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"""A high-speed, production ready, thread pooled, generic HTTP server.
Simplest example on how to use this module directly
(without using CherryPy's application machinery):
from cherrypy import wsgiserver
def my_crazy_app(environ, start_response):
status = '200 OK'
response_headers = [('Content-type','text/plain')]
start_response(status, response_headers)
return ['Hello world!\n']
server = wsgiserver.CherryPyWSGIServer(
('0.0.0.0', 8070), my_crazy_app,
server_name='www.cherrypy.example')
The CherryPy WSGI server can serve as many WSGI applications
as you want in one instance by using a WSGIPathInfoDispatcher:
d = WSGIPathInfoDispatcher({'/': my_crazy_app, '/blog': my_blog_app})
server = wsgiserver.CherryPyWSGIServer(('0.0.0.0', 80), d)
Want SSL support? Just set server.ssl_adapter to an SSLAdapter instance.
This won't call the CherryPy engine (application side) at all, only the
HTTP server, which is independent from the rest of CherryPy. Don't
let the name "CherryPyWSGIServer" throw you; the name merely reflects
its origin, not its coupling.
For those of you wanting to understand internals of this module, here's the
basic call flow. The server's listening thread runs a very tight loop,
sticking incoming connections onto a Queue:
server = CherryPyWSGIServer(...)
server.start()
while True:
tick()
# This blocks until a request comes in:
child = socket.accept()
conn = HTTPConnection(child, ...)
server.requests.put(conn)
Worker threads are kept in a pool and poll the Queue, popping off and then
handling each connection in turn. Each connection can consist of an arbitrary
number of requests and their responses, so we run a nested loop:
while True:
conn = server.requests.get()
conn.communicate()
-> while True:
req = HTTPRequest(...)
req.parse_request()
-> # Read the Request-Line, e.g. "GET /page HTTP/1.1"
req.rfile.readline()
read_headers(req.rfile, req.inheaders)
req.respond()
-> response = app(...)
try:
for chunk in response:
if chunk:
req.write(chunk)
finally:
if hasattr(response, "close"):
response.close()
if req.close_connection:
return
"""
CRLF = '\r\n'
import os
import Queue
import re
quoted_slash = re.compile("(?i)%2F")
import rfc822
import socket
import sys
if 'win' in sys.platform and not hasattr(socket, 'IPPROTO_IPV6'):
socket.IPPROTO_IPV6 = 41
try:
import cStringIO as StringIO
except ImportError:
import StringIO
_fileobject_uses_str_type = isinstance(socket._fileobject(None)._rbuf, basestring)
import threading
import time
import traceback
from urllib import unquote
from urlparse import urlparse
import warnings
import errno
def plat_specific_errors(*errnames):
"""Return error numbers for all errors in errnames on this platform.
The 'errno' module contains different global constants depending on
the specific platform (OS). This function will return the list of
numeric values for a given list of potential names.
"""
errno_names = dir(errno)
nums = [getattr(errno, k) for k in errnames if k in errno_names]
# de-dupe the list
return dict.fromkeys(nums).keys()
socket_error_eintr = plat_specific_errors("EINTR", "WSAEINTR")
socket_errors_to_ignore = plat_specific_errors(
"EPIPE",
"EBADF", "WSAEBADF",
"ENOTSOCK", "WSAENOTSOCK",
"ETIMEDOUT", "WSAETIMEDOUT",
"ECONNREFUSED", "WSAECONNREFUSED",
"ECONNRESET", "WSAECONNRESET",
"ECONNABORTED", "WSAECONNABORTED",
"ENETRESET", "WSAENETRESET",
"EHOSTDOWN", "EHOSTUNREACH",
)
socket_errors_to_ignore.append("timed out")
socket_errors_to_ignore.append("The read operation timed out")
socket_errors_nonblocking = plat_specific_errors(
'EAGAIN', 'EWOULDBLOCK', 'WSAEWOULDBLOCK')
comma_separated_headers = ['Accept', 'Accept-Charset', 'Accept-Encoding',
'Accept-Language', 'Accept-Ranges', 'Allow', 'Cache-Control',
'Connection', 'Content-Encoding', 'Content-Language', 'Expect',
'If-Match', 'If-None-Match', 'Pragma', 'Proxy-Authenticate', 'TE',
'Trailer', 'Transfer-Encoding', 'Upgrade', 'Vary', 'Via', 'Warning',
'WWW-Authenticate']
def read_headers(rfile, hdict=None):
"""Read headers from the given stream into the given header dict.
If hdict is None, a new header dict is created. Returns the populated
header dict.
Headers which are repeated are folded together using a comma if their
specification so dictates.
This function raises ValueError when the read bytes violate the HTTP spec.
You should probably return "400 Bad Request" if this happens.
"""
if hdict is None:
hdict = {}
while True:
line = rfile.readline()
if not line:
# No more data--illegal end of headers
raise ValueError("Illegal end of headers.")
if line == CRLF:
# Normal end of headers
break
if not line.endswith(CRLF):
raise ValueError("HTTP requires CRLF terminators")
if line[0] in ' \t':
# It's a continuation line.
v = line.strip()
else:
try:
k, v = line.split(":", 1)
except ValueError:
raise ValueError("Illegal header line.")
# TODO: what about TE and WWW-Authenticate?
k = k.strip().title()
v = v.strip()
hname = k
if k in comma_separated_headers:
existing = hdict.get(hname)
if existing:
v = ", ".join((existing, v))
hdict[hname] = v
return hdict
class MaxSizeExceeded(Exception):
pass
class SizeCheckWrapper(object):
"""Wraps a file-like object, raising MaxSizeExceeded if too large."""
def __init__(self, rfile, maxlen):
self.rfile = rfile
self.maxlen = maxlen
self.bytes_read = 0
def _check_length(self):
if self.maxlen and self.bytes_read > self.maxlen:
raise MaxSizeExceeded()
def read(self, size=None):
data = self.rfile.read(size)
self.bytes_read += len(data)
self._check_length()
return data
def readline(self, size=None):
if size is not None:
data = self.rfile.readline(size)
self.bytes_read += len(data)
self._check_length()
return data
# User didn't specify a size ...
# We read the line in chunks to make sure it's not a 100MB line !
res = []
while True:
data = self.rfile.readline(256)
self.bytes_read += len(data)
self._check_length()
res.append(data)
# See http://www.cherrypy.org/ticket/421
if len(data) < 256 or data[-1:] == "\n":
return ''.join(res)
def readlines(self, sizehint=0):
# Shamelessly stolen from StringIO
total = 0
lines = []
line = self.readline()
while line:
lines.append(line)
total += len(line)
if 0 < sizehint <= total:
break
line = self.readline()
return lines
def close(self):
self.rfile.close()
def __iter__(self):
return self
def next(self):
data = self.rfile.next()
self.bytes_read += len(data)
self._check_length()
return data
class KnownLengthRFile(object):
"""Wraps a file-like object, returning an empty string when exhausted."""
def __init__(self, rfile, content_length):
self.rfile = rfile
self.remaining = content_length
def read(self, size=None):
if self.remaining == 0:
return ''
if size is None:
size = self.remaining
else:
size = min(size, self.remaining)
data = self.rfile.read(size)
self.remaining -= len(data)
return data
def readline(self, size=None):
if self.remaining == 0:
return ''
if size is None:
size = self.remaining
else:
size = min(size, self.remaining)
data = self.rfile.readline(size)
self.remaining -= len(data)
return data
def readlines(self, sizehint=0):
# Shamelessly stolen from StringIO
total = 0
lines = []
line = self.readline(sizehint)
while line:
lines.append(line)
total += len(line)
if 0 < sizehint <= total:
break
line = self.readline(sizehint)
return lines
def close(self):
self.rfile.close()
def __iter__(self):
return self
def __next__(self):
data = next(self.rfile)
self.remaining -= len(data)
return data
class MaxSizeExceeded(Exception):
pass
class ChunkedRFile(object):
"""Wraps a file-like object, returning an empty string when exhausted.
