Lineage calling can identify antibiotic resistant clones within minutes
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RASE - Resistance-Associated Sequence Elements

This repository contains data, code, and supplementary information for the manuscript Lineage calling can identify antibiotic resistant clones within minutes. For interactive browsing, see laso the associated CodeOcean capsule.


Brinda K, Callendrello A, Cowley L, Charalampous T, Lee R S, MacFadden D R, Kucherov G, O'Grady J, Baym M, Hanage W P. Lineage calling can identify antibiotic resistant clones within minutes. bioRxiv 403204, 2018. doi:10.1101/403204


Surveillance of circulating drug resistant bacteria is essential for healthcare providers to deliver effective empiric antibiotic therapy. However, the results of surveillance may not be available on a timescale that is optimal for guiding patient treatment. Here we present a method for inferring characteristics of an unknown bacterial sample by identifying the presence of sequence variation across the genome that is linked to a phenotype of interest, in this case drug resistance. We demonstrate an implementation of this principle using sequence k-mer content, matched to a database of known genomes. We show this technique can be applied to data from an Oxford Nanopore device in real time and is capable of identifying the presence of a known resistant strain in 5 minutes, even from a complex metagenomic sample. This flexible approach has wide application to pathogen surveillance and may be used to greatly accelerate diagnoses of resistant infections.

Overview of the RASE method


  • Results of the RASE pipeline for all experiments from the paper (SP01-SP12) are available in the directory rase-pipeline-results . The prediction, plots, and benchmarks subdirectories contain prediction time tables, the resulting plots (rank plots for t=1m, 5m, last m and timeline plot for each experiment), and Snakemake benchmarks (time and memory used for individual steps of the pipeline).
  • Constructed RASE databases: The databases are provided as releases in the RASE-DB repository.
  • Tables: Tables and supplementary tables are located in the directory tables.
  • Figures: Figures and supplementary figures are located in the directory figures.
  • Sequencing data are available from For the metagenomic experiments, only the filtered datasets (i.e., after removing the remaining human reads in silico) were made publicly available.
  • Lab notebooks (sequencing of isolates (SP01-SP06) and additional MIC testing) are available from the directory lab-notebooks.


Other links

  • ProPhyle. DNA sequence classifier used by RASE.
  • Prophex. k-mer index based on the Burrows-Wheeler Transform, used by ProPhyle.


All computational steps from the paper are fully reproducible. First, reproduce the RASE computational environment (based on BioConda). Then you can either download the precomputed RASE database, or create it from scratch. Finally, you can reproduce the predictions using the RASE prediction pipeline with the published nanopore reads.




Karel Brinda <>