The missing batteries of Rust
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README.md

stdx - The missing batteries of Rust

New to Rust and don't yet know what crates to use? stdx has the best crates.

Current revision: stdx 0.115.0-rc, for Rust 1.15, February 2, 2017.

Feature Crate
Bitfields bitflags = "0.7.0" πŸ“–
Byte order conversion byteorder = "1.0.0" πŸ“–
Date and time chrono = "0.2.25" πŸ“–
Command-line argument parsing clap = "2.20.1" πŸ“–
Error handling error-chain = "0.8.1" πŸ“–
JSON json = "0.11.5" πŸ“–
Global initialization lazy_static = "0.2.2" πŸ“–
C interop libc = "0.2.20" πŸ“–
Logging log = "0.3.6" πŸ“–
Multidimensional arrays ndarray = "0.7.3" πŸ“–
Big, rational, complex numbers num = "0.1.36" πŸ“–
Random numbers rand = "0.3.15" πŸ“–
Parallel iteration rayon = "0.6.0" πŸ“–
Regular expressions regex = "0.2.1" πŸ“–
HTTP client reqwest = "0.3.0" πŸ“–
Serialization serde = "0.9.5" πŸ“–
Temporary directories tempdir = "0.3.5" πŸ“–
Configuration files toml = "0.2.1" πŸ“–
URLs url = "1.4.0" πŸ“–

Β  Β  Β 

bitflags = "0.7.0"   πŸ“–

The only thing this crate does is export the bitflags! macro, but it's a heckuva-useful macro. bitflags! produces typesafe bitmasks, types with named values that are efficiently packed together as bits to express sets of options.

Example: examples/bitflags.rs

#[macro_use]
extern crate bitflags;

bitflags! {
    flags Flags: u32 {
        const FLAG_A       = 0b00000001,
        const FLAG_B       = 0b00000010,
        const FLAG_C       = 0b00000100,
        const FLAG_ABC     = FLAG_A.bits
                           | FLAG_B.bits
                           | FLAG_C.bits,
    }
}

fn main() {
    let e1 = FLAG_A | FLAG_C;
    let e2 = FLAG_B | FLAG_C;
    assert_eq!((e1 | e2), FLAG_ABC);   // union
    assert_eq!((e1 & e2), FLAG_C);     // intersection
    assert_eq!((e1 - e2), FLAG_A);     // set difference
    assert_eq!(!e2, FLAG_A);           // set complement
}

Β  Β  Β 

byteorder = "1.0.0"   πŸ“–

Functions for converting between numbers and bytes, in little-endian, or big-endian orders.

Example: examples/byteorder.rs

extern crate byteorder;

use std::io::Cursor;
use byteorder::{BigEndian, ReadBytesExt};
use byteorder::{LittleEndian, WriteBytesExt};

fn main() {
    // Read unsigned 16 bit big-endian integers from a Read type:
    let mut rdr = Cursor::new(vec![2, 5, 3, 0]);
    // Note that we use type parameters to indicate which kind of byte
    // order we want!
    assert_eq!(517, rdr.read_u16::<BigEndian>().unwrap());
    assert_eq!(768, rdr.read_u16::<BigEndian>().unwrap());

    // Write unsigned 16 bit little-endian integers to a Write type:
    let mut wtr = vec![];
    wtr.write_u16::<LittleEndian>(517).unwrap();
    wtr.write_u16::<LittleEndian>(768).unwrap();
    assert_eq!(wtr, vec![5, 2, 0, 3]);
}

Β  Β  Β 

chrono = "0.2.25"   πŸ“–

Date and time types.

Example: examples/chrono.rs

extern crate chrono;
use chrono::*;

fn main() {
    let local: DateTime<Local> = Local::now();
    let utc: DateTime<UTC> = UTC::now();

    let dt = UTC.ymd(2014, 11, 28).and_hms(12, 0, 9);

    assert_eq!((dt.year(), dt.month(), dt.day()), (2014, 11, 28));
    assert_eq!((dt.hour(), dt.minute(), dt.second()), (12, 0, 9));

    assert_eq!(dt.format("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S").to_string(), "2014-11-28 12:00:09");
    assert_eq!(dt.format("%a %b %e %T %Y").to_string(), "Fri Nov 28 12:00:09 2014");

    assert_eq!(format!("{}", dt), "2014-11-28 12:00:09 UTC");
}

Β  Β  Β 

clap = "2.20.1"   πŸ“–

Clap is a command line argument parser that is easy to use and is highly configurable.