This class is intended to provide a conforming wsgi.input value for
request entities that have been encoded with the 'chunked' transfer
encoding.
"""
def __init__(self, rfile, maxlen, bufsize=8192):
self.rfile = rfile
self.maxlen = maxlen
self.bytes_read = 0
self.buffer = ''
self.bufsize = bufsize
self.closed = False
def _fetch(self):
if self.closed:
return
line = self.rfile.readline()
self.bytes_read += len(line)
if self.maxlen and self.bytes_read > self.maxlen:
raise MaxSizeExceeded("Request Entity Too Large", self.maxlen)
line = line.strip().split(";", 1)
try:
chunk_size = line.pop(0)
chunk_size = int(chunk_size, 16)
except ValueError:
raise ValueError("Bad chunked transfer size: " + repr(chunk_size))
if chunk_size <= 0:
self.closed = True
return
## if line: chunk_extension = line[0]
if self.maxlen and self.bytes_read + chunk_size > self.maxlen:
raise IOError("Request Entity Too Large")
chunk = self.rfile.read(chunk_size)
self.bytes_read += len(chunk)
self.buffer += chunk
crlf = self.rfile.read(2)
if crlf != CRLF:
raise ValueError(
"Bad chunked transfer coding (expected '\\r\\n', "
"got " + repr(crlf) + ")")
def read(self, size=None):
data = ''
while True:
if size and len(data) >= size:
return data
if not self.buffer:
self._fetch()
if not self.buffer:
# EOF
return data
if size:
remaining = size - len(data)
data += self.buffer[:remaining]
self.buffer = self.buffer[remaining:]
else:
data += self.buffer
def readline(self, size=None):
data = ''
while True:
if size and len(data) >= size:
return data
if not self.buffer:
self._fetch()
if not self.buffer:
# EOF
return data
newline_pos = self.buffer.find('\n')
if size:
if newline_pos == -1:
remaining = size - len(data)
data += self.buffer[:remaining]
self.buffer = self.buffer[remaining:]
else:
remaining = min(size - len(data), newline_pos)
data += self.buffer[:remaining]
self.buffer = self.buffer[remaining:]
else:
if newline_pos == -1:
data += self.buffer
else:
data += self.buffer[:newline_pos]
self.buffer = self.buffer[newline_pos:]
def readlines(self, sizehint=0):
# Shamelessly stolen from StringIO
total = 0
lines = []
line = self.readline(sizehint)
while line:
lines.append(line)
total += len(line)
if 0 < sizehint <= total:
break
line = self.readline(sizehint)
return lines
def read_trailer_lines(self):
if not self.closed:
raise ValueError(
"Cannot read trailers until the request body has been read.")
while True:
line = self.rfile.readline()
if not line:
# No more data--illegal end of headers
raise ValueError("Illegal end of headers.")
self.bytes_read += len(line)
if self.maxlen and self.bytes_read > self.maxlen:
raise IOError("Request Entity Too Large")
if line == CRLF:
# Normal end of headers
break
if not line.endswith(CRLF):
raise ValueError("HTTP requires CRLF terminators")
yield line
def close(self):
self.rfile.close()
def __iter__(self):
# Shamelessly stolen from StringIO
total = 0
line = self.readline(sizehint)
while line:
yield line
total += len(line)
if 0 < sizehint <= total:
break
line = self.readline(sizehint)
class HTTPRequest(object):
"""An HTTP Request (and response).
A single HTTP connection may consist of multiple request/response pairs.
server: the Server object which is receiving this request.
conn: the HTTPConnection object on which this request connected.
inheaders: a dict of request headers.
outheaders: a list of header tuples to write in the response.
ready: when True, the request has been parsed and is ready to begin
generating the response. When False, signals the calling Connection
that the response should not be generated and the connection should
close.
close_connection: signals the calling Connection that the request
should close. This does not imply an error! The client and/or
server may each request that the connection be closed.
chunked_write: if True, output will be encoded with the "chunked"
transfer-coding. This value is set automatically inside
send_headers.
"""
def __init__(self, server, conn):
self.server= server
self.conn = conn
self.ready = False
self.started_request = False
self.scheme = "http"
if self.server.ssl_adapter is not None:
self.scheme = "https"
self.inheaders = {}
self.status = ""
self.outheaders = []
self.sent_headers = False
self.close_connection = False
self.chunked_write = False
def parse_request(self):
"""Parse the next HTTP request start-line and message-headers."""
self.rfile = SizeCheckWrapper(self.conn.rfile,
self.server.max_request_header_size)
try:
self._parse_request()
except MaxSizeExceeded:
self.simple_response("413 Request Entity Too Large")
return
def _parse_request(self):
# HTTP/1.1 connections are persistent by default. If a client
# requests a page, then idles (leaves the connection open),
# then rfile.readline() will raise socket.error("timed out").
# Note that it does this based on the value given to settimeout(),
# and doesn't need the client to request or acknowledge the close
# (although your TCP stack might suffer for it: cf Apache's history
# with FIN_WAIT_2).
request_line = self.rfile.readline()
# Set started_request to True so communicate() knows to send 408
# from here on out.
self.started_request = True
if not request_line:
# Force self.ready = False so the connection will close.
self.ready = False
return
if request_line == CRLF:
# RFC 2616 sec 4.1: "...if the server is reading the protocol
# stream at the beginning of a message and receives a CRLF
# first, it should ignore the CRLF."
# But only ignore one leading line! else we enable a DoS.
request_line = self.rfile.readline()
if not request_line:
self.ready = False
return
if not request_line.endswith(CRLF):
self.simple_response(400, "HTTP requires CRLF terminators")
return
try:
method, uri, req_protocol = request_line.strip().split(" ", 2)
except ValueError:
self.simple_response(400, "Malformed Request-Line")
return
self.uri = uri
self.method = method
# uri may be an abs_path (including "http://host.domain.tld");
scheme, authority, path = self.parse_request_uri(uri)
if '#' in path:
self.simple_response("400 Bad Request",
"Illegal #fragment in Request-URI.")
