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1 // $Id: INSTALL.txt,v 1.80 2010/04/30 08:09:21 dries Exp $
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2
3 CONTENTS OF THIS FILE
4 ---------------------
5
6 * Requirements
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7 * Optional tasks
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8 * Installation
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9 * Drupal administration
10 * Customizing your theme(s)
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11 * Multisite configuration
12 * More information
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13
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14 REQUIREMENTS
15 ------------
16
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17 Drupal requires:
18
19 - a web server, Apache (version 2.0 or greater) is recommended,
20 - PHP 5 (5.2.0 or greater) (http://www.php.net/),
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21 - and either MySQL (5.0.15 or greater) (http://www.mysql.com/), PostgreSQL (8.3
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22 or greater) (http://www.postgresql.org/), or SQLite (3.4.2 or greater)
23 (http://www.sqlite.org/).
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24
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25 For more detailed information about Drupal requirements, including a list of
26 PHP extensions and configurations that are required, see "System requirements"
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27 (http://drupal.org/requirements) in the Drupal handbook.
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28
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29 For detailed information on how to configure a test server environment using
30 a variety of operating systems and web servers, see "Local server setup"
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31 (http://drupal.org/node/157602) in the Drupal handbook.
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32
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33 OPTIONAL TASKS
34 --------------
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35
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36 - To use XML-based services such as the Blogger API and RSS syndication,
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37 you will need PHP's XML extension. This extension is enabled by default.
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38
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39 - To use Drupal's "Clean URLs" feature on an Apache web server, you will need
40 the mod_rewrite module and the ability to use local .htaccess files. For
41 Clean URLs support on IIS, see "Using Clean URLs with IIS"
42 (http://drupal.org/node/3854) in the Drupal handbook.
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43
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44 - Various Drupal features require that the web server process (for
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45 example, httpd) be able to initiate outbound connections. This is usually
46 possible, but some hosting providers or server configurations forbid such
47 connections. The features that depend on this functionality include the
48 integrated "Update status" module (which downloads information about
49 available updates of Drupal core and any installed contributed modules and
50 themes), the ability to log in via OpenID, fetching aggregator feeds, or
51 other network-dependent services.
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52
53
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54 INSTALLATION
55 ------------
56
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57 1. DOWNLOAD DRUPAL AND OPTIONALLY A TRANSLATION
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58
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59 You can obtain the latest Drupal release from http://drupal.org/. The files
60 are in .tar.gz format and can be extracted using most compression tools. On a
61 typical Unix command line, use:
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62
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63 wget http://drupal.org/files/projects/drupal-x.x.tar.gz
64 tar -zxvf drupal-x.x.tar.gz
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65
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66 This will create a new directory drupal-x.x/ containing all Drupal files
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67 and directories. Move the contents of that directory into a directory within
68 your web server's document root or your public HTML directory:
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69
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70 mv drupal-x.x/* drupal-x.x/.htaccess /var/www/html
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71
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72 If you would like to have the default English interface translated to a
73 different language, we have good news. You can install and use Drupal in
74 other languages from the start. Check whether a released package of the
75 language desired is available for this Drupal version at
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76 http://drupal.org/project/translations and download the package. Extract
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77 the contents to the same directory where you extracted Drupal into.
78
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79 2. CREATE THE CONFIGURATION FILE AND GRANT WRITE PERMISSIONS
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80
81 Drupal comes with a default.settings.php file in the sites/default
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82 directory. The installer uses this file as a template to create your
83 settings file using the details you provide through the install process.
