPS
referer = request.META.get('HTTP_REFERER')
if referer is None:
return reject("Referer checking failed - no Referer.")
# The following check ensures that the referer is HTTPS,
# the domains match and the ports match. This might be too strict.
good_referer = 'https://%s/' % request.get_host()
if not referer.startswith(good_referer):
return reject("Referer checking failed - %s does not match %s." %
(referer, good_referer))
# If the user didn't already have a CSRF key, then accept the
# session key for the middleware token, so CSRF protection isn't lost
# for the period between upgrading to CSRF cookes to the first time
# each user comes back to the site to receive one.
if cookie_is_new:
session_id = request.COOKIES[settings.SESSION_COOKIE_NAME]
csrf_token = _make_legacy_session_token(session_id)
except KeyError:
# No CSRF cookie and no session cookie. For POST requests,
# we insist on a CSRF cookie, and in this way we can avoid
# all CSRF attacks, including login CSRF.
return reject("No CSRF or session cookie.")
csrf_token = request.META["CSRF_COOKIE"]
# check incoming token
request_csrf_token = request.POST.get('csrfmiddlewaretoken', None)
if request_csrf_token != csrf_token:
if cookie_is_new:
# probably a problem setting the CSRF cookie
return reject("CSRF cookie not set.")
return reject("CSRF token missing or incorrect.")
return accept()
def process_response(self, request, response):
if getattr(response, 'csrf_processing_done', False):
return response
# If CSRF_COOKIE is unset, then CsrfViewMiddleware.process_view was
# never called, probaby because a request middleware returned a response
# (for example, contrib.auth redirecting to a login page).
if request.META.get("CSRF_COOKIE") is None:
return response
if not request.META.get("CSRF_COOKIE_USED", False):
return response
# Set the CSRF cookie even if it's already set, so we renew the expiry timer.
request.META["CSRF_COOKIE"], max_age = 60 * 60 * 24 * 7 * 52,
# Content varies with the CSRF cookie, so set the Vary header.
patch_vary_headers(response, ('Cookie',))
response.csrf_processing_done = True
return response
class CsrfResponseMiddleware(object):
Middleware that post-processes a response to add a csrfmiddlewaretoken.
This exists for backwards compatibility and as an interim measure until
applications are converted to using use the csrf_token template tag
instead. It will be removed in Django 1.4.
def __init__(self):
import warnings
"CsrfResponseMiddleware and CsrfMiddleware are deprecated; use CsrfViewMiddleware and the template tag instead (see CSRF documentation).",
def process_response(self, request, response):
if getattr(response, 'csrf_exempt', False):
return response
if response['Content-Type'].split(';')[0] in _HTML_TYPES:
csrf_token = get_token(request)
# If csrf_token is None, we have no token for this request, which probably
# means that this is a response from a request middleware.
if csrf_token is None:
return response
# ensure we don't add the 'id' attribute twice (HTML validity)
idattributes = itertools.chain(("id='csrfmiddlewaretoken'",),
def add_csrf_field(match):
"""Returns the matched <form> tag plus the added <input> element"""
return mark_safe( + "<div style='display:none;'>" + \
"<input type='hidden' " + + \
" name='csrfmiddlewaretoken' value='" + csrf_token + \
"' /></div>")
# Modify any POST forms
response.content, n = _POST_FORM_RE.subn(add_csrf_field, response.content)
if n > 0:
# Content varies with the CSRF cookie, so set the Vary header.
patch_vary_headers(response, ('Cookie',))
# Since the content has been modified, any Etag will now be
# incorrect. We could recalculate, but only if we assume that
# the Etag was set by CommonMiddleware. The safest thing is just
# to delete. See bug #9163
del response['ETag']
return response
class CsrfMiddleware(object):
Django middleware that adds protection against Cross Site
Request Forgeries by adding hidden form fields to POST forms and
checking requests for the correct value.
CsrfMiddleware uses two middleware, CsrfViewMiddleware and
CsrfResponseMiddleware, which can be used independently. It is recommended
to use only CsrfViewMiddleware and use the csrf_token template tag in
templates for inserting the token.
# We can't just inherit from CsrfViewMiddleware and CsrfResponseMiddleware
# because both have process_response methods.
def __init__(self):
self.response_middleware = CsrfResponseMiddleware()
self.view_middleware = CsrfViewMiddleware()
def process_response(self, request, resp):
# We must do the response post-processing first, because that calls
# get_token(), which triggers a flag saying that the CSRF cookie needs
# to be sent (done in CsrfViewMiddleware.process_response)
resp2 = self.response_middleware.process_response(request, resp)
return self.view_middleware.process_response(request, resp2)
def process_view(self, request, callback, callback_args, callback_kwargs):
return self.view_middleware.process_view(request, callback, callback_args,
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