Example: examples/clap.rs

extern crate clap;
use clap::{Arg, App, SubCommand};

fn main() {
    let app = App::new("My Super Program")
        .version("1.0")
        .author("Kevin K. <kbknapp@gmail.com>")
        .about("Does awesome things")
        .arg(Arg::with_name("config")
             .short("c")
             .long("config")
             .value_name("FILE")
             .help("Sets a custom config file")
             .takes_value(true))
        .arg(Arg::with_name("INPUT")
             .help("Sets the input file to use")
             .required(true)
             .index(1))
        .subcommand(SubCommand::with_name("test")
                    .about("controls testing features")
                    .arg(Arg::with_name("debug")
                         .short("d")
                         .help("print debug information verbosely")));

    // Parse the command line arguments
    let matches = app.get_matches();

    let config = matches.value_of("config").unwrap_or("default.conf");
    let input = matches.value_of("INPUT").unwrap();

    // Handle subcommands
    match matches.subcommand() {
        ("clone",  Some(sub_matches)) => {
            if matches.is_present("d") {
                // ...
            }
        },
        ("push",   Some(sub_matches)) => {},
        ("commit", Some(sub_matches)) => {},
        _ => {},
    } 
}

Alternatives: docopt

Β  Β  Β 

error-chain = "0.8.1"   πŸ“–

Rust programs that handle errors consistently are reliable programs. Even after one understands error handling in Rust, it can be difficult to grasp and implement its best practices. error-chain helps you define your own error type that works with the ? operator to make error handling in Rust simple and elegant.

Example: examples/error-chain.rs

// `error_chain!` can recurse deeply
#![recursion_limit = "1024"]

#[macro_use]
extern crate error_chain;

// We'll put our errors in an `errors` module, and other modules in
// this crate will `use errors::*;` to get access to everything
// `error_chain!` creates.
mod errors {
    // Create the Error, ErrorKind, ResultExt, and Result types
    error_chain! { }
}

use errors::*;

fn main() {
    if let Err(ref e) = run() {
        use ::std::io::Write;
        let stderr = &mut ::std::io::stderr();
        let errmsg = "Error writing to stderr";

        writeln!(stderr, "error: {}", e).expect(errmsg);

        for e in e.iter().skip(1) {
            writeln!(stderr, "caused by: {}", e).expect(errmsg);
        }

        // The backtrace is not always generated. Try to run this example
        // with `RUST_BACKTRACE=1`.
        if let Some(backtrace) = e.backtrace() {
            writeln!(stderr, "backtrace: {:?}", backtrace).expect(errmsg);
        }

        ::std::process::exit(1);
    }
}

// Most functions will return the `Result` type, imported from the
// `errors` module. It is a typedef of the standard `Result` type
// for which the error type is always our own `Error`.
fn run() -> Result<()> {
    use std::fs::File;
    use std::env;

    // Use chain_err to attach your own context to errors
    File::open("my secret file")
        .chain_err(|| "unable to open my secret file")?;

    // Use the `bail!` macro to return an error Result, ala `println!`
    bail!("giving up");

    Ok(())
}

Alternatives: quick-error

Β  Β  Β 

json = "0.11.5"   πŸ“–

Access to JSON, the "JavaScript Object Notation" format, widely used for transmission and storage of data on the Internet. This crate can be used for reading, writing, and manipulation of arbitrary JSON; for simple serialization to Rust data structures, use serde and serde_json.

Example: examples/json.rs

#[macro_use]
extern crate json;

fn main() {
    let parsed = json::parse(r#"
{
    "code": 200,
    "success": true,
    "payload": {
        "features": [
            "awesome",
            "easyAPI",
            "lowLearningCurve"
        ]
    }
}

"#).unwrap();

    let instantiated = object!{
        "code" => 200,
        "success" => true,
        "payload" => object!{
            "features" => array![
                "awesome",
                "easyAPI",
                "lowLearningCurve"
            ]
        }
    };

    assert_eq!(parsed, instantiated);
}

Β  Β  Β 

lazy_static = "0.2.2"   πŸ“–

Rust has strict rules about accessing global state. In particular there is no 'life before main' in Rust, so it's not possible to write a programmatic constructor for a global value that will be run at startup. Instead, Rust prefers lazy execution for global initialization, and the lazy_static! macro does just that.

