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May 28, 2021
May 25, 2021

Sonic

A blazingly fast JSON serializing & deserializing library, accelerated by JIT (just-in-time compiling) and SIMD (single-instruction-multiple-data).

Requirement

  • Go 1.15/1.16/1.17
  • Linux/darwin OS
  • Amd64 CPU with AVX instruction set

Features

  • Runtime object binding without code generation
  • Complete APIs for JSON value manipulation
  • Fast, fast, fast!

Benchmarks

For all sizes of json and all scenarios of usage, Sonic performs best.

  • Medium (13KB, 300+ key, 6 layers)
goversion: 1.17.1
goos: darwin
goarch: amd64
cpu: Intel(R) Core(TM) i9-9880H CPU @ 2.30GHz
BenchmarkEncoder_Generic_Sonic-16                      42688 ns/op         305.36 MB/s       15608 B/op          4 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Generic_Sonic_Fast-16                 30043 ns/op         433.87 MB/s       14638 B/op          4 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Generic_JsonIter-16                   46461 ns/op         280.56 MB/s       13433 B/op         77 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Generic_GoJson-16                     73608 ns/op         177.09 MB/s       23219 B/op         16 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Generic_StdLib-16                    122622 ns/op         106.30 MB/s       49137 B/op        827 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Binding_Sonic-16                       8190 ns/op        1591.61 MB/s       16175 B/op          4 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Binding_Sonic_Fast-16                  7365 ns/op        1769.85 MB/s       14367 B/op          4 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Binding_JsonIter-16                   23326 ns/op         558.81 MB/s        9487 B/op          2 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Binding_GoJson-16                      9412 ns/op        1384.93 MB/s        9480 B/op          1 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Binding_StdLib-16                     18510 ns/op         704.22 MB/s        9479 B/op          1 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Parallel_Generic_Sonic-16              7716 ns/op        1689.37 MB/s       12812 B/op          4 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Parallel_Generic_Sonic_Fast-16         4791 ns/op        2720.47 MB/s       10884 B/op          4 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Parallel_Generic_JsonIter-16          10505 ns/op        1240.85 MB/s       13455 B/op         77 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Parallel_Generic_GoJson-16            24086 ns/op         541.19 MB/s       23379 B/op         17 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Parallel_Generic_StdLib-16            65697 ns/op         198.41 MB/s       49164 B/op        827 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Parallel_Binding_Sonic-16              2085 ns/op        6251.53 MB/s       12933 B/op          4 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Parallel_Binding_Sonic_Fast-16         1612 ns/op        8087.31 MB/s       11177 B/op          4 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Parallel_Binding_JsonIter-16           6169 ns/op        2112.84 MB/s        9494 B/op          2 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Parallel_Binding_GoJson-16             3492 ns/op        3733.14 MB/s        9492 B/op          1 allocs/op
BenchmarkEncoder_Parallel_Binding_StdLib-16             5170 ns/op        2521.50 MB/s        9482 B/op          1 allocs/op

