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D2Refine is a clinical study metadata harmonization and validation workbench based on OpenRefine (formerly Google Refine). It leverages the simple spreadsheet like interface of OpenRefine to describe clinical models as row and columns. The dataset definition is represented as list of variables and the restrictions or constraints on them.
D2Refine platform includes a collection of the OpenRefine plugins that augment OpenRefine with following capabilities:

More Information available at D2Refine Wiki

Triangle View

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System Architecture

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  • Sharma DK, Solbrig HR, Prud'hommeaux E, Lee K, Pathak J, Jiang G. D2Refine: A Platform for Clinical Research Study Data Element Harmonization and Standardization. AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc. 2017 Jul 26;2017:259-267. eCollection 2017. PubMed

  • Sharma DK, Peterson KJ, Hong N, Jiang G. The D2Refine Platform for the Standardization of Clinical Research Study Data Dictionaries: Usability Study. JMIR Hum Factors. 2018 Jul 25;5(3):e10205. doi: 10.2196/10205. PubMed