Example: examples/lazy_static.rs

#[macro_use]
extern crate lazy_static;

use std::collections::HashMap;

lazy_static! {
    static ref HASHMAP: HashMap<u32, &'static str> = {
        let mut m = HashMap::new();
        m.insert(0, "foo");
        m.insert(1, "bar");
        m.insert(2, "baz");
        m
    };
    static ref COUNT: usize = HASHMAP.len();
    static ref NUMBER: u32 = times_two(21);
}

fn times_two(n: u32) -> u32 { n * 2 }

fn main() {
    println!("The map has {} entries.", *COUNT);
    println!("The entry for `0` is \"{}\".", HASHMAP.get(&0).unwrap());
    println!("A expensive calculation on a static results in: {}.", *NUMBER);
}

Β  Β  Β 

libc = "0.2.20"   πŸ“–

If you need to talk to foreign code, you need this crate. It exports C type and function definitions appropriate to each target platform Rust supports. It defines the standardized C features that are common across all platforms as well as non-standard features specific to the platform C libraries. For more platform-specific FFI definitions see nix and winapi.

Supplemental crates: nix, winapi

Example: examples/libc.rs

extern crate libc;

fn main() {
    unsafe {
        libc::exit(0);
    }
}

Β  Β  Β 

log = "0.3.6"   πŸ“–

The most common way to perform basic logging in Rust, with the error!, warn!, info!, and debug! macros. It is often combined with the env_logger crate to get logging to the console, controlled by the RUST_LOG environment variable. This is the traditional logging crate used by rustc, and its functionality was once built in to the language.

Supplemental crates: env_logger = "0.4.0"

Example: examples/log.rs

#[macro_use]
extern crate log;
extern crate env_logger;

use log::LogLevel;

fn main() {
    env_logger::init().unwrap();

    debug!("this is a debug {}", "message");
    error!("this is printed by default");

    if log_enabled!(LogLevel::Info) {
        let x = 3 * 4; // expensive computation
        info!("the answer was: {}", x);
    }
}

Alternatives: slog, log4rs

Β  Β  Β 

ndarray = "0.7.3"   πŸ“–

The ndarray crate provides an N-dimensional container for general elements and for numerics. The multidimensional array, otherwise known as a "matrix", is a core data structure for numerical applications, and Rust does not have one in the language or standard library.

Example: examples/ndarray.rs

#[macro_use(s)]
extern crate ndarray;

use ndarray::{Array3, arr3};

fn main() {
    // Create a three-dimensional f64 array, initialized with zeros
    let mut temperature = Array3::<f64>::zeros((3, 4, 5));

    // Increase the temperature in this location, notice the
    // double-brackets indexing `temperature`
    temperature[[2, 2, 2]] += 0.5;

    // Create a 3-dimensional matrix,
    // 2 submatrices of 2 rows with 3 elements per row, means a shape
    // of `[2, 2, 3]`.
    let a = arr3(&[[[ 1,  2,  3],     // -- 2 rows  \_
                    [ 4,  5,  6]],    // --         /
                   [[ 7,  8,  9],     //            \_ 2 submatrices
                    [10, 11, 12]]]);  //            /
    //  3 columns ..../.../.../

    // This is a 2 x 2 x 3 array
    assert_eq!(a.shape(), &[2, 2, 3]);

    // Let’s create a slice of `a` with
    //
    // - Both of the submatrices of the greatest dimension: `..`
    // - Only the first row in each submatrix: `0..1`
    // - Every element in each row: `..`
    let b = a.slice(s![.., 0..1, ..]);

    // This is the result of the above slice into `a`
    let c = arr3(&[[[ 1,  2,  3]],
                   [[ 7,  8,  9]]]);
    assert_eq!(b, c);
    assert_eq!(b.shape(), &[2, 1, 3]);
}

Β  Β  Β 

num = "0.1.36"   πŸ“–

Big integers, rational numbers, complex numbers, and numeric traits. This is a rust-lang crate that has persisted through Rust's evolution but is somewhat unloved.

