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Signed-off-by: Manuel Fuchs <manuel.fuchs@salesforce.com>
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Buildpack Interface Specification

This document specifies the interface between a lifecycle program and one or more buildpacks.

The lifecycle program uses buildpacks to build software artifacts from source code and pack the result into an OCI image.

This is accomplished in four phases:

  1. Detection, where an optimal selection of compatible buildpacks is chosen.
  2. Analysis, where metadata about OCI layers generated during a previous build are made available to buildpacks.
  3. Build, where buildpacks use that metadata to generate only the OCI layers that need to be replaced.
  4. Export, where the remote layers are replaced by the generated layers.

The ENTRYPOINT of the OCI image contains logic implemented by the lifecycle that executes during the Launch phase.

Table of Contents

Buildpack API Version

This document specifies Buildpack API version 0.5

Buildpack API versions:

  • MUST be in form <major>.<minor> or <major>, where <major> is equivalent to <major>.0
  • When <major> is greater than 0 increments to <minor> SHALL exclusively indicate additive changes

Buildpack Interface

The following specifies the interface implemented by executables in each buildpack. The lifecycle MUST invoke these executables as described in the Phase sections.

Buildpack API Compatibility

Given a buildpack declaring <buildpack API Version> in its buildpack.toml, the lifecycle:

  • MUST either conform to the matching version of this specification when interfacing with the buildpack or
  • return an error to the platform if it does not support <buildpack API Version>

The lifecycle MAY return an error to the platform if two or more buildpacks within a group declare buildpack API versions that the lifecycle cannot support together within a single build, even if both are supported independently.

Key

Mark Meaning
A Single copy provided for all buildpacks
E Different copy provided for each buildpack
I Image repository for storage
C Cache for storage
R Read-only
* Buildpack-specific content
# Platform-specific content

Detection

Executable: /bin/detect <platform[AR]> <plan[E]>, Working Dir: <app[AR]>

Input Description
$0 Absolute path of /bin/detect executable
<platform>/env/ User-provided environment variables for build
<platform>/# Platform-specific extensions
Output Description
[exit status] Pass (0), fail (100), or error (1-99, 101+)
Standard output Logs (info)
Standard error Logs (warnings, errors)
<plan> Contributions to the the Build Plan (TOML)

Build

Executable: /bin/build <layers[EIC]> <platform[AR]> <plan[ER]>, Working Dir: <app[AI]>

Input Description
$0 Absolute path of /bin/build executable
<plan> Relevant Buildpack Plan entries from detection (TOML)
<platform>/env/ User-provided environment variables for build
<platform>/# Platform-specific extensions
Output Description
[exit status] Success (0) or failure (1+)
Standard output Logs (info)
Standard error Logs (warnings, errors)
<layers>/launch.toml App metadata (see launch.toml)
<layers>/build.toml Build metadata (see build.toml)
<layers>/store.toml Persistent metadata (see store.toml)
<layers>/<layer>.toml Layer metadata (see Layer Content Metadata)
<layers>/<layer>/bin/ Binaries for launch and/or subsequent buildpacks
<layers>/<layer>/lib/ Shared libraries for launch and/or subsequent buildpacks
<layers>/<layer>/profile.d/ Scripts sourced by Bash before launch
<layers>/<layer>/profile.d/<process>/ Scripts sourced by Bash before launch for a particular process type
<layers>/<layer>/exec.d/ Executables that provide env vars via the Exec.d Interface before launch
<layers>/<layer>/exec.d/<process>/ Executables that provide env vars for a particular process type via the Exec.d Interface before launch
<layers>/<layer>/include/ C/C++ headers for subsequent buildpacks
<layers>/<layer>/pkgconfig/ Search path for pkg-config for subsequent buildpacks
<layers>/<layer>/env/ Env vars for launch and/or subsequent buildpacks
<layers>/<layer>/env.launch/ Env vars for launch (after env, before profile.d)
<layers>/<layer>/env.launch/<process>/ Env vars for launch (after env, before profile.d) for the launched process
<layers>/<layer>/env.build/ Env vars for subsequent buildpacks (after env)
<layers>/<layer>/* Other content for launch and/or subsequent buildpacks

Exec.d

Executable: <layers>/<layer>/exec.d/<executable>, Working Dir: <app[AI]>

OR

Executable: <layers>/<layer>/exec.d/<process>/<executable>, Working Dir: <app[AI]>

Input Description
$0 Absolute path of the executable
FD 3 A third open file descriptor or handle
Output Description
[exit status] Pass (0) or error (1+)
Standard output Logs (info)
Standard error Logs (warnings, errors)
FD 3 Launch time environment variables (see Exec.d Output)

Layer Types

Using the Layer Content Metadata provided by a buildpack in a <layers>/<layer>.toml file, the lifecycle MUST determine:

  • Whether the layer directory in <layers>/<layer>/ should be available to the app (via the launch boolean).
  • Whether the layer directory in <layers>/<layer>/ should be available to subsequent buildpacks (via the build boolean).
  • Whether and how the layer directory in <layers>/<layer>/ should be persisted to subsequent builds of the same OCI image (via the cache boolean).

