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tag: perl-5.8.8
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/* doio.c
*
* Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999,
* 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, by Larry Wall and others
*
* You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
* License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
*
*/

/*
* "Far below them they saw the white waters pour into a foaming bowl, and
* then swirl darkly about a deep oval basin in the rocks, until they found
* their way out again through a narrow gate, and flowed away, fuming and
* chattering, into calmer and more level reaches."
*/

/* This file contains functions that do the actual I/O on behalf of ops.
* For example, pp_print() calls the do_print() function in this file for
* each argument needing printing.
*/

#include "EXTERN.h"
#define PERL_IN_DOIO_C
#include "perl.h"

#if defined(HAS_MSG) || defined(HAS_SEM) || defined(HAS_SHM)
#ifndef HAS_SEM
#include <sys/ipc.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAS_MSG
#include <sys/msg.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAS_SHM
#include <sys/shm.h>
# ifndef HAS_SHMAT_PROTOTYPE
    extern Shmat_t shmat (int, char *, int);
# endif
#endif
#endif

#ifdef I_UTIME
# if defined(_MSC_VER) || defined(__MINGW32__)
# include <sys/utime.h>
# else
# include <utime.h>
# endif
#endif

#ifdef O_EXCL
# define OPEN_EXCL O_EXCL
#else
# define OPEN_EXCL 0
#endif

#define PERL_MODE_MAX 8
#define PERL_FLAGS_MAX 10

#include <signal.h>

bool
Perl_do_open(pTHX_ GV *gv, register char *name, I32 len, int as_raw,
int rawmode, int rawperm, PerlIO *supplied_fp)
{
    return do_openn(gv, name, len, as_raw, rawmode, rawperm,
supplied_fp, (SV **) NULL, 0);
}

bool
Perl_do_open9(pTHX_ GV *gv, register char *name, I32 len, int as_raw,
int rawmode, int rawperm, PerlIO *supplied_fp, SV *svs,
I32 num_svs)
{
    PERL_UNUSED_ARG(num_svs);
    return do_openn(gv, name, len, as_raw, rawmode, rawperm,
supplied_fp, &svs, 1);
}

bool
Perl_do_openn(pTHX_ GV *gv, register char *name, I32 len, int as_raw,
int rawmode, int rawperm, PerlIO *supplied_fp, SV **svp,
I32 num_svs)
{
    register IO * const io = GvIOn(gv);
    PerlIO *saveifp = Nullfp;
    PerlIO *saveofp = Nullfp;
    int savefd = -1;
    char savetype = IoTYPE_CLOSED;
    int writing = 0;
    PerlIO *fp;
    int fd;
    int result;
    bool was_fdopen = FALSE;
    bool in_raw = 0, in_crlf = 0, out_raw = 0, out_crlf = 0;
    char *type = NULL;
    char mode[PERL_MODE_MAX]; /* stdio file mode ("r\0", "rb\0", "r+b\0" etc.) */
    SV *namesv;

    Zero(mode,sizeof(mode),char);
    PL_forkprocess = 1; /* assume true if no fork */

    /* Collect default raw/crlf info from the op */
    if (PL_op && PL_op->op_type == OP_OPEN) {
/* set up IO layers */
const U8 flags = PL_op->op_private;
in_raw = (flags & OPpOPEN_IN_RAW);
in_crlf = (flags & OPpOPEN_IN_CRLF);
out_raw = (flags & OPpOPEN_OUT_RAW);
out_crlf = (flags & OPpOPEN_OUT_CRLF);
    }

    /* If currently open - close before we re-open */
    if (IoIFP(io)) {
fd = PerlIO_fileno(IoIFP(io));
if (IoTYPE(io) == IoTYPE_STD) {
/* This is a clone of one of STD* handles */
result = 0;
}
else if (fd >= 0 && fd <= PL_maxsysfd) {
/* This is one of the original STD* handles */
saveifp = IoIFP(io);
saveofp = IoOFP(io);
savetype = IoTYPE(io);
savefd = fd;
result = 0;
}
else if (IoTYPE(io) == IoTYPE_PIPE)
result = PerlProc_pclose(IoIFP(io));
else if (IoIFP(io) != IoOFP(io)) {
if (IoOFP(io)) {
result = PerlIO_close(IoOFP(io));
PerlIO_close(IoIFP(io)); /* clear stdio, fd already closed */
}
else
result = PerlIO_close(IoIFP(io));
}
else
result = PerlIO_close(IoIFP(io));
if (result == EOF && fd > PL_maxsysfd) {
/* Why is this not Perl_warn*() call ? */
PerlIO_printf(Perl_error_log,
"Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly.\n",
GvENAME(gv));
}
IoOFP(io) = IoIFP(io) = Nullfp;
    }