return
if scheme:
self.scheme = scheme
qs = ''
if '?' in path:
path, qs = path.split('?', 1)
# Unquote the path+params (e.g. "/this%20path" -> "/this path").
# http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec5.html#sec5.1.2
#
# But note that "...a URI must be separated into its components
# before the escaped characters within those components can be
# safely decoded." http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt, sec 2.4.2
# Therefore, "/this%2Fpath" becomes "/this%2Fpath", not "/this/path".
try:
atoms = [unquote(x) for x in quoted_slash.split(path)]
except ValueError, ex:
self.simple_response("400 Bad Request", ex.args[0])
return
path = "%2F".join(atoms)
self.path = path
# Note that, like wsgiref and most other HTTP servers,
# we "% HEX HEX"-unquote the path but not the query string.
self.qs = qs
# Compare request and server HTTP protocol versions, in case our
# server does not support the requested protocol. Limit our output
# to min(req, server). We want the following output:
# request server actual written supported response
# protocol protocol response protocol feature set
# a 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
# b 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.0
# c 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0
# d 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
# Notice that, in (b), the response will be "HTTP/1.1" even though
# the client only understands 1.0. RFC 2616 10.5.6 says we should
# only return 505 if the _major_ version is different.
rp = int(req_protocol[5]), int(req_protocol[7])
sp = int(self.server.protocol[5]), int(self.server.protocol[7])
if sp[0] != rp[0]:
self.simple_response("505 HTTP Version Not Supported")
return
self.request_protocol = req_protocol
self.response_protocol = "HTTP/%s.%s" % min(rp, sp)
# then all the http headers
try:
read_headers(self.rfile, self.inheaders)
except ValueError, ex:
self.simple_response("400 Bad Request", ex.args[0])
return
mrbs = self.server.max_request_body_size
if mrbs and int(self.inheaders.get("Content-Length", 0)) > mrbs:
self.simple_response("413 Request Entity Too Large")
return
# Persistent connection support
if self.response_protocol == "HTTP/1.1":
# Both server and client are HTTP/1.1
if self.inheaders.get("Connection", "") == "close":
self.close_connection = True
else:
# Either the server or client (or both) are HTTP/1.0
if self.inheaders.get("Connection", "") != "Keep-Alive":
self.close_connection = True
# Transfer-Encoding support
te = None
if self.response_protocol == "HTTP/1.1":
te = self.inheaders.get("Transfer-Encoding")
if te:
te = [x.strip().lower() for x in te.split(",") if x.strip()]
self.chunked_read = False
if te:
for enc in te:
if enc == "chunked":
self.chunked_read = True
else:
# Note that, even if we see "chunked", we must reject
# if there is an extension we don't recognize.
self.simple_response("501 Unimplemented")
self.close_connection = True
return
# From PEP 333:
# "Servers and gateways that implement HTTP 1.1 must provide
# transparent support for HTTP 1.1's "expect/continue" mechanism.
# This may be done in any of several ways:
# 1. Respond to requests containing an Expect: 100-continue request
# with an immediate "100 Continue" response, and proceed normally.
# 2. Proceed with the request normally, but provide the application
# with a wsgi.input stream that will send the "100 Continue"
# response if/when the application first attempts to read from
# the input stream. The read request must then remain blocked
# until the client responds.
# 3. Wait until the client decides that the server does not support
# expect/continue, and sends the request body on its own.
# (This is suboptimal, and is not recommended.)
#
# We used to do 3, but are now doing 1. Maybe we'll do 2 someday,
# but it seems like it would be a big slowdown for such a rare case.
if self.inheaders.get("Expect", "") == "100-continue":
# Don't use simple_response here, because it emits headers
# we don't want. See http://www.cherrypy.org/ticket/951
msg = self.server.protocol + " 100 Continue\r\n\r\n"
try:
self.conn.wfile.sendall(msg)
except socket.error, x:
if x.args[0] not in socket_errors_to_ignore:
raise
self.ready = True
def parse_request_uri(self, uri):
"""Parse a Request-URI into (scheme, authority, path).
Note that Request-URI's must be one of:
Request-URI = "*" | absoluteURI | abs_path | authority
Therefore, a Request-URI which starts with a double forward-slash
cannot be a "net_path":
net_path = "//" authority [ abs_path ]
Instead, it must be interpreted as an "abs_path" with an empty first
path segment:
abs_path = "/" path_segments
path_segments = segment *( "/" segment )
segment = *pchar *( ";" param )
param = *pchar
"""
if uri == "*":
return None, None, uri
i = uri.find('://')
if i > 0 and '?' not in uri[:i]:
# An absoluteURI.
# If there's a scheme (and it must be http or https), then:
# http_URL = "http:" "//" host [ ":" port ] [ abs_path [ "?" query ]]
scheme, remainder = uri[:i].lower(), uri[i + 3:]
authority, path = remainder.split("/", 1)
return scheme, authority, path
if uri.startswith('/'):
# An abs_path.
return None, None, uri
else:
# An authority.
return None, uri, None
def respond(self):
"""Call the gateway and write its iterable output."""
mrbs = self.server.max_request_body_size
if self.chunked_read:
self.rfile = ChunkedRFile(self.conn.rfile, mrbs)
else:
cl = int(self.inheaders.get("Content-Length", 0))
if mrbs and mrbs < cl:
if not self.sent_headers:
self.simple_response("413 Request Entity Too Large")
return
self.rfile = KnownLengthRFile(self.conn.rfile, cl)
self.server.gateway(self).respond()
if (self.ready and not self.sent_headers):
self.sent_headers = True
self.send_headers()
if self.chunked_write:
self.conn.wfile.sendall("0\r\n\r\n")
def simple_response(self, status, msg=""):
"""Write a simple response back to the client."""
status = str(status)
buf = [self.server.protocol + " " +
status + CRLF,
"Content-Length: %s\r\n" % len(msg),
"Content-Type: text/plain\r\n"]
if status[:3] == "413" and self.response_protocol == 'HTTP/1.1':
# Request Entity Too Large
self.close_connection = True
buf.append("Connection: close\r\n")
buf.append(CRLF)
if msg:
if isinstance(msg, unicode):
msg = msg.encode("ISO-8859-1")
buf.append(msg)
try:
self.conn.wfile.sendall("".join(buf))
except socket.error, x:
if x.args[0] not in socket_errors_to_ignore:
raise
def write(self, chunk):
"""Write unbuffered data to the client."""
if self.chunked_write and chunk:
buf = [hex(len(chunk))[2:], CRLF, chunk, CRLF]
self.conn.wfile.sendall("".join(buf))
else:
self.conn.wfile.sendall(chunk)
def send_headers(self):
"""Assert, process, and send the HTTP response message-headers.
You must set self.status, and self.outheaders before calling this.
"""
hkeys = [key.lower() for key, value in self.outheaders]
status = int(self.status[:3])
if status == 413:
# Request Entity Too Large. Close conn to avoid garbage.
self.close_connection = True
elif "content-length" not in hkeys:
# "All 1xx (informational), 204 (no content),
# and 304 (not modified) responses MUST NOT
# include a message-body." So no point chunking.
if status < 200 or status in (204, 205, 304):
pass
else:
if (self.response_protocol == 'HTTP/1.1'
and self.method != 'HEAD'):
# Use the chunked transfer-coding
self.chunked_write = True
self.outheaders.append(("Transfer-Encoding", "chunked"))
else:
# Closing the conn is the only way to determine len.
self.close_connection = True
if "connection" not in hkeys:
if self.response_protocol == 'HTTP/1.1':
# Both server and client are HTTP/1.1 or better
if self.close_connection:
self.outheaders.append(("Connection", "close"))
else:
# Server and/or client are HTTP/1.0
if not self.close_connection:
self.outheaders.append(("Connection", "Keep-Alive"))
if (not self.close_connection) and (not self.chunked_read):
# Read any remaining request body data on the socket.
# "If an origin server receives a request that does not include an
# Expect request-header field with the "100-continue" expectation,
# the request includes a request body, and the server responds
# with a final status code before reading the entire request body
# from the transport connection, then the server SHOULD NOT close
# the transport connection until it has read the entire request,
# or until the client closes the connection. Otherwise, the client
# might not reliably receive the response message. However, this
# requirement is not be construed as preventing a server from
# defending itself against denial-of-service attacks, or from
# badly broken client implementations."
remaining = getattr(self.rfile, 'remaining', 0)
if remaining > 0:
self.rfile.read(remaining)
if "date" not in hkeys:
self.outheaders.append(("Date", rfc822.formatdate()))
if "server" not in hkeys:
self.outheaders.append(("Server", self.server.server_name))
buf = [self.server.protocol + " " + self.status + CRLF]
for k, v in self.outheaders:
buf.append(k + ": " + v + CRLF)
buf.append(CRLF)
self.conn.wfile.sendall("".join(buf))
class NoSSLError(Exception):
"""Exception raised when a client speaks HTTP to an HTTPS socket."""