84 To avoid problems when upgrading, Drupal is not packaged with an actual
85 settings file. You must create a file named settings.php. You may do so
86 by making a copy of default.settings.php (or create an empty file with
87 this name in the same directory). For example, (from the installation
88 directory) make a copy of the default.settings.php file with the command:
89
90 cp sites/default/default.settings.php sites/default/settings.php
91
92 Next, give the web server write privileges to the sites/default/settings.php
93 file with the command (from the installation directory):
94
95 chmod o+w sites/default/settings.php
96
97 So that the files directory can be created automatically, give the web server
98 write privileges to the sites/default directory with the command (from the
99 installation directory):
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100
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101 chmod o+w sites/default
102
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103 3. CREATE THE DRUPAL DATABASE
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104
105 Drupal requires access to a database in order to be installed. Your database
106 user will need sufficient privileges to run Drupal. Additional information
107 about privileges, and instructions to create a database using the command
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108 line are available in INSTALL.mysql.txt (for MySQL) or INSTALL.pgsql.txt
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109 (for PostgreSQL).
110
111 To create a database using PHPMyAdmin or a web-based control panel consult
112 the documentation or ask your webhost service provider.
113
114 Take note of the username, password, database name and hostname as you
115 create the database. You will enter these items in the install script.
116
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117 4. RUN THE INSTALL SCRIPT
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118
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119 To run the install script point your browser to the base URL of your website
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120 (e.g., http://www.example.com).
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121
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122 You will be guided through several screens to set up the database,
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123 create tables, add the site maintenance account (the first user, also known
124 as user/1), and provide basic web site settings.
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125
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126 The install script will attempt to create a files storage directory
127 in the default location at sites/default/files (the location of the
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128 files directory may be changed after Drupal is installed). In some
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129 cases, you may need to create the directory and modify its permissions
130 manually. Use the following commands (from the installation directory)
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131 to create the public and private files directories and grant the web server
132 write privileges to them:
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133
134 mkdir sites/default/files
135 chmod o+w sites/default/files
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136 mkdir sites/default/private
137 chmod o+w sites/default/private
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138
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139 The install script will attempt to write-protect the settings.php file and
140 the sites/default directory after saving your configuration. However, you
141 may need to manually write-protect them using the commands (from the
142 installation directory):
143
144 chmod a-w sites/default/settings.php
145 chmod a-w sites/default
146
147 If you make manual changes to the file later, be sure to protect it again
148 after making your modifications. Failure to remove write permissions to that
149 file is a security risk. Although the default location for the settings.php
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150 file is at sites/default/settings.php, it may be in another location
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151 if you use the multi-site setup, as explained below.
152
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153 5. CONFIGURE DRUPAL
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154
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155 When the install script succeeds, you will be directed to the "Welcome"
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156 page logged in with the site maintenance account. Proceed with the initial
157 configuration steps suggested on the "Welcome" page.
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158
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159 If the default Drupal theme is not displaying properly and links on the page
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160 result in "Page Not Found" errors, try manually setting the $base_url variable
161 in the settings.php file if not already set. It's currently known that servers
162 running FastCGI can run into problems if the $base_url variable is left
163 commented out (see http://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=19656).
164
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165 6. REVIEW FILE SYSTEM STORAGE SETTINGS AND FILE PERMISSIONS
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166
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167 The files directory created in step 4 is the default file system path used
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168 to store all uploaded files, as well as some temporary files created by Drupal.
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169 After installation, the settings for the file system path may be modified
170 to store uploaded files in a different location.
171
172 It is not necessary to modify this path, but you may wish to change it if:
173
174 * your site runs multiple Drupal installations from a single codebase
175 (modify the file system path of each installation to a different
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176 directory so that uploads do not overlap between installations); or,
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177
178 * your site runs a number of web server front-ends behind a load
179 balancer or reverse proxy (modify the file system path on each
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180 server to point to a shared file repository).
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181
182 To modify the file system path:
183
184 * Ensure that the new location for the path exists or create it if
185 necessary. To create a new directory named uploads, for example,
186 use the following command from a shell or system prompt (while in
187 the installation directory):
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188
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189 mkdir uploads
190
191 * Ensure that the new location for the path is writable by the web
192 server process. To grant write permissions for a directory named
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193 uploads, you may need to use the following command from a shell
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194 or system prompt (while in the installation directory):
195
196 chmod o+w uploads
197
198 * Access the file system path settings in Drupal by selecting these
199 menu items from the Navigation menu:
200
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201 Administer > Site configuration > File system
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202
203 Enter the path to the new location (e.g.: uploads) at the File
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204 System Path prompt.