    if (as_raw) {
        /* sysopen style args, i.e. integer mode and permissions */
STRLEN ix = 0;
const int appendtrunc =
0
#ifdef O_APPEND /* Not fully portable. */
|O_APPEND
#endif
#ifdef O_TRUNC /* Not fully portable. */
|O_TRUNC
#endif
;
const int modifyingmode = O_WRONLY|O_RDWR|O_CREAT|appendtrunc;
int ismodifying;

if (num_svs != 0) {
Perl_croak(aTHX_ "panic: sysopen with multiple args");
}
/* It's not always

O_RDONLY 0
O_WRONLY 1
O_RDWR 2

It might be (in OS/390 and Mac OS Classic it is)

O_WRONLY 1
O_RDONLY 2
O_RDWR 3

This means that simple & with O_RDWR would look
like O_RDONLY is present. Therefore we have to
be more careful.
*/
if ((ismodifying = (rawmode & modifyingmode))) {
if ((ismodifying & O_WRONLY) == O_WRONLY ||
(ismodifying & O_RDWR) == O_RDWR ||
(ismodifying & (O_CREAT|appendtrunc)))
TAINT_PROPER("sysopen");
}
mode[ix++] = IoTYPE_NUMERIC; /* Marker to openn to use numeric "sysopen" */

#if defined(USE_64_BIT_RAWIO) && defined(O_LARGEFILE)
rawmode |= O_LARGEFILE; /* Transparently largefiley. */
#endif

        IoTYPE(io) = PerlIO_intmode2str(rawmode, &mode[ix], &writing);

namesv = sv_2mortal(newSVpvn(name,strlen(name)));
num_svs = 1;
svp = &namesv;
        type = Nullch;
fp = PerlIO_openn(aTHX_ type, mode, -1, rawmode, rawperm, NULL, num_svs, svp);
    }
    else {
/* Regular (non-sys) open */
char *oname = name;
STRLEN olen = len;
char *tend;
int dodup = 0;
PerlIO *that_fp = NULL;

type = savepvn(name, len);
tend = type+len;
SAVEFREEPV(type);

        /* Lose leading and trailing white space */
        for (; isSPACE(*type); type++) ;
        while (tend > type && isSPACE(tend[-1]))
*--tend = '\0';

if (num_svs) {
/* New style explicit name, type is just mode and layer info */
#ifdef USE_STDIO
if (SvROK(*svp) && !strchr(name,'&')) {
if (ckWARN(WARN_IO))
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_IO),
"Can't open a reference");
SETERRNO(EINVAL, LIB_INVARG);
goto say_false;
}
#endif /* USE_STDIO */
name = SvOK(*svp) ? savesvpv (*svp) : savepvn ("", 0);
SAVEFREEPV(name);
}
else {
name = type;
len = tend-type;
}
IoTYPE(io) = *type;
if ((*type == IoTYPE_RDWR) && /* scary */
           (*(type+1) == IoTYPE_RDONLY || *(type+1) == IoTYPE_WRONLY) &&
((!num_svs || (tend > type+1 && tend[-1] != IoTYPE_PIPE)))) {
TAINT_PROPER("open");
mode[1] = *type++;
writing = 1;
}