All combinations of launch, build, and cache booleans are valid. When a layer declares more than one type (e.g. launch = true and cache = true), the requirements of each type apply.

Launch Layers

A buildpack MAY specify that a <layers>/<layer>/ directory is a launch layer by placing launch = true in <layers>/<layer>.toml.

The lifecycle MUST make all launch layers accessible to the app as described in the Environment section.

The lifecycle MUST include each launch layer in the built OCI image. The lifecycle MUST also store the Layer Content Metadata associated with each layer so that it can be recovered using the layer Diff ID.

Before a given re-build:

  • If a launch layer is marked cache = false and build = false, the lifecycle:
    • MUST restore the entire <layers>/<layer>.toml file from the previous build to the same path and
    • MUST NOT restore the corresponding <layers>/<layer>/ directory from any previous build.

After a given re-build:

  • If a buildpack keeps launch = true in <layers>/<layer>.toml and leaves no <layers>/<layer>/ directory, the lifecycle:
    • MUST reuse the corresponding layer from the previous build in the OCI image and
    • MUST replace the Layer Content Metadata in the OCI image with the version present after the re-build.
  • If a buildpack keeps launch = true in <layers>/<layer>.toml and leaves a <layers>/<layer>/ directory, the lifecycle:
    • MUST replace the corresponding layer in the OCI image with the directory contents present after the re-build and
    • MUST replace the Layer Content Metadata in the OCI image with the version present after the re-build.
  • If a buildpack removes launch = true from <layers>/<layer>.toml or deletes <layers>/<layer>.toml, then the lifecycle MUST NOT include any corresponding layer in the OCI image.

Build Layers

A buildpack MAY specify that a <layers>/<layer>/ directory is a build layer by placing build = true in <layers>/<layer>.toml.

The lifecycle MUST make all build layers accessible to subsequent buildpacks as described in the Environment section.

Before the next re-build:

  • If the layer is marked cache = false, the lifecycle MUST NOT restore the <layers>/<layer>/ directory or the <layers>/<layer>.toml file from any previous build.

Cached Layers

A buildpack MAY specify that a <layers>/<layer>/ directory is a cached layer by placing cache = true in <layers>/<layer>.toml.

If a cache is provided the lifecycle:

  • SHOULD store all cached layers after a successful build.
  • SHOULD store the Layer Content Metadata associated with each layer so that it can be recovered using the layer Diff ID

Before the next re-build:

  • The lifecycle:
    • MUST either restore the entire <layers>/<layer>.toml file and corresponding <layers>/<layer>/ directory from any previous build to the same paths or
    • MUST restore neither the <layers>/<layer>.toml file nor corresponding <layers>/<layer>/ directory.

Other Layers

The lifecycle:

  • If build = false
    • MUST NOT make the layer available to subesequent buildpacks.
  • If launch = false
    • MUST NOT include the layer or the Layer Content Metadata in the OCI image.
  • If cache = false
    • MUST NOT store the layer or the Layer Content Metadata in the cache.

Layers marked launch = false, build = false, and cache = false behave like temporary directories, available only to the authoring buildpack, that exist for the duration of a single build.

App Interface

Output Description
<app>/.profile Bash-formatted script sourced by shell before launch
<app>/.profile.bat BAT-formatted script sourced by shell before launch

Phase #1: Detection

Detection

Purpose

The purpose of detection is to find an ordered group of buildpacks to use during the build phase. These buildpacks must be compatible with the app.

Process

GIVEN:

  • An ordered list of buildpack groups resolved into buildpack implementations as described in Order Resolution
  • A directory containing application source code
  • A shell, if needed,

For each buildpack in each group in order, the lifecycle MUST execute /bin/detect.

  1. If the exit status of /bin/detect is non-zero and the buildpack is not marked optional,
    Then the lifecycle MUST proceed to the next group or fail detection completely if no more groups are present.

  2. If the exit status of /bin/detect is zero or the buildpack is marked optional,

    1. If the buildpack is not the last buildpack in the group,
      Then the lifecycle MUST proceed to the next buildpack in the group.

    2. If the buildpack is the last buildpack in the group,

      1. If no exit statuses from /bin/detect in the group are zero
        Then the lifecycle MUST proceed to the next group or fail detection completely if no more groups are present.

      2. If at least one exit status from /bin/detect in the group is zero
        Then the lifecycle MUST select this group and proceed to the analysis phase.

The selected group MUST be filtered to only include buildpacks with exit status zero. The order of the buildpacks in the group MUST otherwise be preserved.