BenchmarkDecoder_Generic_Sonic-16                      69966 ns/op         186.30 MB/s       49543 B/op        313 allocs/op
BenchmarkDecoder_Generic_StdLib-16                    146902 ns/op          88.73 MB/s       50872 B/op        772 allocs/op
BenchmarkDecoder_Generic_JsonIter-16                  101592 ns/op         128.31 MB/s       55783 B/op       1068 allocs/op
BenchmarkDecoder_Generic_GoJson-16                     97865 ns/op         133.19 MB/s       66367 B/op        973 allocs/op
BenchmarkDecoder_Binding_Sonic-16                      31418 ns/op         414.90 MB/s       24779 B/op         34 allocs/op
BenchmarkDecoder_Binding_StdLib-16                    131260 ns/op          99.31 MB/s       10576 B/op        208 allocs/op
BenchmarkDecoder_Binding_JsonIter-16                   39298 ns/op         331.70 MB/s       14673 B/op        385 allocs/op
BenchmarkDecoder_Binding_GoJson-16                     31852 ns/op         409.24 MB/s       22040 B/op         49 allocs/op
BenchmarkDecoder_Parallel_Generic_Sonic-16             10525 ns/op        1238.44 MB/s       49470 B/op        313 allocs/op
BenchmarkDecoder_Parallel_Generic_StdLib-16            60223 ns/op         216.44 MB/s       50875 B/op        772 allocs/op
BenchmarkDecoder_Parallel_Generic_JsonIter-16          60918 ns/op         213.97 MB/s       55817 B/op       1068 allocs/op
BenchmarkDecoder_Parallel_Generic_GoJson-16            48386 ns/op         269.39 MB/s       66425 B/op        974 allocs/op
BenchmarkDecoder_Parallel_Binding_Sonic-16              7319 ns/op        1781.00 MB/s       24889 B/op         34 allocs/op
BenchmarkDecoder_Parallel_Binding_StdLib-16            40494 ns/op         321.90 MB/s       10575 B/op        208 allocs/op
BenchmarkDecoder_Parallel_Binding_JsonIter-16          18840 ns/op         691.89 MB/s       14679 B/op        385 allocs/op
BenchmarkDecoder_Parallel_Binding_GoJson-16            17078 ns/op         763.28 MB/s       22211 B/op         49 allocs/op

BenchmarkGetOne_Sonic-16                               11328 ns/op        1149.64 MB/s          29 B/op          1 allocs/op
BenchmarkGetOne_Gjson-16                               12970 ns/op        1004.07 MB/s           0 B/op          0 allocs/op
BenchmarkGetOne_Jsoniter-16                            59928 ns/op         217.31 MB/s       27936 B/op        647 allocs/op
BenchmarkGetOne_Parallel_Sonic-16                       1447 ns/op        9002.23 MB/s         114 B/op          1 allocs/op
BenchmarkGetOne_Parallel_Gjson-16                       1171 ns/op        11125.73 MB/s          0 B/op          0 allocs/op
BenchmarkGetOne_Parallel_Jsoniter-16                   15545 ns/op         837.75 MB/s       27940 B/op        647 allocs/op
BenchmarkSetOne_Sonic-16                               16922 ns/op         769.57 MB/s        1936 B/op         17 allocs/op
BenchmarkSetOne_Sjson-16                               42683 ns/op         305.11 MB/s       52181 B/op          9 allocs/op
BenchmarkSetOne_Jsoniter-16                            91104 ns/op         142.95 MB/s       45861 B/op        964 allocs/op
BenchmarkSetOne_Parallel_Sonic-16                       2065 ns/op        6305.03 MB/s        2383 B/op         17 allocs/op
BenchmarkSetOne_Parallel_Sjson-16                      11526 ns/op        1129.87 MB/s       52175 B/op          9 allocs/op
BenchmarkSetOne_Parallel_Jsoniter-16                   35044 ns/op         371.61 MB/s       45887 B/op        964 allocs/op
  • Small (400B, 11 keys, 3 layers) small benchmarks
  • Large (635KB, 10000+ key, 6 layers) large benchmarks

See bench.sh for benchmark codes.

How it works

See INTRODUCTION.md.

Usage

Marshal/Unmarshal

Default behaviors are mostly consistent with encoding/json, except HTML escaping form (see Escape HTML) and SortKeys feature (optional support see Sort Keys) that is NOT in conformity to RFC8259.

import "github.com/bytedance/sonic"

var data YourSchema
// Marshal
output, err := sonic.Marshal(&data) 
// Unmarshal
err := sonic.Unmarshal(output, &data) 

