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Ruby API

When writing custom steps, you'll need to use the Ruby API to interact with your application. This document describes the API at a high level. If you want to see details you can look at the source code in the files at ruby-gem/lib/calabash-android. There are functions in the source code which aren't documented here. Those are way more likely to change (so be warned if you rely on those).

Calabash Android has a client-server architecture. The Calabash Ruby API is the client side which speaks HTTP with the test server that running on the device along with your app. To get an architectural overview of Calabash Android please read the blog posts:

AN OVERVIEW OF CALABASH ANDROID

General

start_test_server_in_background

Starts the test server and the app under test (AUT). If the app is already running it will be restarted.

reinstall_apps

Will reinstall both the test server and the AUT to be sure the newest versions are installed.

Query

query(uiquery, *args)

Query returns an array of its results. The query function gives powerful query capability from your test code. You can find views and other application objects, and make assertions about them or extract data from them.

Calabash Android tries to return results that carry useable information by default. For view objects this includes coordinates, class and contentdescription:

irb(main):002:0> query("button index:1")
=> [{"id"=>"save", "enabled"=>true, "contentDescription"=>nil, "class"=>"android.widget.Button", "text"=>"Save", "rect"=>{"center_y"=>724.0, "center_x"=>645.5, "height"=>64, "y"=>692, "width"=>71, "x"=>610}, "description"=>"android.widget.Button{4267b4a0 VFED..C. ........ 497,243-568,307 #7f070023 app:id/save}"}]

A view is represented as a ruby Hash (hash map) so you can look into the result

irb(main):003:0> query("button index:1").first.keys
=> ["id", "enabled", "contentDescription", "class", "text", "rect", "description"]

The *args parameter lets you perform methods on the query result before it is returned to your Ruby script code (remember that the query is evaluated as Java code inside the app and the result is sent back to the Ruby code). The form *args is Ruby-speak for a variable number of args. For example, if you have a button you can do

irb(main):005:0> query("button", "text")
=> ["Optional Settings", "Save", "Cancel", "Get a free blog at WordPress.com"]

This calls a 'getter' method "text" (that is text(), getText() or isText()) on each of the buttons in the view (it always returns an array). You can perform a sequence of methods:

irb(main):007:0> query("button", "text", "length")
=> [17, 4, 6, 32]

irb(main):008:0> query("button", "text", "toLowerCase")
=> ["optional settings", "save", "cancel", "get a free blog at wordpress.com"]

For methods with arguments you can use hashes. In Ruby 1.9 this has quite nice syntax:

irb(main):033:0> query("edittext index:1", setText:"1234")
=> ["<VOID>"]

On Ruby 1.8 you can't use key:val as literal Hash syntax so you must do:

irb(main):034:0> query("edittext index:1", :setText => "1234")
=> ["<VOID>"]

Behind the scenes the Java method setText will be execute with the argument "12345" on all view elements that were matched by the query.

Notice that the string <VOID> is Calabash's way of returning from a Java method with return type void.

For more complex methods you use Arrays of Hashes. Here is a complex Ruby 1.9 example:

TODO: Example

element_does_not_exist(uiquery)

element_exists(uiquery)

view_with_mark_exists(expected_mark)

The element_exists function returns true if an element exists matching query uiquery. The element_does_not_exist function returns true if an element matching query uiquery does not exist.

The function view_with_mark_exists(expected_mark) is shorthand for

element_exists("* marked:'#{expected_mark}'")

Waiting

wait_for(options, &block)

Waits for a condition to occur. Takes a hash of options and a block to be called repeatedly. The options (which are described below) have the following defaults:

{
 :timeout => 10, #maximum number of seconds to wait
 :retry_frequency => 0.2, #wait this long before retrying the block
 :post_timeout => 0.1, #wait this long after the block returns true
 :timeout_message => "Timed out waiting...", #error message in case options[:timeout] is exceeded
 :screenshot_on_error => true # take a screenshot in case of error
}

The timeout argument should be a number indicating the maximal number of seconds you are willing to wait (after that amount of time the step will cause your test to fail). The :post_timeout (0.1 by default) is an number of seconds to wait after the condition becomes true.

The &block parameter is Ruby syntax for saying that this method takes a block of code. This block specifies the condition to wait for. The block should return true when the the condition occurs.

The :retry_frequency is a small sleep that is made between each call to the specified block. This describes how often Calabash should poll for the condition to be true.

Here is a simple example:

irb(main):030:0> wait_for(:timeout => 5) { query("button marked:'Save'").size > 0 }

This will check for the existence of a view matching: "button marked:'Save'". It will wait at most 5 seconds (failing if more than 5 seconds pass). It will issue the query repeatedly until it is found or 5 seconds pass.