pass
class FatalSSLAlert(Exception):
"""Exception raised when the SSL implementation signals a fatal alert."""
pass
if not _fileobject_uses_str_type:
class CP_fileobject(socket._fileobject):
"""Faux file object attached to a socket object."""
def sendall(self, data):
"""Sendall for non-blocking sockets."""
while data:
try:
bytes_sent = self.send(data)
data = data[bytes_sent:]
except socket.error, e:
if e.args[0] not in socket_errors_nonblocking:
raise
def send(self, data):
return self._sock.send(data)
def flush(self):
if self._wbuf:
buffer = "".join(self._wbuf)
self._wbuf = []
self.sendall(buffer)
def recv(self, size):
while True:
try:
return self._sock.recv(size)
except socket.error, e:
if (e.args[0] not in socket_errors_nonblocking
and e.args[0] not in socket_error_eintr):
raise
def read(self, size=-1):
# Use max, disallow tiny reads in a loop as they are very inefficient.
# We never leave read() with any leftover data from a new recv() call
# in our internal buffer.
rbufsize = max(self._rbufsize, self.default_bufsize)
# Our use of StringIO rather than lists of string objects returned by
# recv() minimizes memory usage and fragmentation that occurs when
# rbufsize is large compared to the typical return value of recv().
buf = self._rbuf
buf.seek(0, 2) # seek end
if size < 0:
# Read until EOF
self._rbuf = StringIO.StringIO() # reset _rbuf. we consume it via buf.
while True:
data = self.recv(rbufsize)
if not data:
break
buf.write(data)
return buf.getvalue()
else:
# Read until size bytes or EOF seen, whichever comes first
buf_len = buf.tell()
if buf_len >= size:
# Already have size bytes in our buffer? Extract and return.
buf.seek(0)
rv = buf.read(size)
self._rbuf = StringIO.StringIO()
self._rbuf.write(buf.read())
return rv
self._rbuf = StringIO.StringIO() # reset _rbuf. we consume it via buf.
while True:
left = size - buf_len
# recv() will malloc the amount of memory given as its
# parameter even though it often returns much less data
# than that. The returned data string is short lived
# as we copy it into a StringIO and free it. This avoids
# fragmentation issues on many platforms.
data = self.recv(left)
if not data:
break
n = len(data)
if n == size and not buf_len:
# Shortcut. Avoid buffer data copies when:
# - We have no data in our buffer.
# AND
# - Our call to recv returned exactly the
# number of bytes we were asked to read.
return data
if n == left:
buf.write(data)
del data # explicit free
break
assert n <= left, "recv(%d) returned %d bytes" % (left, n)
buf.write(data)
buf_len += n
del data # explicit free
#assert buf_len == buf.tell()
return buf.getvalue()
def readline(self, size=-1):
buf = self._rbuf
buf.seek(0, 2) # seek end
if buf.tell() > 0:
# check if we already have it in our buffer
buf.seek(0)
bline = buf.readline(size)
if bline.endswith('\n') or len(bline) == size:
self._rbuf = StringIO.StringIO()
self._rbuf.write(buf.read())
return bline
del bline
if size < 0:
# Read until \n or EOF, whichever comes first
if self._rbufsize <= 1:
# Speed up unbuffered case
buf.seek(0)
buffers = [buf.read()]
self._rbuf = StringIO.StringIO() # reset _rbuf. we consume it via buf.
data = None
recv = self.recv
while data != "\n":
data = recv(1)
if not data:
break
buffers.append(data)
return "".join(buffers)
buf.seek(0, 2) # seek end
self._rbuf = StringIO.StringIO() # reset _rbuf. we consume it via buf.
while True:
data = self.recv(self._rbufsize)
if not data:
break
nl = data.find('\n')
if nl >= 0:
nl += 1
buf.write(data[:nl])
self._rbuf.write(data[nl:])
del data
break
buf.write(data)
return buf.getvalue()
else:
# Read until size bytes or \n or EOF seen, whichever comes first
buf.seek(0, 2) # seek end
buf_len = buf.tell()
if buf_len >= size:
buf.seek(0)
rv = buf.read(size)
self._rbuf = StringIO.StringIO()
self._rbuf.write(buf.read())
return rv
self._rbuf = StringIO.StringIO() # reset _rbuf. we consume it via buf.
while True:
data = self.recv(self._rbufsize)
if not data:
break
left = size - buf_len
# did we just receive a newline?
nl = data.find('\n', 0, left)
if nl >= 0:
nl += 1
# save the excess data to _rbuf
self._rbuf.write(data[nl:])
if buf_len:
buf.write(data[:nl])
break
else:
# Shortcut. Avoid data copy through buf when returning
# a substring of our first recv().
return data[:nl]
n = len(data)
if n == size and not buf_len:
# Shortcut. Avoid data copy through buf when
# returning exactly all of our first recv().
return data
if n >= left:
buf.write(data[:left])
self._rbuf.write(data[left:])
break
buf.write(data)
buf_len += n
#assert buf_len == buf.tell()
return buf.getvalue()
else:
class CP_fileobject(socket._fileobject):
"""Faux file object attached to a socket object."""
def sendall(self, data):
"""Sendall for non-blocking sockets."""