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205
206 Changing the file system path after files have been uploaded may cause
207 unexpected problems on an existing site. If you modify the file system path
208 on an existing site, remember to copy all files from the original location
209 to the new location.
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210
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211 Some administrators suggest making the documentation files, especially
212 CHANGELOG.txt, non-readable so that the exact version of Drupal you are
213 running is slightly more difficult to determine. If you wish to implement
214 this optional security measure, use the following command from a shell or
215 system prompt (while in the installation directory):
216
217 chmod a-r CHANGELOG.txt
218
219 Note that the example only affects CHANGELOG.txt. To completely hide
220 all documentation files from public view, repeat this command for each of
221 the Drupal documentation files in the installation directory, substituting the
222 name of each file for CHANGELOG.txt in the example.
223
224 For more information on setting file permissions, see "Modifying Linux, Unix,
225 and Mac file permissions" (http://drupal.org/node/202483) or "Modifying
226 Windows file permissions" (http://drupal.org/node/202491) in the online
227 handbook.
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228
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229 7. CRON MAINTENANCE TASKS
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230
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231 Many Drupal modules have periodic tasks that must be triggered by a cron
232 maintenance task, including search module (to build and update the index
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233 used for keyword searching), aggregator module (to retrieve feeds from other
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234 sites), and system module (to perform routine maintenance and pruning on
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235 system tables).
236
237 For most sites, the built-in, automated cron feature should be sufficient.
238 Note, however, that cron tasks will only be executed when there are site
239 visitors. You can enable the built-in cron feature at:
240
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241 Administer > Configuration > System > Site information
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242
243 Advanced users may want to ensure that cron tasks are executed periodically.
244 To do this, visit the page "cron.php", which executes maintenance tasks on
245 behalf of installed modules. The URL of the cron.php page requires a "cron
246 key" to protect against unauthorized access.
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247 Each cron key is automatically generated during installation and is specific
248 to your site. The full URL of the page, with cron key, is available in the
249 "Cron maintenance tasks" section of the "Status report page" at:
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250
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251 Administer > Reports > Status report
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252
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253 Most systems support using a crontab utility for automatically executing
254 tasks like visiting the cron.php page. The following example crontab line
255 uses wget to automatically visit the cron.php page each hour, on the hour:
256
257 0 * * * * wget -O - -q -t 1 http://www.example.com/cron.php?cron_key=RANDOMTEXT
258
259 Replace the text "http://www.example.com/cron.php?cron_key=RANDOMTEXT" in the
260 example with the full URL displayed under "Cron maintenance tasks" on the
261 "Status report" page.
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262
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263 More information about cron maintenance tasks are available in the help pages
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264 and in Drupal's online handbook at http://drupal.org/cron. Example cron scripts
265 can be found in the scripts/ directory. (Note that these scripts must be
266 customized similar to the above example, to add your site-specific cron key
267 and domain name.)
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268
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269
270 BUILDING AND CUSTOMIZING YOUR SITE
271 ----------------------------------
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272
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273 A new installation of Drupal defaults to a very basic configuration with only a
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274 few active modules and minimal user access rights. When extending your site,
275 you use "modules" and "themes". A module is a plugin that adds functionallity to
276 Drupal, while a theme changes the front-end look and behavior of your site.
277
278 It is important to install these correctly and not mix them in with the core
279 Drupal module and theme set (directories modules and themes at the top level).
280 So normally you place them under the following paths:
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281
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282 Modules:
283 sites/all/modules/example_module
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284
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285 Themes:
286 sites/all/themes/example_theme
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287
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288 If you run a multisite installation you will want to do this a bit differently.