The /bin/detect executable in each buildpack, when executed:

  • MAY read the app directory.
  • MAY read the detect environment as described in the Environment section.
  • MAY emit error, warning, or debug messages to stderr.
  • MAY augment the Build Plan by writing TOML to <plan>.
  • MUST set an exit status code as described in the Buildpack Interface section.

In order to make contributions to the Build Plan, a /bin/detect executable MUST write entries to <plan> in two sections: requires and provides. Additionally, these two sections MAY be repeated together inside of an or array at the top-level. Each requires and provides section MUST be a list of entries formatted as described in the Build Plan format section.

Each pairing of requires and provides sections (at the top level, or inside of an or array) is a potential Build Plan.

For a given buildpack group, a sequence of trials is generated by selecting a single potential Build Plan from each buildpack in a left-to-right, depth-first order. The group fails to detect if all trials fail to detect.

For each trial,

  • If a required buildpack provides a dependency that is not required by the same buildpack or a subsequent buildpack, the trial MUST fail to detect.
  • If a required buildpack requires a dependency that is not provided by the same buildpack or a previous buildpack, the trial MUST fail to detect.
  • If an optional buildpack provides a dependency that is not required by the same buildpack or a subsequent buildpack, the optional buildpack MUST be excluded from the build phase and its requires and provides MUST be excluded from the Build Plan.
  • If an optional buildpack requires a dependency that is not provided by the same buildpack or a previous buildpack, the optional buildpack MUST be excluded from the build phase and its requires and provides MUST be excluded from the Build Plan.
  • Multiple buildpacks MAY require or provide the same dependency.

The lifecycle MAY execute each /bin/detect within a group in parallel.

The lifecycle MUST run /bin/detect for all buildpacks in a group in a container using common stack with a common set of mixins. The lifecycle MUST fail detection if any of those buildpacks does not list that stack in buildpack.toml. The lifecycle MUST fail detection if any of those buildpacks specifies a mixin associated with that stack in buildpack.toml that is unavailable in the container.

Order Resolution

During detection, an order definition MUST be resolved into individual buildpack implementations.

The resolution process MUST follow this pattern:

Where:

  • O and P are buildpack orders.
  • A through H are buildpack implementations.

Given:


O =
\begin{bmatrix}
A, & B \\
C, & D
\end{bmatrix}


P =
\begin{bmatrix}
E, & F \\
G, & H
\end{bmatrix}

We propose:


\begin{bmatrix}
E, & O, & F
\end{bmatrix} =
\begin{bmatrix}
E, & A, & B, & F \\
E, & C, & D, & F \\
\end{bmatrix}


\begin{bmatrix}
O, & P
\end{bmatrix} =
\begin{bmatrix}
A, & B, & E, & F \\
A, & B, & G, & H \\
C, & D, & E, & F \\
C, & D, & G, & H \\
\end{bmatrix}

Note that buildpack IDs are expanded depth-first in left-to-right order.

If a buildpack order entry within a group has the parameter optional = true, then a copy of the group without the entry MUST be repeated after the original group.

Phase #2: Analysis

Analysis

Purpose

The purpose of analysis is to restore <layers>/<layer>.toml and <layers>/store.toml files that buildpacks may use to optimize the build and export phases.

Process

The lifecycle SHOULD attempt to locate a reference to an OCI image from a previous build that:

  • Was created using some version of the same application source code.
  • Is readable by the lifecycle.
  • Was created using the lifecycle.
  • Is as recent as possible.

The lifecycle MUST skip analysis and proceed to the build phase if no such image can be located.

GIVEN:

  • A reference to the previously created OCI image described above and
  • The final ordered group of buildpacks determined during the detection phase,

For each buildpack in the group,

  1. All <layers>/<layer>.toml files with cache = true and corresponding <layers>/<layer> directories from any previous build are restored to their same filesystem locations.
  2. Each <layers>/<layer>.toml file with launch = true and cache = false that was present at the end of the build of the previously created OCI image is retrieved.
  3. A given <layers>/<layer>.toml file with launch = true and cache = true and corresponding <layers>/<layer> directory are both removed if either do not match their contents in the previously created OCI image.

Finally, the contents of <layers>/store.toml from the build of the previously created OCI image are restored.

After analysis, the lifecycle MUST proceed to the build phase.

Phase #3: Build

Build

Purpose

The purpose of build is to transform application source code into runnable artifacts that can be packaged into a container.

During the build phase, typical buildpacks might:

  1. Read the Buildpack Plan in <plan> to determine what dependencies to provide.
  2. Provide the application with dependencies for launch in <layers>/<layer>.
  3. Provide subsequent buildpacks with dependencies in <layers>/<layer>.
  4. Compile the application source code into object code.
  5. Remove application source code that is not necessary for launch.
  6. Provide start command in <layers>/launch.toml.
  7. Write a partial Bill-of-Material to <layers>/launch.toml describing any provided application dependencies.
  8. Write a partial Bill-of-Material to <layers>/build.toml describing any provided build dependencies.