while data:
try:
bytes_sent = self.send(data)
data = data[bytes_sent:]
except socket.error, e:
if e.args[0] not in socket_errors_nonblocking:
raise
def send(self, data):
return self._sock.send(data)
def flush(self):
if self._wbuf:
buffer = "".join(self._wbuf)
self._wbuf = []
self.sendall(buffer)
def recv(self, size):
while True:
try:
return self._sock.recv(size)
except socket.error, e:
if (e.args[0] not in socket_errors_nonblocking
and e.args[0] not in socket_error_eintr):
raise
def read(self, size=-1):
if size < 0:
# Read until EOF
buffers = [self._rbuf]
self._rbuf = ""
if self._rbufsize <= 1:
recv_size = self.default_bufsize
else:
recv_size = self._rbufsize
while True:
data = self.recv(recv_size)
if not data:
break
buffers.append(data)
return "".join(buffers)
else:
# Read until size bytes or EOF seen, whichever comes first
data = self._rbuf
buf_len = len(data)
if buf_len >= size:
self._rbuf = data[size:]
return data[:size]
buffers = []
if data:
buffers.append(data)
self._rbuf = ""
while True:
left = size - buf_len
recv_size = max(self._rbufsize, left)
data = self.recv(recv_size)
if not data:
break
buffers.append(data)
n = len(data)
if n >= left:
self._rbuf = data[left:]
buffers[-1] = data[:left]
break
buf_len += n
return "".join(buffers)
def readline(self, size=-1):
data = self._rbuf
if size < 0:
# Read until \n or EOF, whichever comes first
if self._rbufsize <= 1:
# Speed up unbuffered case
assert data == ""
buffers = []
while data != "\n":
data = self.recv(1)
if not data:
break
buffers.append(data)
return "".join(buffers)
nl = data.find('\n')
if nl >= 0:
nl += 1
self._rbuf = data[nl:]
return data[:nl]
buffers = []
if data:
buffers.append(data)
self._rbuf = ""
while True:
data = self.recv(self._rbufsize)
if not data:
break
buffers.append(data)
nl = data.find('\n')
if nl >= 0:
nl += 1
self._rbuf = data[nl:]
buffers[-1] = data[:nl]
break
return "".join(buffers)
else:
# Read until size bytes or \n or EOF seen, whichever comes first
nl = data.find('\n', 0, size)
if nl >= 0:
nl += 1
self._rbuf = data[nl:]
return data[:nl]
buf_len = len(data)
if buf_len >= size:
self._rbuf = data[size:]
return data[:size]
buffers = []
if data:
buffers.append(data)
self._rbuf = ""
while True:
data = self.recv(self._rbufsize)
if not data:
break
buffers.append(data)
left = size - buf_len
nl = data.find('\n', 0, left)
if nl >= 0:
nl += 1
self._rbuf = data[nl:]
buffers[-1] = data[:nl]
break
n = len(data)
if n >= left:
self._rbuf = data[left:]
buffers[-1] = data[:left]
break
buf_len += n
return "".join(buffers)
class HTTPConnection(object):
"""An HTTP connection (active socket).
server: the Server object which received this connection.
socket: the raw socket object (usually TCP) for this connection.
makefile: a fileobject class for reading from the socket.
"""
remote_addr = None
remote_port = None
ssl_env = None
rbufsize = -1
RequestHandlerClass = HTTPRequest
def __init__(self, server, sock, makefile=CP_fileobject):
self.server = server
self.socket = sock
self.rfile = makefile(sock, "rb", self.rbufsize)
self.wfile = makefile(sock, "wb", -1)
def communicate(self):
"""Read each request and respond appropriately."""
request_seen = False
try:
while True:
# (re)set req to None so that if something goes wrong in
# the RequestHandlerClass constructor, the error doesn't
# get written to the previous request.
req = None
req = self.RequestHandlerClass(self.server, self)
# This order of operations should guarantee correct pipelining.
req.parse_request()
if not req.ready:
# Something went wrong in the parsing (and the server has
# probably already made a simple_response). Return and
# let the conn close.
return
request_seen = True
req.respond()
if req.close_connection:
return
except socket.error, e:
errnum = e.args[0]
if errnum == 'timed out':
# Don't error if we're between requests; only error
# if 1) no request has been started at all, or 2) we're
# in the middle of a request.
# See http://www.cherrypy.org/ticket/853
if (not request_seen) or (req and req.started_request):
# Don't bother writing the 408 if the response
# has already started being written.
if req and not req.sent_headers:
try:
req.simple_response("408 Request Timeout")
except FatalSSLAlert:
# Close the connection.
return
elif errnum not in socket_errors_to_ignore:
if req and not req.sent_headers:
try:
req.simple_response("500 Internal Server Error",
format_exc())
except FatalSSLAlert:
# Close the connection.
return
return
except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit):
raise
except FatalSSLAlert:
# Close the connection.
return
except NoSSLError:
if req and not req.sent_headers:
# Unwrap our wfile
self.wfile = CP_fileobject(self.socket._sock, "wb", -1)
req.simple_response("400 Bad Request",
"The client sent a plain HTTP request, but "
"this server only speaks HTTPS on this port.")
self.linger = True
except Exception:
if req and not req.sent_headers:
try:
req.simple_response("500 Internal Server Error", format_exc())
except FatalSSLAlert:
# Close the connection.
return
linger = False
def close(self):
"""Close the socket underlying this connection."""
self.rfile.close()
if not self.linger:
# Python's socket module does NOT call close on the kernel socket
# when you call socket.close(). We do so manually here because we
# want this server to send a FIN TCP segment immediately. Note this
# must be called *before* calling socket.close(), because the latter
# drops its reference to the kernel socket.
if hasattr(self.socket, '_sock'):
self.socket._sock.close()
self.socket.close()
else:
# On the other hand, sometimes we want to hang around for a bit
# to make sure the client has a chance to read our entire
# response. Skipping the close() calls here delays the FIN
# packet until the socket object is garbage-collected later.
# Someday, perhaps, we'll do the full lingering_close that
# Apache does, but not today.
pass
def format_exc(limit=None):
"""Like print_exc() but return a string. Backport for Python 2.3."""
try:
etype, value, tb = sys.exc_info()
return ''.join(traceback.format_exception(etype, value, tb, limit))
finally:
etype = value = tb = None
_SHUTDOWNREQUEST = None
class WorkerThread(threading.Thread):
"""Thread which continuously polls a Queue for Connection objects.
server: the HTTP Server which spawned this thread, and which owns the
Queue and is placing active connections into it.
ready: a simple flag for the calling server to know when this thread
has begun polling the Queue.
Due to the timing issues of polling a Queue, a WorkerThread does not
check its own 'ready' flag after it has started. To stop the thread,
it is necessary to stick a _SHUTDOWNREQUEST object onto the Queue
(one for each running WorkerThread).
"""
conn = None
def __init__(self, server):
self.ready = False
self.server = server
threading.Thread.__init__(self)
def run(self):
try:
self.ready = True
while True:
conn = self.server.requests.get()
if conn is _SHUTDOWNREQUEST:
return
self.conn = conn
try:
conn.communicate()
finally:
conn.close()
self.conn = None
except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit), exc:
self.server.interrupt = exc
class ThreadPool(object):
"""A Request Queue for the CherryPyWSGIServer which pools threads.
ThreadPool objects must provide min, get(), put(obj), start()
and stop(timeout) attributes.
"""
def __init__(self, server, min=10, max=-1):
self.server = server
self.min = min
self.max = max
self._threads = []
self._queue = Queue.Queue()
self.get = self._queue.get
def start(self):
"""Start the pool of threads."""
for i in range(self.min):
self._threads.append(WorkerThread(self.server))
for worker in self._threads:
worker.setName("CP Server " + worker.getName())
worker.start()
for worker in self._threads:
while not worker.ready:
time.sleep(.1)
def _get_idle(self):
"""Number of worker threads which are idle. Read-only."""
return len([t for t in self._threads if t.conn is None])
idle = property(_get_idle, doc=_get_idle.__doc__)
def put(self, obj):
self._queue.put(obj)
if obj is _SHUTDOWNREQUEST:
return
def grow(self, amount):
"""Spawn new worker threads (not above self.max)."""
for i in range(amount):
if self.max > 0 and len(self._threads) >= self.max:
break
worker = WorkerThread(self.server)
worker.setName("CP Server " + worker.getName())
self._threads.append(worker)
worker.start()
def shrink(self, amount):
"""Kill off worker threads (not below self.min)."""