Example: examples/num.rs

extern crate num;

use num::FromPrimitive;
use num::bigint::BigInt;
use num::rational::{Ratio, BigRational};

fn approx_sqrt(number: u64, iterations: usize) -> BigRational {
    let start: Ratio<BigInt>
        = Ratio::from_integer(FromPrimitive::from_u64(number).unwrap());

    let mut approx = start.clone();

    for _ in 0..iterations {
        approx = (&approx + (&start / &approx)) /
            Ratio::from_integer(FromPrimitive::from_u64(2).unwrap());
    }

    approx
}

fn main() {
    println!("{}", approx_sqrt(10, 4)); // prints 4057691201/1283082416
}

Β  Β  Β 

rand = "0.3.15"   πŸ“–

Random number generators. The defaults are cryptographically strong.

Example: examples/rand.rs

extern crate rand;

use rand::Rng;

fn main() {
    let mut rng = rand::thread_rng();
    if rng.gen() { // random bool
        println!("i32: {}, u32: {}", rng.gen::<i32>(), rng.gen::<u32>())
    }

    let tuple = rand::random::<(f64, char)>();
    println!("{:?}", tuple)
}

Β  Β  Β 

rayon = "0.6.0"   πŸ“–

When people say that Rust makes parallelism easy, this is why. Rayon provides parallel iterators that make expressing efficient parallel operations simple and foolproof.

Example: examples/rayon.rs

extern crate rayon;

use rayon::prelude::*;

fn main() {
    let mut input = (0..1000).collect::<Vec<_>>();

    // Calculate the sum of squares
    let sq_sum = input.par_iter()
                      .map(|&i| i * i)
                      .sum();

    // Increment each element in parallel
    input.par_iter_mut()
        .for_each(|p| *p += 1);

    // Parallel quicksort
    let mut input = (0..1000).rev().collect::<Vec<_>>();
    quick_sort(&mut input);
}

fn quick_sort<T: PartialOrd + Send>(v: &mut [T]) {
    if v.len() <= 1 {
        return;
    }

    let mid = partition(v);
    let (lo, hi) = v.split_at_mut(mid);
    rayon::join(|| quick_sort(lo), || quick_sort(hi));
}

fn partition<T: PartialOrd + Send>(v: &mut [T]) -> usize {
    let pivot = v.len() - 1;
    let mut i = 0;
    for j in 0..pivot {
        if v[j] <= v[pivot] {
            v.swap(i, j);
            i += 1;
        }
    }
    v.swap(i, pivot);
    i
}

Β  Β  Β 

regex = "0.2.1"   πŸ“–

Rust's regular expressions are fast, like Rust is fast. Part of their power comes from a careful design that disallows back-references and arbitrary lookahead, creating predictable worst-case performance.

Example: examples/regex.rs

extern crate regex;

use regex::Regex;

fn main() {
    // Find a date
    let re = Regex::new(r"^\d{4}-\d{2}-\d{2}$").unwrap();
    assert!(re.is_match("2014-01-01"));

    // Iterating over capture groups
    let re = Regex::new(r"(\d{4})-(\d{2})-(\d{2})").unwrap();
    let text = "2012-03-14, 2013-01-01 and 2014-07-05";
    for cap in re.captures_iter(text) {
        println!("Month: {} Day: {} Year: {}", &cap[2], &cap[3], &cap[1]);
    }
}

Β  Β  Β 

reqwest = "0.3.0"   πŸ“–

A simple HTTP and HTTPS client.

Example: examples/reqwest.rs

extern crate reqwest;

use std::collections::HashMap;
use std::io::{BufRead, BufReader};

fn main() {
    // Make a GET request
    let resp = reqwest::get("https://www.rust-lang.org").unwrap();
    assert!(resp.status().is_success());

    let lines = BufReader::new(resp)
                          .lines()
                          .filter_map(|l| l.ok())
                          .take(10);
    for line in lines {
        println!("{}", line);
    }

    // Make a POST request
    let client = reqwest::Client::new().unwrap();
    let res = client.post("http://httpbin.org/post")
        .body("the exact body that is sent")
        .send();

    // Convert to/from JSON automatically
    let mut map = HashMap::new();
    map.insert("lang", "rust");
    map.insert("body", "json");

    // This will POST a body of `{"lang":"rust","body":"json"}`
    let client = reqwest::Client::new().unwrap();
    let res = client.post("http://httpbin.org/post")
        .json(&map)
        .send();
}

Β  Β  Β 

serde = "0.9.5"   πŸ“–

Serialization and deserialization of Rust datastructures is fast and easy using the serde serialization framework. Simply tag your data structures with #[derive(Serialize, Deserialize)] and serde will automatically convert them between formats like JSON, TOML, YAML, and more. To best understand serde, read its documentation at serde.rs.