The purpose of separate <layers>/<layer> directories is to:

  • Minimize the execution time of the build.
  • Minimize usage of network communications.
  • Minimize persistent disk usage.

This is achieved by:

  • Reducing the number of necessary build operations during the build phase.
  • Reducing data transfer during the export phase.
  • Enabling de-duplication of stored image layers.

Process

GIVEN:

  • The final ordered group of buildpacks determined during the detection phase,
  • A directory containing application source code,
  • The Buildpack Plan,
  • Any <layers>/<layer>.toml files placed on the filesystem during the analysis phase,
  • Any locally cached <layers>/<layer> directories, and
  • A shell, if needed,

For each buildpack in the group in order, the lifecycle MUST execute /bin/build.

  1. If the exit status of /bin/build is non-zero,
    Then the lifecycle MUST fail the build.

  2. If the exit status of /bin/build is zero,

    1. If there are additional buildpacks in the group,
      Then the lifecycle MUST proceed to the next buildpack's /bin/build.

    2. If there are no additional buildpacks in the group,
      Then the lifecycle MUST proceed to the export phase.

For each /bin/build executable in each buildpack, the lifecycle:

  • MUST provide path arguments to /bin/build as described in the Buildpack Interface section.
  • MUST configure the build environment as described in the Environment section.
  • MUST provide all <plan> entries that were required by any buildpack in the group during the detection phase with names matching the names that the buildpack provided.

Correspondingly, each /bin/build executable:

  • MAY read or write to the <app> directory.
  • MAY read the build environment as described in the Environment section.
  • MAY read the Buildpack Plan.
  • SHOULD write a list containing any Unmet Buildpack Plan Entries to <layers>/build.toml to defer those entries to subsequent /bin/build executables.
  • MAY log output from the build process to stdout.
  • MAY emit error, warning, or debug messages to stderr.
  • MAY write a list of possible commands for launch to <layers>/launch.toml.
  • MAY write a list of sub-paths within <app> to <layers>/launch.toml.
  • SHOULD write BOM (Bill-of-Materials) entries to <layers>/launch.toml describing any contributions to the app image.
  • SHOULD write build BOM entries to <layers>/build.toml describing any contributions to the build environment.
  • MAY write values that should persist to subsequent builds in <layers>/store.toml.
  • MAY modify or delete any existing <layers>/<layer> directories.
  • MAY modify or delete any existing <layers>/<layer>.toml files.
  • MAY create new <layers>/<layer> directories.
  • MAY create new <layers>/<layer>.toml files.
  • MAY name any new <layers>/<layer> directories without restrictions except those imposed by the filesystem.
  • SHOULD NOT use the <app> directory to store provided dependencies.

Unmet Buildpack Plan Entries

A buildpack SHOULD designate a Buildpack Plan entry as unmet if the buildpack did not satisfy the requirement described by the entry. The lifecycle SHALL assume that all entries in the Buildpack Plan were satisfied by the buildpack unless the buildpack writes an entry with the given name to the unmet section of build.toml.

For each entry in <plan>:

  • If there is an unmet entry in build.toml with a matching name, the lifecycle
    • MUST include the entry in the <plan> of the next buildpack that provided an entry with that name during the detection phase.
  • Else, the lifecycle
    • MUST NOT include entries with matching names in the <plan> provided to subsequent buildpacks.

Bills-of-Materials

When the build is complete, a BOM (Bill-of-Materials) describing the app image MAY be generated for auditing purposes. If generated, this BOM MUST contain all bom entries in each launch.toml at the end of each /bin/build execution, in adherence with the process and data format outlined in the Platform Interface Specification.

When the build is complete, a build BOM describing the build container MAY be generated for auditing purposes. If generated, this build BOM MUST contain all bom entries in each build.toml at the end of each /bin/build execution, in adherence with the process and data format outlined in the Platform Interface Specification.

Layers

A buildpack MAY create, modify, or delete <layers>/<layer>/ directories and <layers>/<layer>.toml files as specified in the Layer Types section.

To decide what layer operations are appropriate, the buildpack should consider:

  • Whether files in the <app> directory have changed since the layer was created.
  • Whether the environment has changed since the layer was created.
  • Whether the buildpack version has changed since the layer was created.
  • Whether new application dependency versions have been made available since the layer was created.

Additionally, a buildpack MAY specify sub-paths within <app> as slices in launch.toml. Separate layers MUST be created during the export phase for each slice with one or more files or directories. This minimizes data transfer when the app directory contains a known set of files.

Phase #4: Export

Export

Purpose

The purpose of export is to create a new OCI image using a combination of remote layers, local <layers>/<layer> layers, and the processed <app> directory.