if (*type == IoTYPE_PIPE) {
if (num_svs) {
if (type[1] != IoTYPE_STD) {
unknown_open_mode:
Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Unknown open() mode '%.*s'", (int)olen, oname);
}
type++;
}
for (type++; isSPACE(*type); type++) ;
if (!num_svs) {
name = type;
len = tend-type;
}
if (*name == '\0') {
/* command is missing 19990114 */
if (ckWARN(WARN_PIPE))
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_PIPE), "Missing command in piped open");
errno = EPIPE;
goto say_false;
}
if ((*name == '-' && name[1] == '\0') || num_svs)
TAINT_ENV();
TAINT_PROPER("piped open");
if (!num_svs && name[len-1] == '|') {
name[--len] = '\0' ;
if (ckWARN(WARN_PIPE))
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_PIPE), "Can't open bidirectional pipe");
}
mode[0] = 'w';
writing = 1;
#ifdef HAS_STRLCAT
            if (out_raw)
                strlcat(mode, "b", PERL_MODE_MAX);
            else if (out_crlf)
                strlcat(mode, "t", PERL_MODE_MAX);
#else
if (out_raw)
strcat(mode, "b");
else if (out_crlf)
strcat(mode, "t");
#endif
if (num_svs > 1) {
fp = PerlProc_popen_list(mode, num_svs, svp);
}
else {
fp = PerlProc_popen(name,mode);
}
if (num_svs) {
if (*type) {
if (PerlIO_apply_layers(aTHX_ fp, mode, type) != 0) {
goto say_false;
}
}
}
} /* IoTYPE_PIPE */
else if (*type == IoTYPE_WRONLY) {
TAINT_PROPER("open");
type++;
if (*type == IoTYPE_WRONLY) {
/* Two IoTYPE_WRONLYs in a row make for an IoTYPE_APPEND. */
mode[0] = IoTYPE(io) = IoTYPE_APPEND;
type++;
}
else {
mode[0] = 'w';
}
writing = 1;