# Grow/shrink the pool if necessary.
# Remove any dead threads from our list
for t in self._threads:
if not t.isAlive():
self._threads.remove(t)
amount -= 1
if amount > 0:
for i in range(min(amount, len(self._threads) - self.min)):
# Put a number of shutdown requests on the queue equal
# to 'amount'. Once each of those is processed by a worker,
# that worker will terminate and be culled from our list
# in self.put.
self._queue.put(_SHUTDOWNREQUEST)
def stop(self, timeout=5):
# Must shut down threads here so the code that calls
# this method can know when all threads are stopped.
for worker in self._threads:
self._queue.put(_SHUTDOWNREQUEST)
# Don't join currentThread (when stop is called inside a request).
current = threading.currentThread()
if timeout and timeout >= 0:
endtime = time.time() + timeout
while self._threads:
worker = self._threads.pop()
if worker is not current and worker.isAlive():
try:
if timeout is None or timeout < 0:
worker.join()
else:
remaining_time = endtime - time.time()
if remaining_time > 0:
worker.join(remaining_time)
if worker.isAlive():
# We exhausted the timeout.
# Forcibly shut down the socket.
c = worker.conn
if c and not c.rfile.closed:
try:
c.socket.shutdown(socket.SHUT_RD)
except TypeError:
# pyOpenSSL sockets don't take an arg
c.socket.shutdown()
worker.join()
except (AssertionError,
# Ignore repeated Ctrl-C.
# See http://www.cherrypy.org/ticket/691.
KeyboardInterrupt), exc1:
pass
try:
import fcntl
except ImportError:
try:
from ctypes import windll, WinError
except ImportError:
def prevent_socket_inheritance(sock):
"""Dummy function, since neither fcntl nor ctypes are available."""
pass
else:
def prevent_socket_inheritance(sock):
"""Mark the given socket fd as non-inheritable (Windows)."""
if not windll.kernel32.SetHandleInformation(sock.fileno(), 1, 0):
raise WinError()
else:
def prevent_socket_inheritance(sock):
"""Mark the given socket fd as non-inheritable (POSIX)."""
fd = sock.fileno()
old_flags = fcntl.fcntl(fd, fcntl.F_GETFD)
fcntl.fcntl(fd, fcntl.F_SETFD, old_flags | fcntl.FD_CLOEXEC)
class SSLAdapter(object):
def __init__(self, certificate, private_key, certificate_chain=None):
self.certificate = certificate
self.private_key = private_key
self.certificate_chain = certificate_chain
def wrap(self, sock):
raise NotImplemented
def makefile(self, sock, mode='r', bufsize=-1):
raise NotImplemented
class HTTPServer(object):
"""An HTTP server.
bind_addr: The interface on which to listen for connections.
For TCP sockets, a (host, port) tuple. Host values may be any IPv4
or IPv6 address, or any valid hostname. The string 'localhost' is a
synonym for '127.0.0.1' (or '::1', if your hosts file prefers IPv6).
The string '0.0.0.0' is a special IPv4 entry meaning "any active
interface" (INADDR_ANY), and '::' is the similar IN6ADDR_ANY for
IPv6. The empty string or None are not allowed.
For UNIX sockets, supply the filename as a string.
gateway: a Gateway instance.
minthreads: the minimum number of worker threads to create (default 10).
maxthreads: the maximum number of worker threads to create (default -1 = no limit).
server_name: defaults to socket.gethostname().
request_queue_size: the 'backlog' argument to socket.listen();
specifies the maximum number of queued connections (default 5).
timeout: the timeout in seconds for accepted connections (default 10).
nodelay: if True (the default since 3.1), sets the TCP_NODELAY socket
option.
protocol: the version string to write in the Status-Line of all
HTTP responses. For example, "HTTP/1.1" (the default). This
also limits the supported features used in the response.
SSL/HTTPS
---------
You must have an ssl library installed and set self.ssl_adapter to an
instance of SSLAdapter (or a subclass) which provides the methods:
wrap(sock) -> wrapped socket, ssl environ dict
makefile(sock, mode='r', bufsize=-1) -> socket file object
"""
protocol = "HTTP/1.1"
_bind_addr = "127.0.0.1"
version = "CherryPy/3.2.0rc1"
response_header = None
ready = False
_interrupt = None
max_request_header_size = 0
max_request_body_size = 0
nodelay = True
ConnectionClass = HTTPConnection
ssl_adapter = None
def __init__(self, bind_addr, gateway, minthreads=10, maxthreads=-1,
server_name=None):
self.bind_addr = bind_addr
self.gateway = gateway
self.requests = ThreadPool(self, min=minthreads or 1, max=maxthreads)
if not server_name:
server_name = socket.gethostname()
self.server_name = server_name
def __str__(self):
return "%s.%s(%r)" % (self.__module__, self.__class__.__name__,
self.bind_addr)
def _get_bind_addr(self):
return self._bind_addr
def _set_bind_addr(self, value):
if isinstance(value, tuple) and value[0] in ('', None):
# Despite the socket module docs, using '' does not
# allow AI_PASSIVE to work. Passing None instead
# returns '0.0.0.0' like we want. In other words:
# host AI_PASSIVE result
# '' Y 192.168.x.y
# '' N 192.168.x.y
# None Y 0.0.0.0
# None N 127.0.0.1
# But since you can get the same effect with an explicit
# '0.0.0.0', we deny both the empty string and None as values.
raise ValueError("Host values of '' or None are not allowed. "
"Use '0.0.0.0' (IPv4) or '::' (IPv6) instead "
"to listen on all active interfaces.")
self._bind_addr = value
bind_addr = property(_get_bind_addr, _set_bind_addr,
doc="""The interface on which to listen for connections.
For TCP sockets, a (host, port) tuple. Host values may be any IPv4
or IPv6 address, or any valid hostname. The string 'localhost' is a
synonym for '127.0.0.1' (or '::1', if your hosts file prefers IPv6).
The string '0.0.0.0' is a special IPv4 entry meaning "any active
interface" (INADDR_ANY), and '::' is the similar IN6ADDR_ANY for
IPv6. The empty string or None are not allowed.
For UNIX sockets, supply the filename as a string.""")
def start(self):
"""Run the server forever."""
# We don't have to trap KeyboardInterrupt or SystemExit here,
# because cherrpy.server already does so, calling self.stop() for us.
# If you're using this server with another framework, you should
# trap those exceptions in whatever code block calls start().
self._interrupt = None
# SSL backward compatibility
if (self.ssl_adapter is None and
getattr(self, 'ssl_certificate', None) and
getattr(self, 'ssl_private_key', None)):
warnings.warn(
"SSL attributes are deprecated in CherryPy 3.2, and will "
"be removed in CherryPy 3.3. Use an ssl_adapter attribute "
"instead.",
DeprecationWarning
)
try:
from cherrypy.wsgiserver.ssl_pyopenssl import pyOpenSSLAdapter
except ImportError:
pass
else:
self.ssl_adapter = pyOpenSSLAdapter(
self.ssl_certificate, self.ssl_private_key,
getattr(self, 'ssl_certificate_chain', None))
# Select the appropriate socket
if isinstance(self.bind_addr, basestring):
# AF_UNIX socket
# So we can reuse the socket...
try: os.unlink(self.bind_addr)
