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Holochain Whitepaper

Two canoncial types of Distributed Systems (with overlap being common):

agent centric

Agents share independently evolving data realities.

  • Holochain
  • git

data-centric

Nodes gossip to create shared data reality.

  • Bitcoin

Formalism

Ν = {n1,n2,...nn}

N nodes or agents

S ∋ {σ1,σ2...,σi }

Sn is the state of node n

σiSn : σi = {Xi,Di}

Xi is a hash-chain

D is a set of non-hash chain data elements

H is a cryptographically secure hash function

t is a transaction

τ is a state transition function

τ(σi,t) = (τx(Xi,t), τD(Di,t))

τx(Xi,t) = Xi+1

Xi+1 = Xi ∪ {xi+1} = {x1,...,xi,xi+1}

x1 = {h,t}

h = {H(t),y}

y = {H(xj) | j < i}

h is a header

Di+1 = τD(σi, t)

V is a validation ; and V(t,v) verifies the validity of t and only if valid calls a state transition function, τ, for t.

v is extra validation data

I is the input or stimulus function

I(t) takes t, evaluates t using V, if valid, uses τ to transform S

P is a processing function

P(x) can create t and trigger V and τ; and P is triggered by state changes or passage of time.

C is a channel that allows all nodes in N to communicate, where each n has a unique address An

An is a unique address for n

{C,N} is the network

E is the evolution function

E(i) changes functions V,I,P

Formalism Usage

Model separately key aspects of agents.

  1. Separate agent's state into {X,D}. Part X (cryptographically secured hash-chain) and part D (arbitrary data)
  2. V(t,v) - Validate V new transactions t
  3. τX and τD to change internal S or {X,D} of the agent

Distinguish between:

  1. τ(t,v) triggered by external events, stimuli, received through I(t)
  2. node's internal processing P(x) ∴ (V || τ) called with t being internally created

Key Properties of Distributed Systems

An is the address for Node n

pkn is the public key for Node n

  1. trusted — Call N for which any function T, V, P, E are reliably known and known to be identical for N
  2. secure — Call channel C where messages in transit can be trusted to arrive exactly as sent
  3. authenticatedAn = H(pkn) — all messages include a digital signature of the message signed by sender
  4. content addressable — data element accessible by it's hash

trustless system — Assume untrusted nodes, use cryptography, H, to verify, V, trust

intrinsic data integrity — locus of trust is on state data instead of other nodes

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