Process

GIVEN:

  • The <layers> directories provided to each buildpack during the build phase,
  • The <app> directory processed by the buildpacks during the build phase,
  • The buildpack IDs associated with the buildpacks used during the build phase, in order of execution,
  • A reference to the most recent version of the run image associated with the stack and mixins,
  • A reference to the old OCI image processed during the analysis phase, if available, and
  • A tag for a new OCI image,

If the run image, old OCI image, and new OCI image are not all present in the same image store,
Then the lifecycle SHOULD fail the export process or inform the user that export performance is degraded.

For each <layers>/<layer>.toml file that specifies launch = true,

  1. If a corresponding <layers>/<layer> directory is present locally,
    Then the lifecycle MUST
    1. Convert this directory to a layer.
    2. Transfer the layer to the same image store as the old OCI image.
    3. Ensure the absolute path of <layers>/<layer> is preserved in the transferred layer.
    4. Collect a reference to the transferred layer.
  2. If a corresponding <layers>/<layer> directory is not present locally,
    Then the lifecycle MUST
    1. Attempt to locate the corresponding layer in the old OCI image.
    2. Collect a reference to the located layer or fail export if no such layer can be found.
  3. The lifecycle MUST store the <layers>/<layer>.toml file so that
    • It is associated with or contained within the new OCI image,
    • It is associated with the buildpack ID of the buildpack that created it, and
    • It is associated with the collected layer reference.

Next, the lifecycle MUST store <layers>/store.toml so that it is associated with or contained within the new OCI image.

Subsequently,

  1. For <app>, the lifecycle MUST
    1. Convert the directory into one or more layers using slices in each launch.toml such that slices from earlier buildpacks are processed before slices from later buildpacks.
    2. Transfer the layers to the same image store as the old OCI image.
    3. Ensure all absolute paths are preserved in the transferred layer(s).
    4. Collect references to the transferred layers.
  2. The lifecycle MUST construct the new OCI image such that the image is composed of
    • All new <layers>/<layer> filesystem layers transferred by the lifecycle,
    • All old <layers>/<layer> filesystem layers from the old OCI image,
    • All <app> filesystem layers,
    • One or more filesystem layers containing
      • The ordered buildpack IDs and
      • A combined processes list derived from all launch.toml files such that process types from later buildpacks override identical process types from earlier buildpacks,
    • The run image filesystem layers,
    • The executable component of the lifecycle that implements the launch phase, and
    • An ENTRYPOINT set to that component.

Finally, any <layers>/<layer> directories specified as cache = true in <layers>/<layer>.toml MAY be preserved for the next local build. For any <layers>/<layer>.toml files specifying both cache = true and launch = true, the lifecycle SHOULD store a checksum of the corresponding <layers>/<layer> directory so that it is associated with the locally cached directory. This allows the analysis phase to efficiently compare the locally cached layer with the corresponding old OCI image layer before the next build.

Launch

Purpose

The purpose of launch is to modify the running app environment using app-provided or buildpack-provided logic and start a user-provided or buildpack-provided process.

Process

GIVEN:

  • An OCI image exported by the lifecycle,
  • A shell, if needed,

First, the lifecycle MUST locate a start command and choose an execution strategy.

To locate a start command, the lifecycle MUST follow the process outlined in the Platform Interface Specification.

To choose an execution strategy,

  1. If a buildpack-provided process type is chosen as the start command,

    1. If the process type has direct set to false,

      1. If the process has one or more args Then the lifecycle MUST invoke a command using the shell, where command and each entry in args are shell-parsed tokens in the command.
      2. If the process has zero args Then the lifecycle MUST invoke the value of command as a command using the shell.
    2. If the process type does have direct set to true, Then the lifecycle MUST invoke the value of command using the execve syscall with values of args provided as arguments.

  2. If a user-defined process type is chosen as the start command, Then the lifecycle MUST select an execution strategy as described in the Platform Interface Specification.

Given the start command and execution strategy,

  1. The lifecycle MUST set all buildpack-provided launch environment variables as described in the Environment section.

  2. The lifecycle MUST

    1. execute each file in each <layers>/<layer>/exec.d directory in the launch environment and set the returned variables in the launch environment before continuing,
      1. Firstly, in order of /bin/build execution used to construct the OCI image.
      2. Secondly, in alphabetically ascending order by layer directory name.
      3. Thirdly, in alphabetically ascending order by file name.
    2. execute each file in each <layers>/<layer>/exec.d/<process> directory in the launch environment and set the returned variables in the launch environment before continuing,
      1. Firstly, in order of /bin/build execution used to construct the OCI image.
      2. Secondly, in alphabetically ascending order by layer directory name.
      3. Thirdly, in alphabetically ascending order by file name.
  3. If using an execution strategy involving a shell, the lifecycle MUST use a single shell process to

    1. source each file in each <layers>/<layer>/profile.d directory,
      1. Firstly, in order of /bin/build execution used to construct the OCI image.
      2. Secondly, in alphabetically ascending order by layer directory name.
      3. Thirdly, in alphabetically ascending order by file name.
    2. source each file in each <layers>/<layer>/profile.d/<process> directory,
      1. Firstly, in order of /bin/build execution used to construct the OCI image.
      2. Secondly, in alphabetically ascending order by layer directory name.
      3. Thirdly, in alphabetically ascending order by file name.
    3. source <app>/.profile or <app>/.profile.bat if it is present.
  4. If using an execution strategy involving a shell, the lifecycle MUST source <app>/.profile or <app>/.profile.bat if it is present.