Use Number/Use Int64

import "github.com/bytedance/sonic/decoder"

var input = `1`
var data interface{}

// default float64
dc := decoder.NewDecoder(input) 
dc.Decode(&data) // data == float64(1)
// use json.Number
dc = decoder.NewDecoder(input)
dc.UseNumber()
dc.Decode(&data) // data == json.Number("1")
// use int64
dc = decoder.NewDecoder(input)
dc.UseInt64()
dc.Decode(&data) // data == int64(1)

root, err := sonic.GetFromString(input)
// Get json.Number
jn := root.Number()
jm := root.InterfaceUseNumber().(json.Number) // jn == jm
// Get float64
fn := root.Float64()
fm := root.Interface().(float64) // jn == jm

Sort Keys

On account of the performance loss from sorting (roughly 10%), sonic doesn't enable this feature by default. If your component depends on it to work (like zstd), Use it like this:

import "github.com/bytedance/sonic"
import "github.com/bytedance/sonic/encoder"

// Binding map only
m := map[string]interface{}{}
v, err := encoder.Encode(m, encoder.SortMapKeys)

// Or ast.Node.SortKeys() before marshal
var root := sonic.Get(JSON)
err := root.SortKeys()

Escape HTML

On account of the performance loss (roughly 15%), sonic doesn't enable this feature by default. You can use encoder.EscapeHTML option to open this feature (align with encoding/json.HTMLEscape).

import "github.com/bytedance/sonic"

v := map[string]string{"&&":{"<>"}}
ret, err := Encode(v, EscapeHTML) // ret == `{"\u0026\u0026":{"X":"\u003c\u003e"}}`

Optimization Options

  • encoder.NoCompactMarshaler

When marshaling json.RawMessage or json.Marshaler, sonic ensures validating and compacting their output JSON string. The higher the ratio of these kinds of data is, the much this feature impacts encoding performance. Therefore, we provide option encoder.NoCompactMarshaler to skip the compacting process, which means your marshaler's outputs MUST be valid JSON. If not, Undocumented Behavior may happen.

  • encoder.NoQuoteTextMarshaler

We also provide option encoder.NoQuoteTextMarshaler to avoid quoting the output string of encoding.TextMarshaler.

Print Syntax Error

import "github.com/bytedance/sonic"
import "github.com/bytedance/sonic/decoder"

var data interface{}
err := sonic.Unmarshal("[[[}]]", &data)
if err != nil {
    /*one line by default*/
    println(e.Error())) // "Syntax error at index 3: invalid char\n\n\t[[[}]]\n\t...^..\n"
    /*pretty print*/
    if e, ok := err.(decoder.SyntaxError); ok {
        /*Syntax error at index 3: invalid char

            [[[}]]
            ...^..
        */
        print(e.Description())
    }
}

Ast.Node

Sonic/ast.Node is a completely self-contained AST for JSON. It implements serialization and deserialization both, and provides robust APIs for obtaining and modification of generic data.

Get/Index

Search partial JSON by given paths, which must be non-negative integer or string or nil

import "github.com/bytedance/sonic"

input := []byte(`{"key1":[{},{"key2":{"key3":[1,2,3]}}]}`)

// no path, returns entire json
root, err := sonic.Get(input)
raw := root.Raw() // == string(input)

// multiple pathes
root, err := sonic.Get(input, "key1", 1, "key2")
sub := root.Get("key3").Index(2).Int64() // == 3

Tip: since Index() uses offset to locate data, which is much faster than scanning like Get(), we suggest you use it as much as possible. And sonic also provides another API IndexOrGet() to underlying use offset as well as ensuring the key is matched.

Set/Unset

Modify the json content by Set()/Unset()

import "github.com/bytedance/sonic"

// Set
exist, err := root.Set("key4", NewBool(true)) // exist == false
alias1 := root.Get("key4") 
println(alias1.Valid()) // true
alias2 := root.Index(1)
println(alias1 == alias2) // true

// Unset
exist, err := root.UnsetByIndex(1) // exist == true
println(root.Get("key4").Check()) // "value not exist"