A typical form uses element_exists.

irb(main):031:0> wait_for(:timeout => 5) { element_exists("button marked:'Save'") }

In Ruby short blocks are written with braces (like: { element_exists("button marked:'Save'") }), and more complicated blocks are written using do-end. For example:

wait_for(:timeout => 30) do
    res = query("checkbox marked:'Geotag Posts'", 'checked')
    res.first == true
end

A Ruby block always returns the value of its last expression (res.first == true in this case).

Notes: Waiting for a condition to occur is superior to using the sleep function. With sleep you end up either specifying too long waits which slows the test down or you become sensitive to timing issues. Sometimes you do need sleep (to wait for animations to complete), but try to use waiting as much as possible.

wait_for_element_exists(uiquery, options={})

A high-level waiting function. This captures the common practice of waiting for UI elements, i.e., combining wait_for and element_exists.

Takes a query and waits for it to return a results. Calls wait_for supplying options.

irb(main):009:0> wait_for_elements_exist( "* marked:'Please sign in'", :timeout => 10)

wait_for_elements_exist(elements_arr, options={})

Like wait_for_element_exists but takes an array of queries and waits for all of those queries to return results. Calls wait_for supplying options.

irb(main):008:0> wait_for_elements_exist( ["button marked:'Save'", "* marked:'Please sign in'"], :timeout => 2)

wait_for_element_does_not_exist(uiquery, options={})

Similar to wait_for_element_exists, but waits for an element to not exist.

wait_for_elements_do_not_exist(elements_arr, options={})

Similar to wait_for_elements_exist, but waits for all of the elements to not exist.

Assertions

fail(msg="Error. Check log for details.")

Will fail the test with message msg. Takes a screenshot.

check_element_exists(query)

check_element_does_not_exist(query)

check_view_with_mark_exists(expected_mark)

Asserts that an element exists using the query function on the parameter query.

The function check_view_with_mark_exists(expected_mark) is shorthand for

check_element_exists("view marked:'#{expected_mark}'")

Touch

touch(uiquery, options={})

Touches a view found by performing the query uiquery. It is recommended that uiquery only produce one match, but the default is to just touch the first of the results if there are several.

The touch method is one of the most used in Calabash. It is mostly used in its simplest form:

irb(main):037:0> touch("* marked:'Save'")

Which uses content descriptions, ids or texts. This form is so common that there is a short-hand for it: tap:

irb(main):038:0> tap 'Save'

For flexibility you can also pass in a hash representation of a view and the the touch event will be calculated based on those values and no query will be executed. touch will also accept a list of hashes in which case Calabash will touch the first one view in the list.

The following are all equivalent

touch("button index:0")
touch("button")
touch(query("button index:0"))
touch(query("button").first)
touch(query("button"))

Entering text

keyboard_enter_text(text, options={})

Enters text into the currently focused view.

enter_text(uiquery, text, options={})

Taps the first element returned by uiquery, then enters text into the view.

Screenshot

screenshot(options={:prefix=>nil, :name=>nil})

Takes a screenshot of the app.

screenshot({:prefix => "/tmp", :name=>"my.png"})

If prefix and name are nil it will use default values (which is currently the line in the current feature).

screenshot_embed(options={:prefix=>nil, :name=>nil, :label => nil})

Takes a screenshot of the app and embeds to cucumber reporters (e.g. html reports).

screenshot_embed({:prefix => "/tmp", :name=>"my.png", :label => "Mine"})

If prefix and name are nil it will use default values (which is currently the line in the current feature).

Label is the label used in the cucumber report output (equals to name if not specified).

Pull and push files and folders from and to the device

pull(remote, local)

Pulls a file from the device to local computer:

pull("/sdcard/file.jpg", "file.jpg")

push(local, remote)

Pushes a file from the local computer to the device:

push("file.jpg", "/sdcard/file.jpg")

Uses adb so same rules apply:

  • Won't be able to pull or push from restricted folders such as /data/data
  • If destination path already exists, it's overwritten without warning
  • For files, full destination path must be provided, ie:

Won't work:

push("file.jpg", "/sdcard/folder")

Will work:

push("file.jpg", "/sdcard/folder/file.jpg")

Read, write and clear SharedPreferences

Simple API over SharedPreferences, all methods require the name of the SharedPreferences file as the first argument. Supports ints, floats, booleans and strings.

It is important to notice that depending on your application you might need to poke around with SharedPreferences before or after your application or activity starts. In that case you will need to call these methods either before or after your scenario.

To do so, you can tag a particular scenario and edit your application lifecycle hooks as explained here.

get_preferences(name)

Returns a hash with the preferences available for the given name:

preferences = get_preferences("my_preferences")

set_preferences(name, hash)

Sets the given hash as preferences for the given name:

set_preferences("my_preferences", {:name => "wadus", :email => "wadus@wadus.com", :id => 8, :active => true})

clear_preferences(name)

Clears the preferences for the given name:

clear_preferences("my_preferences")
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