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After getting deployment working on my own server, I thought I'd document the steps I took to getting a generally setup webserver on Linode. This series of steps will install git and nginx on a new server (specifically I will be using Ubuntu 10.4 LTS on Linode). Gitosis will also be setup for external access, and deployment script setup so that pushes to a repository will also update a working copy. My local machine is OSX.

First login and personal user

First step with a new server installation is to get connected and upgrade to latest packages for what's installed already.

apt-get update
apt-get upgrade

We also need to create a new user, and I also copy across the bash settings from root, as they enable a colour terminal and other goodies. Of course if you have your own shell configuration you want to use, you'll know how to set that up. We also need to add our personal user to the sudoers list with visudo.

adduser <username>
cp /root/.bashrc /home/<username>/.bashrc

Below root, add a similar line like so: ALL=(ALL) ALL


We can reconnect to the server as our own user account now, or use su. We need to create an .ssh directory in the home directory.

mkdir ~/.ssh

On your own machine generate a public/private key pair if you don't have one, or want a seperate one.

ssh-keygen -C <user-identifier>

Then copy this key onto your server into the .ssh directory. Now we don't need to provide a password when using ssh, scp, or git. If you've used a passphrase with your key, you will be prompted for it. On OSX you can use keychain functionality to store it, or ssh-agent on OSX or *nix.

scp ~/.ssh/ <username>

Securing SSH

At the moment our server is accepting all password attempts for ssh, and root logins. It's common sense to lock this down a bit to reduce the security risks. The config can be editted like so:

sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

I usually disable both RootLogin and PasswordAuthentication to be quite safe. Disabling PasswordAuthentication means you must have ssh keys already shared in order to login to the server. Alternatively to reduce risk, you can change the ssh port to thwart bots that attack public ssh on 22.

PermitRootLogin no
PasswordAuthentication no

Once configured, restart sshd with the following command.

sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart


Nginx is a lightweight webserver that can easily serve static content and forward requests onto other local services for dynamic content.

sudo apt-get install nginx
sudo /etc/init.d/nginx start

The configuration file can be edited inside etc. The default contains some examples of different configurations, and you can declare multiple virtual hosts in the same file.

sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/default

I will be setting my default sites directory to /home/<username>/www. Once your configuration is done, you can tell nginx to reload the config with the following command.

sudo nginx -s reload

It's a good idea after changing configuration to make sure it's all setup, although nginx will complain at you if the configuration file is not syntactically valid.

mkdir ~/www
echo "Hello from Nginx." > ~/www/index.html


Next step is to install git-core and gitosis so we can host repositories. The following script installs the dependencies, sets up a user for git, and initialises gitosis in the new users home directory, with your own ssh key used as the first authorised user (using path from earlier, change if necessary).

sudo apt-get install git-core gitosis

sudo adduser \
  --system \
  --shell /bin/sh \
  --gecos 'git version control' \
  --group \
  --disabled-password \
  --home /home/git \

sudo -H -u git gitosis-init < ~/.ssh/authorized_keys2

On your local machine you can then pull down gitosis-admin, and configure remotely using git.

git clone

This will give a directory with a configuration file, and a keys directory for adding new public keys as authorised for access.

Deployment Test Repo

For now we'll create a test_deploy repository. To do this we'll need to add a group to our gitosis configuration as below. Your user identifier is used in the gitosis-admin group declaration, but can also be found by looking at the end of your public key file.

[group deploy-test]
writable = deploy_test
members = <user-identifier>

Then we can push the new configuration to the server.

git commit -am "Allow creation of deploy_test repo."
git push

And then we can setup a local repo and push its contents to our new remote repo.

mkdir deploy_test
cd deploy_test
git init
echo "Hello from deploy_test" > index.html
git add .
git commit -am "First Commit"
git remote add origin
git push
git pull origin master

Auto deployment (single user)

If having your deployments owned by the git user is ok for your needs, then you can pull your application into a directory owned by git.

sudo su git -c 'git clone /home/git/repositories/deploy_test.git /home/git/www'

You can also change your nginx configuration so your site is pointing at this new directory. For deployment, skip to post-update hook.

Auto deployment (multi-user)

If we want to deploy our code under different users than the git user, then we have a little bit of gymnastics to perform. The choice is either to have git and your other users in the same group, and make sure all files are in the appropriate group and permissions set. The other option is detailed below, which is to create an executable to perform a git pull, and use the SUID bit to perform it as our user during the post-update hook.

We can't do this in a script as the linux kernel ignores the SUID bit on scripts for security reasons. First we make sure to have gcc and libc6-dev installed so we can compile the executable.

sudo apt-get install gcc libc6-dev
nano ~/gitpull.c

The code for our executable then looks like this:

#include <unistd.h>

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
  if (argc == 1) return 0;
  system("git pull");
  return 0;

All this does is move to a provided directory and perform a git pull. Now we need to lock this binary to be only executable, and set the SUID option.

gcc gitpull.c -o gitpull
chmod 111
chmod u+s gitpull

We also need to pull our repo into www.

rm -rf ~/www
git clone /home/git/repositories/deploy_test.git ~/www

post-update hook

Now we have our target git copy, we just need to create the post-update hook for git to execute.

cd /home/git/repositories/deploy_test.git/hooks
sudo cp post-update.sample post-update
sudo nano post-update

If you have created the executable for performing the pull, you can use the script below (pointing appropriately to the gitpull binary and the repo).

unset GIT_DIR
/home/<username>/gitpull "/home/<username>/www"
set GIT_DIR = "."
exec git-update-server-info

Otherwise the following script can be used.

unset GIT_DIR
cd /home/<username>/www
git pull
set GIT_DIR = "."
exec git-update-server-info

And now we can deploy to our website with a simple git push!

chris-mbp:deploy_test chris$ echo "Change :o" > index.htm
chris-mbp:deploy_test chris$ git commit -am "Deploy test"
[master 956589b] Deploy test
 1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-)
chris-mbp:deploy_test chris$ git push
Counting objects: 5, done.
Writing objects: 100% (3/3), 247 bytes, done.
Total 3 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
remote: From /home/git/repositories/deploy_test
remote:    613b710..956589b  master     -> origin/master
remote: Updating 613b710..956589b
remote: Fast-forward
remote:  index.htm |    2 +-
remote:  1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-)
   1e1a850..956589b  master -> master

I hope this has been helpful!