Supplemental crates: [serde_derive = "0.9.5"], [serde_codegen = "0.9.0"], [serde_json = "0.9.4"], toml = "0.2.1"

Example: examples/serde.rs

#[macro_use]
extern crate serde_derive;
extern crate serde_json;

use serde_json::Value;

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, Debug)]
struct Contact {
    name: String,
    age: u32,
}

fn main() {
    let contact = Contact {
        name: "Brian".to_string(),
        age: 21,
    };

    // Serialize data structures to strings in JSON format
    let contact: String = serde_json::to_string(&contact).unwrap();
    println!("{}", contact);

    // Deserialize data structures from JSON strings
    let contact: Contact = serde_json::from_str(&contact).unwrap();
    println!("{:?}", contact);

    // Convert to arbitrary JSON `Value` type
    let contact: Value = serde_json::to_value(&contact).unwrap();
    println!("{:?}", contact);
}

Alternatives: rustc-serialize

Β  Β  Β 

tempdir = "0.3.5"   πŸ“–

The most common way to create temporary directories in Rust, this crate was once part of the standard library.

Example: examples/tempdir.rs

extern crate tempdir;

use std::fs::File;
use std::io::Write;
use tempdir::TempDir;

fn main() {
    // Create a directory inside of `std::env::temp_dir()`, named with
    // the prefix "example".
    let tmp_dir = TempDir::new("example").expect("create temp dir");
    let file_path = tmp_dir.path().join("my-temporary-note.txt");
    let mut tmp_file = File::create(file_path).expect("create temp file");
    writeln!(tmp_file, "Brian was here. Briefly.").expect("write temp file");

    // By closing the `TempDir` explicitly, we can check that it has
    // been deleted successfully. If we don't close it explicitly,
    // the directory will still be deleted when `tmp_dir` goes out
    // of scope, but we won't know whether deleting the directory
    // succeeded.
    drop(tmp_file);
    tmp_dir.close().expect("delete temp dir");
}

Β  Β  Β 

toml = "0.2.1"   πŸ“–

TOML is a common format for configuration files, like Cargo.toml. It's easy on the eyes, simple to parse, and serializes from Rust types with serde.

Example: examples/toml.rs

extern crate toml;

fn main() {
    let toml = r#"
    [test]
    foo = "bar"
"#;

    let value = toml::Parser::new(toml).parse().unwrap();
    println!("{:?}", value);
}

Β  Β  Β 

url = "1.4.0"   πŸ“–

The URL parser and type, originally created for Servo.

Example: examples/url.rs

extern crate url;

use url::{Url, Host};

fn main() {
    let issue_list_url = Url::parse(
        "https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/issues?labels=E-easy&state=open"
    ).unwrap();

    assert!(issue_list_url.scheme() == "https");
    assert!(issue_list_url.username() == "");
    assert!(issue_list_url.password() == None);
    assert!(issue_list_url.host_str() == Some("github.com"));
    assert!(issue_list_url.host() == Some(Host::Domain("github.com")));
    assert!(issue_list_url.port() == None);
    assert!(issue_list_url.path() == "/rust-lang/rust/issues");
    assert!(issue_list_url.path_segments().map(|c| c.collect::<Vec<_>>()) ==
            Some(vec!["rust-lang", "rust", "issues"]));
    assert!(issue_list_url.query() == Some("labels=E-easy&state=open"));
    assert!(issue_list_url.fragment() == None);
    assert!(!issue_list_url.cannot_be_a_base());
}

Β  Β  Β 

About stdx

Rust has a lovely and portable standard library, but it is not featureful enough to write software of any great sophistication. Compared to common platforms including Java, Python, and Go, Rust's standard library is small.