except: pass
# So everyone can access the socket...
try: os.chmod(self.bind_addr, 0777)
except: pass
info = [(socket.AF_UNIX, socket.SOCK_STREAM, 0, "", self.bind_addr)]
else:
# AF_INET or AF_INET6 socket
# Get the correct address family for our host (allows IPv6 addresses)
host, port = self.bind_addr
try:
info = socket.getaddrinfo(host, port, socket.AF_UNSPEC,
socket.SOCK_STREAM, 0, socket.AI_PASSIVE)
except socket.gaierror:
if ':' in self.bind_addr[0]:
info = [(socket.AF_INET6, socket.SOCK_STREAM,
0, "", self.bind_addr + (0, 0))]
else:
info = [(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM,
0, "", self.bind_addr)]
self.socket = None
msg = "No socket could be created"
for res in info:
af, socktype, proto, canonname, sa = res
try:
self.bind(af, socktype, proto)
except socket.error, msg:
if self.socket:
self.socket.close()
self.socket = None
continue
break
if not self.socket:
raise socket.error(msg)
# Timeout so KeyboardInterrupt can be caught on Win32
self.socket.settimeout(1)
self.socket.listen(self.request_queue_size)
# Create worker threads
self.requests.start()
self.ready = True
while self.ready:
self.tick()
if self.interrupt:
while self.interrupt is True:
# Wait for self.stop() to complete. See _set_interrupt.
time.sleep(0.1)
if self.interrupt:
raise self.interrupt
def bind(self, family, type, proto=0):
"""Create (or recreate) the actual socket object."""
self.socket = socket.socket(family, type, proto)
prevent_socket_inheritance(self.socket)
self.socket.setsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_REUSEADDR, 1)
if self.nodelay and not isinstance(self.bind_addr, str):
self.socket.setsockopt(socket.IPPROTO_TCP, socket.TCP_NODELAY, 1)
if self.ssl_adapter is not None:
self.socket = self.ssl_adapter.bind(self.socket)
# If listening on the IPV6 any address ('::' = IN6ADDR_ANY),
# activate dual-stack. See http://www.cherrypy.org/ticket/871.
if (family == socket.AF_INET6
and self.bind_addr[0] in ('::', '::0', '::0.0.0.0')):
try:
self.socket.setsockopt(socket.IPPROTO_IPV6, socket.IPV6_V6ONLY, 0)
except (AttributeError, socket.error):
# Apparently, the socket option is not available in
# this machine's TCP stack
pass
self.socket.bind(self.bind_addr)
def tick(self):
"""Accept a new connection and put it on the Queue."""
try:
s, addr = self.socket.accept()
if not self.ready:
return
prevent_socket_inheritance(s)
if hasattr(s, 'settimeout'):
s.settimeout(self.timeout)
if self.response_header is None:
self.response_header = "%s Server" % self.version
makefile = CP_fileobject
ssl_env = {}
# if ssl cert and key are set, we try to be a secure HTTP server
if self.ssl_adapter is not None:
try:
s, ssl_env = self.ssl_adapter.wrap(s)
except NoSSLError:
msg = ("The client sent a plain HTTP request, but "
"this server only speaks HTTPS on this port.")
buf = ["%s 400 Bad Request\r\n" % self.protocol,
"Content-Length: %s\r\n" % len(msg),
"Content-Type: text/plain\r\n\r\n",
msg]
wfile = CP_fileobject(s, "wb", -1)
try:
wfile.sendall("".join(buf))
except socket.error, x:
if x.args[0] not in socket_errors_to_ignore:
raise
return
if not s:
return
makefile = self.ssl_adapter.makefile
conn = self.ConnectionClass(self, s, makefile)
if not isinstance(self.bind_addr, basestring):
# optional values
# Until we do DNS lookups, omit REMOTE_HOST
if addr is None: # sometimes this can happen
# figure out if AF_INET or AF_INET6.
if len(s.getsockname()) == 2:
# AF_INET
addr = ('0.0.0.0', 0)
else:
# AF_INET6
addr = ('::', 0)
conn.remote_addr = addr[0]
conn.remote_port = addr[1]
conn.ssl_env = ssl_env
self.requests.put(conn)
except socket.timeout:
# The only reason for the timeout in start() is so we can
# notice keyboard interrupts on Win32, which don't interrupt
# accept() by default
return
except socket.error, x:
if x.args[0] in socket_error_eintr:
# I *think* this is right. EINTR should occur when a signal
# is received during the accept() call; all docs say retry
# the call, and I *think* I'm reading it right that Python
# will then go ahead and poll for and handle the signal
# elsewhere. See http://www.cherrypy.org/ticket/707.
return
if x.args[0] in socket_errors_nonblocking:
# Just try again. See http://www.cherrypy.org/ticket/479.
return
if x.args[0] in socket_errors_to_ignore:
# Our socket was closed.
# See http://www.cherrypy.org/ticket/686.
return
raise
def _get_interrupt(self):
return self._interrupt
def _set_interrupt(self, interrupt):
self._interrupt = True
self.stop()
self._interrupt = interrupt
interrupt = property(_get_interrupt, _set_interrupt,
doc="Set this to an Exception instance to "
"interrupt the server.")
def stop(self):
"""Gracefully shutdown a server that is serving forever."""
self.ready = False
sock = getattr(self, "socket", None)
if sock:
if not isinstance(self.bind_addr, basestring):
# Touch our own socket to make accept() return immediately.
try:
host, port = sock.getsockname()[:2]
except socket.error, x:
if x.args[0] not in socket_errors_to_ignore:
# Changed to use error code and not message
# See http://www.cherrypy.org/ticket/860.
raise
else:
# Note that we're explicitly NOT using AI_PASSIVE,
# here, because we want an actual IP to touch.
# localhost won't work if we've bound to a public IP,
# but it will if we bound to '0.0.0.0' (INADDR_ANY).
for res in socket.getaddrinfo(host, port, socket.AF_UNSPEC,
socket.SOCK_STREAM):
af, socktype, proto, canonname, sa = res
s = None
try:
s = socket.socket(af, socktype, proto)
# See http://groups.google.com/group/cherrypy-users/
# browse_frm/thread/bbfe5eb39c904fe0
s.settimeout(1.0)
s.connect((host, port))
s.close()
except socket.error:
if s:
s.close()
if hasattr(sock, "close"):
sock.close()
self.socket = None
self.requests.stop(self.shutdown_timeout)
class Gateway(object):
def __init__(self, req):
self.req = req
def respond(self):
raise NotImplemented
# These may either be wsgiserver.SSLAdapter subclasses or the string names
# of such classes (in which case they will be lazily loaded).
ssl_adapters = {
'builtin': 'cherrypy.wsgiserver.ssl_builtin.BuiltinSSLAdapter',
'pyopenssl': 'cherrypy.wsgiserver.ssl_pyopenssl.pyOpenSSLAdapter',
}
def get_ssl_adapter_class(name='pyopenssl'):
adapter = ssl_adapters[name.lower()]
if isinstance(adapter, basestring):
last_dot = adapter.rfind(".")