289 You can read more about that on the multisite part of this file.
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290
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291 Contributed modules can be found at:
292 http://drupal.org/project/Modules
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293
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294 Contributed themes can be found at:
295 http://drupal.org/project/Themes
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296
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297 Later on you might want to write your own code, but remember to NEVER modify the
298 core modules and themes in Drupal directories modules and themes. Instead use
299 the hooks available in the Drupal API. You can read more about the Drupal API
300 and how to develop modules at
301 http://drupal.org/developing/modules
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302
303
304 MULTISITE CONFIGURATION
305 -----------------------
306
307 A single Drupal installation can host several Drupal-powered sites, each with
308 its own individual configuration.
309
310 Additional site configurations are created in subdirectories within the 'sites'
311 directory. Each subdirectory must have a 'settings.php' file which specifies the
312 configuration settings. The easiest way to create additional sites is to copy
313 the 'default' directory and modify the 'settings.php' file as appropriate. The
314 new directory name is constructed from the site's URL. The configuration for
315 www.example.com could be in 'sites/example.com/settings.php' (note that 'www.'
316 should be omitted if users can access your site at http://example.com/).
317
318 Sites do not have to have a different domain. You can also use subdomains and
319 subdirectories for Drupal sites. For example, example.com, sub.example.com,
320 and sub.example.com/site3 can all be defined as independent Drupal sites. The
321 setup for a configuration such as this would look like the following:
322
323 sites/default/settings.php
324 sites/example.com/settings.php
325 sites/sub.example.com/settings.php
326 sites/sub.example.com.site3/settings.php
327
328 When searching for a site configuration (for example www.sub.example.com/site3),
329 Drupal will search for configuration files in the following order, using the
330 first configuration it finds:
331
332 sites/www.sub.example.com.site3/settings.php
333 sites/sub.example.com.site3/settings.php
334 sites/example.com.site3/settings.php
335 sites/www.sub.example.com/settings.php
336 sites/sub.example.com/settings.php
337 sites/example.com/settings.php
338 sites/default/settings.php
339
340 If you are installing on a non-standard port, the port number is treated as the
341 deepest subdomain. For example: http://www.example.com:8080/ could be loaded
342 from sites/8080.www.example.com/. The port number will be removed according to
343 the pattern above if no port-specific configuration is found, just like a real
344 subdomain.
345
346 Each site configuration can have its own site-specific modules and themes in
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347 addition to those installed in the standard 'modules' and 'themes' directories.
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348 To use site-specific modules or themes, simply create a 'modules' or 'themes'
349 directory within the site configuration directory. For example, if
350 sub.example.com has a custom theme and a custom module that should not be
351 accessible to other sites, the setup would look like this:
352
353 sites/sub.example.com/:
354 settings.php
355 themes/custom_theme
356 modules/custom_module
357
358 NOTE: for more information about multiple virtual hosts or the configuration
359 settings, consult the Drupal handbook at drupal.org.
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360
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361 For more information on configuring Drupal's file system path in a multi-site
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362 configuration, see step 6 above.
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363
78cb6f5 - Improved installation instructions. Thanks Gary.
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364 MORE INFORMATION
365 ----------------
366
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367 - For additional documentation, see the online Drupal handbook at
368 http://drupal.org/handbook.
f903424 #191310 follow up by keith.smith: fix install instructions and error mes...
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369
bb049b7 - Patch #218539 by keith.smith: mentioned the security team and the secu...
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370 - For a list of security announcements, see the "Security announcements" page
371 at http://drupal.org/security (available as an RSS feed). This page also
372 describes how to subscribe to these announcements via e-mail.
626939c #215454 by keith.smith: cleaning up some language in INSTALL.txt
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373
bb049b7 - Patch #218539 by keith.smith: mentioned the security team and the secu...
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374 - For information about the Drupal security process, or to find out how to report
375 a potential security issue to the Drupal security team, see the "Security team"
376 page at http://drupal.org/security-team.
377
378 - For information about the wide range of available support options, see the
379 "Support" page at http://drupal.org/support.
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