In Rust, the libraries we use for even simple tasks live and evolve on crates.io. This affords the Rust community freedom to experiment - discovering the Rustiest solutions to even common problems can take quite some iteration - but it also means that we're in for a slow evolutionary process to converge around the best of those solutions. In the meantime, you just have to know which crates to use for what.

stdx contains some of the most important crates in Rust. I mean it. If Rust had a more expansive standard library, many of the stdx crates would be in it, or at least the features they provide. Many of the crates of stdx are maintained by the same authors as the Rust standard library, and they are designed to be idiomatic and interoperable. These are core elements of the crate ecosystem that all Rusticians should be aware of.

How to use stdx

stdx is primarily a teaching tool. New and old Rust programmers alike will get the most from it by digesting the list of stdx crates, each entry of which links to a description of the crate along with an example of its basic use.

These examples are full working source and are intended to get you up and running with any of the stdx crates immediately. Just copy the crate name and version exactly as written into the dependencies section of your Cargo.toml like so:

[dependencies]
bitflags = "0.7.0"

Then copy the full example into your examples directory, like so:

Example: examples/bitflags.rs

#[macro_use]
extern crate bitflags;

bitflags! {
    flags Flags: u32 {
        const FLAG_A       = 0b00000001,
        const FLAG_B       = 0b00000010,
        const FLAG_C       = 0b00000100,
        const FLAG_ABC     = FLAG_A.bits
                           | FLAG_B.bits
                           | FLAG_C.bits,
    }
}

fn main() {
    let e1 = FLAG_A | FLAG_C;
    let e2 = FLAG_B | FLAG_C;
    assert_eq!((e1 | e2), FLAG_ABC);   // union
    assert_eq!((e1 & e2), FLAG_C);     // intersection
    assert_eq!((e1 - e2), FLAG_A);     // set difference
    assert_eq!(!e2, FLAG_A);           // set complement
}

Then execute the following:

cargo run --example bitflags

And suddenly you are a slightly-experienced user of that crate. Now click on the πŸ“– icon to get the rest of the story.

Convinced? Go check out that list.

Why use stdx?

As a learning tool, I hope the benefit will be evident from a straight read-through. But stdx, and tools like it, may provide important benefits to users in the future.

To be clear, stdx is experimental. A lot of the below is speculative.

stdx provides assurances that the versions of crates it specifes work together correctly in a wide variety of configurations. Today those assurances are few, but they will grow. And these types of assurances will become increasingly valuable to Rust.

As of now, the only validation stdx provides is that the exact versions of the stdx crates resolve correctly by Cargo, and that they build on Linux and Windows. That is already beneficial by uncovering problematic combinations and incorrect semver specifications. Here are some other assurances that stdx will enable:

  • Additional integration test cases between the stdx crates
  • Testing of all stdx crates' own test suites using the stdx version lock
  • Testing on all tier 1 platforms
  • Testing on tier 2 platforms
  • Enforcement and coverage of serde features and interop
  • Enforcement of other compile-time feature standards
  • stdx as version lock - you don't even have to call into it. Just link to it and it locks down a chunk of your crate graph to known-good combinaitons.
  • Ecosystem wide testing using stdx version lock - eventually we will be able to say which crates are known to work correctly with stdx.
  • The more people use the stdx version lock the more assurance they get they get. This plays into future Rust's LTS directions.

By applying high quality standards to a small selection of critical crates we can create a high degree of confidence in a larger core of the Rust ecosystem.

Selection criteria

The criteria for inclusion in stdx is conservative, and fuzzy. It's mostly crates that are pretty super important, considering criteria like

  • portability
  • quality
  • conformance to conventions
  • documentation
  • interoperability with other crates
  • reliability of maintainers
  • de-facto adoption
  • historical context and precedent

stdx is focused on core features, crates that are quintessentially Rust and relied on by many Rust programs. It is intentionally limited for the sake of simplicity and ease of comprehension.

All crates must work on Rust's tier-1 platforms, currently x86 Linux, OS X, and Windows.

License

stdx and the crates it links to are licensed under various permissive, BSD-like licenses. In lay-terms these licenses allow their code to be used and distributed freely, and are compatible with Rust's own license (MIT/Apache 2).

stdx itself is dual MIT/Apache 2 licensed, like Rust, and the copyright is owned by its contributors.