Serialize

To encode ast.Node as json, use MarshalJson() or json.Marshal() (MUST pass the node's pointer)

import (
    "encoding/json"
    "github.com/bytedance/sonic"
)

buf, err := root.MarshalJson()
println(string(buf))                // {"key1":[{},{"key2":{"key3":[1,2,3]}}]}
exp, err := json.Marshal(&root)     // WARN: use pointer
println(string(buf) == string(exp)) // true

APIs

  • validation: Check(), Error(), Valid(), Exist()
  • searching: Index(), Get(), IndexPair(), IndexOrGet(), GetByPath()
  • go-type casting: Int64(), Float64(), String(), Number(), Bool(), Map[UseNumber|UseNode](), Array[UseNumber|UseNode](), Interface[UseNumber|UseNode]()
  • go-type packing: NewRaw(), NewNumber(), NewNull(), NewBool(), NewString(), NewObject(), NewArray()
  • iteration: Values(), Properties(), ForEach(), SortKeys()
  • modification: Set(), SetByIndex(), Add()

Tips

Pretouch

Since Sonic uses golang-asm as a JIT assembler, which is NOT very suitable for runtime compiling, first-hit running of a huge schema may cause request-timeout or even process-OOM. For better stability, we advise to use Pretouch() for huge-schema or compact-memory application before Marshal()/Unmarshal().

import (
    "reflect"
    "github.com/bytedance/sonic"
    "github.com/bytedance/sonic/option"
 )
 
 func init() {
     var v HugeStruct
    // For most large types (nesting depth <= 5)
     err := sonic.Pretouch(reflect.TypeOf(v))
    // If the type is too deep nesting (nesting depth > 5),
    // you can set compile recursive depth in Pretouch for better stability in JIT.
    err := sonic.Pretouch(reflect.TypeOf(v), option.WithCompileRecursiveDepth(depth))

Accelerate json.RawMessage\json.Marshaler\encoding.TextMarshaler

To ensure data security, sonic.Encoder validates and escapes JSON values from these interfaces by default, which may degrade performance much if most of your data is in form of them. We provide two options encoder.NoCompactMarshaler (for json.RawMessage\json.Marshaler) and encoder.NoQuoteTextMarshaler (for encoding.TextMarshaler) to avoid validating and escaping operations, which means you MUST ensure the validity of JSON values from these interfaces by your own.

Pass string or []byte?

For alignment to encoding/json, we provide API to pass []byte as an argument, but the string-to-bytes copy is conducted at the same time considering safety, which may lose performance when origin JSON is huge. Therefore, you can use UnmarshalString and GetFromString to pass a string, as long as your origin data is a string or nocopy-cast is safe for your []byte.

Better performance for generic data

In fully-parsed scenario, Unmarshal() performs better than Get()+Node.Interface(). But if you only have a part of schema for specific json, you can combine Get() and Unmarshal() together:

import "github.com/bytedance/sonic"

node, err := sonic.GetFromString(_TwitterJson, "statuses", 3, "user")
var user User // your partial schema...
err = sonic.UnmarshalString(node.Raw(), &user)

Even if you don't have any schema, use ast.Node as the container of generic values instead of map or interface:

import "github.com/bytedance/sonic"

root, err := sonic.GetFromString(_TwitterJson)
user := root.GetByPath("statuses", 3, "user")  // === root.Get("status").Index(3).Get("user")
err = user.Check()

// err = user.LoadAll() // only call this when you want to use 'user' concurrently...
go someFunc(user)

Why? Because ast.Node stores its children using array:

  • Array's performance is much better than Map when Inserting (Deserialize) and Scanning (Serialize) data;
  • Hashing (map[x]) is not as efficient as Indexing (array[x]), which ast.Node can conduct on both array and object;
  • Using Interface()/Map() means Sonic must parse all the underlying values, while ast.Node can parse them on demand.

CAUTION: ast.Node DOESN'T ensure concurrent security directly, due to its lazy-load design. However, your can call Node.Load()/Node.LoadAll() to achieve that, which may bring performance reduction while it still works faster than converting to map or interface{}