  5. The lifecycle MUST invoke the start command with the decided execution strategy.

When executing a process using any execution strategy, the lifecycle SHOULD replace the lifecycle process in memory without forking it.

When executing a process with Bash, the lifecycle SHOULD additionally replace the Bash process in memory without forking it.

When executing a process with Command Prompt, the lifecycle SHOULD start a new process with the same security context, terminal, working directory, STDIN/STDOUT/STDERR handles and environment variables as the Command Prompt process.

Environment

Provided by the Lifecycle

Buildpack Specific Variables

The following environment variables MUST be set by the lifecycle in each buildpack's execution environment.

These variables MAY differ between buildpacks.

Env Variable Description Detect Build Launch
CNB_BUILDPACK_DIR The root of the buildpack source [x] [x]

Layer Paths

The following layer path environment variables MUST be set by the lifecycle during the build and launch phases in order to make buildpack dependencies accessible.

During the build phase, each variable designated for build MUST contain absolute paths of all previous buildpacks’ <layers>/<layer>/ directories that are designated for build.

When the exported OCI image is launched, each variable designated for launch MUST contain absolute paths of all buildpacks’ <layers>/<layer>/ directories that are designated for launch.

In either case,

  • The lifecycle MUST order all <layer> paths to reflect the reversed order of the buildpack group.
  • The lifecycle MUST order all <layer> paths provided by a given buildpack alphabetically ascending.
  • The lifecycle MUST separate each path with the OS path list separator (e.g. : on Linux, ; on Windows).
Env Variable Layer Path Contents Build Launch
PATH /bin binaries [x] [x]
LD_LIBRARY_PATH /lib shared libraries [x] [x]
LIBRARY_PATH /lib static libraries [x]
CPATH /include header files [x]
PKG_CONFIG_PATH /pkgconfig pc files [x]

Provided by the Platform

The following additional environment variables MUST NOT be overridden by the lifecycle.

Env Variable Description Detect Build Launch
CNB_STACK_ID Chosen stack ID [x] [x]
BP_* User-provided variable for buildpack [x] [x]
BPL_* User-provided variable for profile.d or exec.d [x]
HOME Current user's home directory [x] [x] [x]

During the detection and build phases, the lifecycle MUST provide any user-provided environment variables as files in <platform>/env/ with file names and contents matching the environment variable names and contents.

When clear-env in buildpack.toml is set to true for a given buildpack, the lifecycle MUST NOT set user-provided environment variables in the environment of /bin/detect or /bin/build.

When clear-env in buildpack.toml is not set to true for a given buildpack, the lifecycle MUST set user-provided environment variables in the environment of /bin/detect or /bin/build such that:

  1. For layer path environment variables, user-provided values are prepended before any existing values and are delimited by the OS path list separator.
  2. For all other environment variables, user-provided values override any existing values.

Buildpacks MAY use the value of CNB_STACK_ID to modify their behavior when executed on different stacks.

The environment variable prefix CNB_ is reserved. It MUST NOT be used for environment variables that are not defined in this specification or approved extensions.

Provided by the Buildpacks

During the build phase, buildpacks MAY write environment variable files to <layers>/<layer>/env/, <layers>/<layer>/env.build/, and <layers>/<layer>/env.launch/ directories.

For each <layers>/<layer>/ designated as a build layer, for each file written to <layers>/<layer>/env/ or <layers>/<layer>/env.build/ by /bin/build, the lifecycle MUST modify an environment variable in subsequent executions of /bin/build according to the modification rules below.

For each file written to <layers>/<layer>/env.launch/ by /bin/build, the lifecycle MUST modify an environment variable when the OCI image is launched according to the modification rules below.

Environment Variable Modification Rules

The lifecycle MUST consider the name of the environment variable to be the name of the file up to the first period (.) or to the end of the name if no periods are present. In all cases, file contents MUST NOT be evaluated by a shell or otherwise modified before inclusion in environment variable values.

For each environment variable file the period-delimited suffix SHALL determine the modification behavior as follows.