attr_name = adapter[last_dot + 1:]
mod_path = adapter[:last_dot]
try:
mod = sys.modules[mod_path]
if mod is None:
raise KeyError()
except KeyError:
# The last [''] is important.
mod = __import__(mod_path, globals(), locals(), [''])
# Let an AttributeError propagate outward.
try:
adapter = getattr(mod, attr_name)
except AttributeError:
raise AttributeError("'%s' object has no attribute '%s'"
% (mod_path, attr_name))
return adapter
# -------------------------------- WSGI Stuff -------------------------------- #
class CherryPyWSGIServer(HTTPServer):
wsgi_version = (1, 1)
def __init__(self, bind_addr, wsgi_app, numthreads=10, server_name=None,
max=-1, request_queue_size=5, timeout=10, shutdown_timeout=5):
self.requests = ThreadPool(self, min=numthreads or 1, max=max)
self.wsgi_app = wsgi_app
self.gateway = wsgi_gateways[self.wsgi_version]
self.bind_addr = bind_addr
if not server_name:
server_name = socket.gethostname()
self.server_name = server_name
self.request_queue_size = request_queue_size
self.timeout = timeout
self.shutdown_timeout = shutdown_timeout
def _get_numthreads(self):
return self.requests.min
def _set_numthreads(self, value):
self.requests.min = value
numthreads = property(_get_numthreads, _set_numthreads)
class WSGIGateway(Gateway):
def __init__(self, req):
self.req = req
self.started_response = False
self.env = self.get_environ()
def get_environ(self):
"""Return a new environ dict targeting the given wsgi.version"""
raise NotImplemented
def respond(self):
response = self.req.server.wsgi_app(self.env, self.start_response)
try:
for chunk in response:
# "The start_response callable must not actually transmit
# the response headers. Instead, it must store them for the
# server or gateway to transmit only after the first
# iteration of the application return value that yields
# a NON-EMPTY string, or upon the application's first
# invocation of the write() callable." (PEP 333)
if chunk:
if isinstance(chunk, unicode):
chunk = chunk.encode('ISO-8859-1')
self.write(chunk)
finally:
if hasattr(response, "close"):
response.close()
def start_response(self, status, headers, exc_info = None):
"""WSGI callable to begin the HTTP response."""
# "The application may call start_response more than once,
# if and only if the exc_info argument is provided."
if self.started_response and not exc_info:
raise AssertionError("WSGI start_response called a second "
"time with no exc_info.")
self.started_response = True
# "if exc_info is provided, and the HTTP headers have already been
# sent, start_response must raise an error, and should raise the
# exc_info tuple."
if self.req.sent_headers:
try:
raise exc_info[0], exc_info[1], exc_info[2]
finally:
exc_info = None
self.req.status = status
for k, v in headers:
if not isinstance(k, str):
raise TypeError("WSGI response header key %r is not a byte string." % k)
if not isinstance(v, str):
raise TypeError("WSGI response header value %r is not a byte string." % v)
self.req.outheaders.extend(headers)
return self.write
def write(self, chunk):
"""WSGI callable to write unbuffered data to the client.
This method is also used internally by start_response (to write
data from the iterable returned by the WSGI application).
"""
if not self.started_response:
raise AssertionError("WSGI write called before start_response.")
if not self.req.sent_headers:
self.req.sent_headers = True
self.req.send_headers()
self.req.write(chunk)
class WSGIGateway_10(WSGIGateway):
def get_environ(self):
"""Return a new environ dict targeting the given wsgi.version"""
req = self.req
env = {
# set a non-standard environ entry so the WSGI app can know what
# the *real* server protocol is (and what features to support).
# See http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2145.html.
'ACTUAL_SERVER_PROTOCOL': req.server.protocol,
'PATH_INFO': req.path,
'QUERY_STRING': req.qs,
'REMOTE_ADDR': req.conn.remote_addr or '',
'REMOTE_PORT': str(req.conn.remote_port or ''),
'REQUEST_METHOD': req.method,
'REQUEST_URI': req.uri,
'SCRIPT_NAME': '',
'SERVER_NAME': req.server.server_name,
# Bah. "SERVER_PROTOCOL" is actually the REQUEST protocol.
'SERVER_PROTOCOL': req.request_protocol,
'wsgi.errors': sys.stderr,
'wsgi.input': req.rfile,
'wsgi.multiprocess': False,
'wsgi.multithread': True,
'wsgi.run_once': False,
'wsgi.url_scheme': req.scheme,
'wsgi.version': (1, 0),
}
if isinstance(req.server.bind_addr, basestring):
# AF_UNIX. This isn't really allowed by WSGI, which doesn't
# address unix domain sockets. But it's better than nothing.
env["SERVER_PORT"] = ""
else:
env["SERVER_PORT"] = str(req.server.bind_addr[1])
# CONTENT_TYPE/CONTENT_LENGTH
for k, v in req.inheaders.iteritems():
env["HTTP_" + k.upper().replace("-", "_")] = v
ct = env.pop("HTTP_CONTENT_TYPE", None)
if ct is not None:
env["CONTENT_TYPE"] = ct
cl = env.pop("HTTP_CONTENT_LENGTH", None)
if cl is not None:
env["CONTENT_LENGTH"] = cl
if req.conn.ssl_env:
env.update(req.conn.ssl_env)
return env
class WSGIGateway_11(WSGIGateway_10):
def get_environ(self):
env = WSGIGateway_10.get_environ(self)
env['wsgi.version'] = (1, 1)
return env
class WSGIGateway_u0(WSGIGateway_10):
def get_environ(self):
"""Return a new environ dict targeting the given wsgi.version"""
req = self.req
env_10 = WSGIGateway_10.get_environ(self)
env = dict([(k.decode('ISO-8859-1'), v) for k, v in env_10.iteritems()])
env[u'wsgi.version'] = ('u', 0)
# Request-URI
env.setdefault(u'wsgi.url_encoding', u'utf-8')
try:
for key in [u"PATH_INFO", u"SCRIPT_NAME", u"QUERY_STRING"]:
env[key] = env_10[str(key)].decode(env[u'wsgi.url_encoding'])
except UnicodeDecodeError:
# Fall back to latin 1 so apps can transcode if needed.
env[u'wsgi.url_encoding'] = u'ISO-8859-1'
for key in [u"PATH_INFO", u"SCRIPT_NAME", u"QUERY_STRING"]:
env[key] = env_10[str(key)].decode(env[u'wsgi.url_encoding'])
for k, v in sorted(env.items()):
if isinstance(v, str) and k not in ('REQUEST_URI', 'wsgi.input'):
env[k] = v.decode('ISO-8859-1')
return env
wsgi_gateways = {
(1, 0): WSGIGateway_10,
(1, 1): WSGIGateway_11,
('u', 0): WSGIGateway_u0,
}
class WSGIPathInfoDispatcher(object):
"""A WSGI dispatcher for dispatch based on the PATH_INFO.
apps: a dict or list of (path_prefix, app) pairs.
"""
def __init__(self, apps):
try:
apps = apps.items()
except AttributeError:
pass
# Sort the apps by len(path), descending
apps.sort(cmp=lambda x,y: cmp(len(x[0]), len(y[0])))
apps.reverse()
# The path_prefix strings must start, but not end, with a slash.
# Use "" instead of "/".
self.apps = [(p.rstrip("/"), a) for p, a in apps]
def __call__(self, environ, start_response):
path = environ["PATH_INFO"] or "/"
for p, app in self.apps:
# The apps list should be sorted by length, descending.
if path.startswith(p + "/") or path == p:
environ = environ.copy()
environ["SCRIPT_NAME"] = environ["SCRIPT_NAME"] + p
environ["PATH_INFO"] = path[len(p):]
return app(environ, start_response)
start_response('404 Not Found', [('Content-Type', 'text/plain'),
('Content-Length', '0')])
return ['']