This documentation contains examples and exercises using the OmpSs programming model. The main objective of this document is to provide guidance in learning OmpSs programming model and serve as teaching materials in courses and tutorials. To find more complete applications please visit our BAR (BSC Application Repository) in the URL:
In this section we describe how to tune your configure script and also how to use it to configure
your environment. If you have a pre-configured package you can skip this section and simply run
the Linux command
source using the provided configure script:
The configure script is used to set all environment variables you need to properly execute OmpSs applications. Among other things it contains the PATH where the system will look for to find Mercurium compiler utility, and the MKL installation directory (if available) to run specific OmpSs applications (e.g. Cholesky kernel).
Once you have configured the script you will need to to run the Linux command
source using your configure script as described in the beginning of this
Building the examples
The make utility
In software development, Make is a utility that automatically builds executable programs and libraries from source code by reading files called makefiles which specify how to derive the target program. Though integrated development environments and language-specific compiler features can also be used to manage a build process, Make remains widely used, especially in Unix.
Make searches the current directory for the makefile to use, e.g. GNU make searches files in order for a file named one of GNUmakefile, makefile, Makefile and then runs the specified (or default) target(s) from (only) that file.
A makefile consists of rules. Each rule begins with a textual dependency line which defines a target followed by a colon (:) and optionally an enumeration of components (files or other targets) on which the target depends. The dependency line is arranged so that the target (left hand of the colon) depends on components (right hand of the colon). It is common to refer to components as prerequisites of the target:
target [target...] : [component...] [<TAB>] command-1 [<TAB>] command-2 ... [<TAB>] command-n [target
Below is a very simple makefile that by default compiles the program helloworld (first target: all) using the GCC C compiler (CC) and using “-g” compiler option (CFLAGS). The makefile also provides a ''clean'' target to remove the generated files if the user desires to start over (by running make clean):
CC = gcc CFLAGS = -g LDFLAGS = all: helloworld helloworld: helloworld.o # Commands start with TAB not spaces !!! $(CC) $(LDFLAGS) -o $@ $^ helloworld.o: helloworld.c $(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c -o $@ $< clean: rm -f helloworld helloworld.o
All the examples and exercises comes with a makefile (Makefile) configured to compile 3 different versions for each program. Each of the binary file name created by running make ends with a suffix which determines the version:
- program-p: performance version
- program-i: instrumented version
- program-d: debug version
You can actually select which version you want to compile by executing: ''make program-version'' (e.g. in the Cholesky kernel you can compile the performance version executing ''make cholesky-p''. By default (running make with no parameters) all the versions are compiled.
Apart of building the program's binaries, the make utility will also build shell scripts to run the program. Each exercise have two running scripts, one to run a single program execution (''run-once.sh''), the other will run multiples configurations with respect the number of threads, data size, etc (''multirun.sh''). Before submitting any job, make sure all environment variables have the values you expect to. Here is an example of the ''run-once.sh'' script:
#!/bin/bash export NX_SMP_WORKERS=4 ./cholesky-p 4096 512 1
In some cases the shell script will contain job scheduler variables declared in top of the script file. A job scheduler script must contain a series of directives to inform the batch system about the characteristics of the job. These directives appear as comments in the job script file and the syntax will depend on the job scheduler system used.
With the running scripts it also comes a ''trace.sh'' file, which can be used to include all the environment variables needed to get an instrumentation trace of the execution. The content of this file is:
#!/bin/bash export EXTRAE_CONFIG_FILE=extrae.xml export NX_INSTRUMENTATION=extrae $*
Additionally, you will need to change your running script in order to invoke the your program through the ''trace.sh'' script. Although you can also edit your running script adding all the environment variables related with the instrumentation, it is preferable to use this extra script to easily change in between instrumented and non-instrumented executions. When you want to instrument you will need to include ''trace.sh'' before your program execution command line:
#!/bin/bash export NX_SMP_WORKERS=1 ./trace.sh ./cholesky-i 4096 512 1
Finally, the make utility will generate (if not already present in the directory) other configuration files as it is the case of ''extrae.xml'' file (used to configure Extrae plugin in order to get a Paraver trace, see ''trace.sh'' file).
Job Scheduler: Minotauro
The current section has a short explanation on how to use the job scheduler systems installed in BSC's Minotauro machine. Slurm is the utility used in this machine for batch processing support, so all jobs must be run through it. These are the basic directives to submit jobs:
- mnsubmit job_script submits a ''job script'' to the queue system (see below for job script directives).
- mnq: shows all the submitted jobs.
- mncancel <job_id> remove the job from the queue system, cancelling the execution of the processes, if they were still running.
A job must contain a series of directives to inform the batch system about the characteristics of the job. These directives appear as comments in the job script, with the following syntax:
# @ directive = value.
The job would be submitted using: ''mnsubmit <job_script>''. While the jobs are queued, you can check their status using the command ''mnq'' (it may take a while to start executing). Once a job has been executed you will get two files. One for console standard output (with .out extension) and other for console standard error (with .err extension).
Job Scheduler: Marenostrum
LSF is the utility used at MareNostrum III for batch processing support, so all jobs must be run through it. This section provides information for getting started with job execution at the Cluster. These are the basic commands to submit, control and check your jobs:
- bsub < job_script: submits a ''job script'' passed through standard input (STDIN) to the queue system.
- bjobs: shows all the submitted jobs
- bkill <job_id>: remove the job from the queue system, canceling the execution of the processes, if they were still running.
- bsc_jobs: shows all the pending or running jobs from your group.
The OmpSs Examples and Exercises document is written using Sphinx
- Make sure you have sphinx-doc in your machine
$ sudo apt-get install sphinx-doc python-sphinx texlive-latex-extra texlive-fonts-recommended
(Note: texlive- packages are required to build PDF documentation).
- Make changes to .rst files
Start from index.rst to see the structure. Look at the .. toctree::, it lists the included files used to generate the documentation (toctree stands for "tree of the table of contents").
Syntax of .rst is reStructuredText. You may want to read a quick introduction at
The official reStructuredText documentation (if you want to dig further in the details) is in:
- Generate the documentation
3.1. Generate the HTML
$ make html
Now open your browser to .build/html/index.html and behold your contribution.
3.2. Generate the PDF
$ make latexpdf
Now open your PDF viewer to the .build/html/<docfile>.pdf (the file depends on the directory you chose in the step 0 above)
- Commit your changes using git
$ git commit -a $ git push
It may happen that the remote repository changed where you were editing your local one. In that case, first do
$ git pull --rebase
and then proceed as above.
$ git commit -a $ git push