Suffix Modification Behavior
none Override
.append Append
.default Default
.delim Delimeter
.override Override
.prepend Prepend
Append

The value of the environment variable MUST be a concatenation of the file contents and the contents of other files representing that environment variable. Within that environment variable value,

  • Earlier buildpacks' environment variable file contents MUST precede later buildpacks' environment variable file contents.
  • Environment variable file contents originating from the same buildpack MUST be sorted alphabetically ascending by associated layer name.
  • Environment variable file contents originating in the same layer MUST be sorted such that file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env/ precede file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env.build/ or <layers>/<layer>/env.launch/ which must precede file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env.launch/<process>/.
Default

The value of the environment variable MUST only be the file contents if the environment variable is empty. For that environment variable value,

  • Earlier buildpacks' environment default variable file contents MUST override later buildpacks' environment variable file contents.
  • For default environment variable file contents originating from the same buildpack, file contents that are earlier (when sorted alphabetically ascending by associated layer name) MUST override file contents that are later.
  • Default environment variable file contents originating in the same layer MUST be sorted such that file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env/ override file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env.build/ or <layers>/<layer>/env.launch/ which override file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env.launch/<process>/.
Delimiter

The file contents MUST be used to delimit any concatenation within the same layer involving that environment variable. This delimiter MUST override the delimiters below. If multiple operations apply to the same environment variable, all operations for a given layer containing environment variable files MUST be applied before subsequent layers are considered.

Override

The value of the environment variable MUST be the file contents. For that environment variable value,

  • Later buildpacks' environment variable file contents MUST override earlier buildpacks' environment variable file contents.
  • For environment variable file contents originating from the same buildpack, file contents that are later (when sorted alphabetically ascending by associated layer name) MUST override file contents that are earlier.
  • Environment variable file contents originating in the same layer MUST be sorted such that file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env.launch/<process>/ override file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env.build/ or <layers>/<layer>/env.launch/ which override file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env/.
Prepend

The value of the environment variable MUST be a concatenation of the file contents and the contents of other files representing that environment variable. Within that environment variable value,

  • Later buildpacks' environment variable file contents MUST precede earlier buildpacks' environment variable file contents.
  • Environment variable file contents originating from the same buildpack MUST be sorted alphabetically descending by associated layer name.
  • Environment variable file contents originating in the same layer MUST be sorted such that file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env.launch/<process>/ precede file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env.launch/ or <layers>/<layer>/env.build/, which must precede <layers>/<layer>/env/.

Security Considerations

A lifecycle may be used by a multi-tenant platform. On such a platform,

  • Buildpacks may potentially be provided by both operators and users.
  • OCI image storage credentials may potentially not be owned or managed by application developers.

Therefore, the following assumptions and requirements exist to prevent malicious buildpacks or applications from gaining unauthorized access to external resources.

Assumptions of Trust

Allowed:

  • The lifecycle MAY have access to credentials for reading and writing to OCI image stores.
  • Buildpacks MAY have access a copy of the application source code.
  • Buildpacks MAY execute application source code during the detection and build phases.

Prohibited:

  • The application source code MUST NOT have access to credentials for reading and writing to OCI image stores.
  • Buildpacks MUST NOT have access to credentials for reading and writing to OCI image stores.

Requirements

The lifecycle MUST be implemented so that the detection and build phases do not have access to OCI image store credentials used in the analysis and export phases. The lifecycle SHOULD be implemented so that each phase may run in a different container.

Data Format

launch.toml (TOML)

[[bom]]
name = "<dependency name>"

[bom.metadata]
# arbitrary metadata describing the dependency

[[labels]]
key = "<label key>"
value = "<label valu>"

[[processes]]
type = "<process type>"
command = "<command>"
args = ["<arguments>"]
direct = false

[[slices]]
paths = ["<app sub-path glob>"]

The buildpack MAY specify any number of bill-of-materials entries, labels, processes, or slices.

For each dependency contributed to the app image, the buildpack:

  • SHOULD add a bill-of-materials entry to the bom array describing the dependency, where:
    • name is REQUIRED.
    • metadata MAY contain additional data describing the dependency.

The buildpack MAY add bom describing the contents of the app dir, even if they were not contributed by the buildpack.

For each label, the buildpack:

  • MUST specify a key that is not identical to other labels provided by the same buildpack.
  • MUST specify a value to be set in the image label.

The lifecycle MUST add each label as an image label on the created image metadata.

If multiple buildpacks define labels with the same key, the lifecycle MUST use the last label defintion ordered by buildpack execution for the image label.

For each process, the buildpack:

  • MUST specify a type, which:
    • MUST NOT be identical to other process types provided by the same buildpack.
    • MUST only contain numbers, letters, and the characters ., _, and -.
  • MUST specify a command that is either:
    • A command sequence that is valid when executed using the shell, if args is not specified.
    • A path to an executable or the file name of an executable in $PATH, if args is a list with zero or more elements.
  • MAY specify an args list to be passed directly to the specified executable.
  • MAY specify a direct boolean that bypasses the shell.

For each slice, buildpacks MUST specify zero or more path globs such that each path is either:

  • Relative to the root of the app directory without traversing outside of the app directory.
  • Absolute and contained within the app directory.

Path globs MUST:

  • Follow the pattern syntax defined in the Go standard library.
  • Match zero or more files or directories.

The lifecycle MUST process each slice as if all files matched in preceding slices no longer exists in the app directory.

The lifecycle MUST accept slices that do not contain any files or directory. However, the lifecycle MAY warn about such slices.

The lifecycle MUST include all unmatched files in the app directory in any number of additional layers in the OCI image.

build.toml (TOML)

[[bom]]
name = "<dependency name>"

[bom.metadata]
# arbitrary metadata describing the dependency

[[unmet]]
name = "<dependency name>"

For each dependency contributed by the buildpack to the build environment, the buildpack:

  • SHOULD add a bill-of-materials entry to the bom array describing the dependency, where:
    • name is REQUIRED.

For each unmet entry in the Buildpack Plan, the buildpack:

  • SHOULD add an entry to unmet.

For each entry in unmet:

  • name MUST match an entry in the Buildpack Plan.

store.toml (TOML)

[metadata]
# buildpack-specific data

Build Plan (TOML)

[[provides]]
name = "<dependency name>"

[[requires]]
name = "<dependency name>"

[requires.metadata]
# buildpack-specific data

[[or]]

[[or.provides]]
name = "<dependency name>"

[[or.requires]]
name = "<dependency name>"

[or.requires.metadata]
# buildpack-specific data

Buildpack Plan (TOML)

[[entries]]
name = "<dependency name>"

[entries.metadata]
# buildpack-specific data

Layer Content Metadata (TOML)

launch = false
build = false
cache = false

[metadata]
# buildpack-specific data

For a given layer, the buildpack MAY specify:

  • Whether the layer is cached, intended for build, and/or intended for launch.
  • Metadata that describes the layer contents.

buildpack.toml (TOML)

This section describes the 'Buildpack descriptor'.

api = "<buildpack API version>"

[buildpack]
id = "<buildpack ID>"
name = "<buildpack name>"
version = "<buildpack version>"
homepage = "<buildpack homepage>"
clear-env = false

[[order]]
[[order.group]]
id = "<buildpack ID>"
version = "<buildpack version>"
optional = false

[[stacks]]
id = "<stack ID>"
mixins = ["<mixin name>"]

[metadata]
# buildpack-specific data

Buildpack authors MUST choose a globally unique ID, for example: "io.buildpacks.ruby".

The buildpack ID:

Key: id = "<buildpack ID>"

  • MUST only contain numbers, letters, and the characters ., /, and -.
  • MUST NOT be config or app.
  • MUST NOT be identical to any other buildpack ID when using a case-insensitive comparison.

The buildpack version:

  • MUST be in the form <X>.<Y>.<Z> where X, Y, and Z are non-negative integers and must not contain leading zeros.
    • Each element MUST increase numerically.
    • Buildpack authors will define what changes will increment X, Y, and Z.

If an order is specified, then stacks MUST NOT be specified.

The buildpack API:

Key: api = "<buildpack API version>"

  • MUST be in form <major>.<minor> or <major>, where <major> is equivalent to <major>.0
  • MUST describe the implemented buildpack API.
  • SHOULD indicate the lowest compatible <minor> if buildpack behavior is consistent with multiple <minor> versions of a given <major>

Buildpack Implementations

A buildpack descriptor that specifies stacks MUST describe a buildpack that implements the Buildpack Interface.

Each stack in stacks either:

  • MUST identify a compatible stack:
    • id MUST be set to a valid stack ID.
    • mixins MAY contain one or more mixin names.
  • Or MUST indicate compatibility with any stack:
    • id MUST be set to the special value "*".
    • mixins MUST be empty.

Order Buildpacks

A buildpack descriptor that specifies order MUST be resolvable into an ordering of buildpacks that implement the Buildpack Interface.

A buildpack reference inside of a group MUST contain an id and version.

Exec.d Output (TOML)

<name> = "<value>"

The output from an exec.d script MAY contain any number of top-level key/value pairs.

Each name:

  • MUST be a bare key.
  • MUST be a valid environment variable name on the runtime operating system.

Each key:

Deprecations

This section describes all the features that are deprecated.

0.3

Build Plan (TOML) requires.version Key

The requires.version and or.requires.version keys are deprecated.

[[requires]]
name = "<dependency name>"
version = "<dependency version>"

[[or.requires]]
name = "<dependency name>"
version = "dependency version>"

To upgrade, buildpack authors SHOULD set requires.version as requires.metadata.version and or.requires.version as or.requires.metadata.version.

[[requires]]
name = "<dependency name>"

[requires.metadata]
version = "<dependency version>"

[[or.requires]]
name = "<dependency name>"

[or.requires.metadata]
version = "<dependency version>"

If requires.version and requires.metadata.version or or.requires.version and or.requires.metadata.version are both defined then lifecycle will fail.

For backwards compatibility, the lifecycle will produce a Buildpack Plan (TOML) that puts version in entries.metadata as long as version does not exist in requires.metadata.

[[entries]]
name = "<dependency name>"

[entries.metadata]
version = "<dependency version>"