#ifdef HAS_STRLCAT
            if (out_raw)
                strlcat(mode, "b", PERL_MODE_MAX);
            else if (out_crlf)
                strlcat(mode, "t", PERL_MODE_MAX);
#else
if (out_raw)
strcat(mode, "b");
else if (out_crlf)
strcat(mode, "t");
#endif
if (*type == '&') {
duplicity:
dodup = PERLIO_DUP_FD;
type++;
if (*type == '=') {
dodup = 0;
type++;
}
if (!num_svs && !*type && supplied_fp) {
/* "<+&" etc. is used by typemaps */
fp = supplied_fp;
}
else {
if (num_svs > 1) {
Perl_croak(aTHX_ "More than one argument to '%c&' open",IoTYPE(io));
}
for (; isSPACE(*type); type++) ;
if (num_svs && (SvIOK(*svp) || (SvPOK(*svp) && looks_like_number(*svp)))) {
fd = SvUV(*svp);
num_svs = 0;
}
else if (isDIGIT(*type)) {
fd = atoi(type);
}
else {
const IO* thatio;
if (num_svs) {
thatio = sv_2io(*svp);
}
else {
GV *thatgv;
thatgv = gv_fetchpv(type,FALSE,SVt_PVIO);
thatio = GvIO(thatgv);
}
if (!thatio) {
#ifdef EINVAL
SETERRNO(EINVAL,SS_IVCHAN);
#endif
goto say_false;
}
if ((that_fp = IoIFP(thatio))) {
/* Flush stdio buffer before dup. --mjd
* Unfortunately SEEK_CURing 0 seems to
* be optimized away on most platforms;
* only Solaris and Linux seem to flush
* on that. --jhi */
#ifdef USE_SFIO
/* sfio fails to clear error on next
sfwrite, contrary to documentation.
-- Nicholas Clark */
if (PerlIO_seek(that_fp, 0, SEEK_CUR) == -1)
PerlIO_clearerr(that_fp);
#endif
/* On the other hand, do all platforms
* take gracefully to flushing a read-only
* filehandle? Perhaps we should do
* fsetpos(src)+fgetpos(dst)? --nik */
PerlIO_flush(that_fp);
fd = PerlIO_fileno(that_fp);
/* When dup()ing STDIN, STDOUT or STDERR
* explicitly set appropriate access mode */
if (that_fp == PerlIO_stdout()
|| that_fp == PerlIO_stderr())
IoTYPE(io) = IoTYPE_WRONLY;
else if (that_fp == PerlIO_stdin())
                                IoTYPE(io) = IoTYPE_RDONLY;
/* When dup()ing a socket, say result is
* one as well */
else if (IoTYPE(thatio) == IoTYPE_SOCKET)
IoTYPE(io) = IoTYPE_SOCKET;
}
else
fd = -1;
}
if (!num_svs)
type = Nullch;
if (that_fp) {
fp = PerlIO_fdupopen(aTHX_ that_fp, NULL, dodup);
}
else {
if (dodup)
fd = PerlLIO_dup(fd);
else
was_fdopen = TRUE;
if (!(fp = PerlIO_openn(aTHX_ type,mode,fd,0,0,NULL,num_svs,svp))) {
if (dodup && fd >= 0)
PerlLIO_close(fd);
}
}
}
} /* & */
else {
for (; isSPACE(*type); type++) ;
if (*type == IoTYPE_STD && (!type[1] || isSPACE(type[1]) || type[1] == ':')) {
type++;
fp = PerlIO_stdout();
IoTYPE(io) = IoTYPE_STD;
if (num_svs > 1) {
Perl_croak(aTHX_ "More than one argument to '>%c' open",IoTYPE_STD);
}
}
else {
if (!num_svs) {
namesv = sv_2mortal(newSVpvn(type,strlen(type)));
num_svs = 1;
svp = &namesv;
type = Nullch;
}
fp = PerlIO_openn(aTHX_ type,mode,-1,0,0,NULL,num_svs,svp);
}
} /* !& */
if (!fp && type && *type && *type != ':' && !isIDFIRST(*type))
goto unknown_open_mode;
} /* IoTYPE_WRONLY */
else if (*type == IoTYPE_RDONLY) {
for (type++; isSPACE(*type); type++) ;
mode[0] = 'r';
#ifdef HAS_STRLCAT
            if (in_raw)
                strlcat(mode, "b", PERL_MODE_MAX);
            else if (in_crlf)
                strlcat(mode, "t", PERL_MODE_MAX);
#else
if (in_raw)
strcat(mode, "b");
else if (in_crlf)
strcat(mode, "t");
#endif
if (*type == '&') {
goto duplicity;
}
if (*type == IoTYPE_STD && (!type[1] || isSPACE(type[1]) || type[1] == ':')) {
type++;
fp = PerlIO_stdin();
IoTYPE(io) = IoTYPE_STD;
if (num_svs > 1) {
Perl_croak(aTHX_ "More than one argument to '<%c' open",IoTYPE_STD);
}
}
else {
if (!num_svs) {
namesv = sv_2mortal(newSVpvn(type,strlen(type)));
num_svs = 1;
svp = &namesv;
type = Nullch;
}
fp = PerlIO_openn(aTHX_ type,mode,-1,0,0,NULL,num_svs,svp);
}
if (!fp && type && *type && *type != ':' && !isIDFIRST(*type))
goto unknown_open_mode;
} /* IoTYPE_RDONLY */
else if ((num_svs && /* '-|...' or '...|' */
type[0] == IoTYPE_STD && type[1] == IoTYPE_PIPE) ||
(!num_svs && tend > type+1 && tend[-1] == IoTYPE_PIPE)) {
if (num_svs) {
type += 2; /* skip over '-|' */
}
else {
*--tend = '\0';
while (tend > type && isSPACE(tend[-1]))
*--tend = '\0';
for (; isSPACE(*type); type++)
;
name = type;
len = tend-type;
}
if (*name == '\0') {
/* command is missing 19990114 */
if (ckWARN(WARN_PIPE))
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_PIPE), "Missing command in piped open");
errno = EPIPE;
goto say_false;
}
if (!(*name == '-' && name[1] == '\0') || num_svs)
TAINT_ENV();
TAINT_PROPER("piped open");
mode[0] = 'r';

#ifdef HAS_STRLCAT
            if (in_raw)
                strlcat(mode, "b", PERL_MODE_MAX);
            else if (in_crlf)
                strlcat(mode, "t", PERL_MODE_MAX);
#else
if (in_raw)
strcat(mode, "b");
else if (in_crlf)
strcat(mode, "t");
#endif

if (num_svs > 1) {
fp = PerlProc_popen_list(mode,num_svs,svp);
}
else {
fp = PerlProc_popen(name,mode);
}
IoTYPE(io) = IoTYPE_PIPE;
if (num_svs) {
for (; isSPACE(*type); type++) ;
if (*type) {
if (PerlIO_apply_layers(aTHX_ fp, mode, type) != 0) {
goto say_false;
}
}
}
}
else { /* layer(Args) */
if (num_svs)
goto unknown_open_mode;
name = type;
IoTYPE(io) = IoTYPE_RDONLY;
for (; isSPACE(*name); name++)
;
mode[0] = 'r';

#ifdef HAS_STRLCAT
            if (in_raw)
                strlcat(mode, "b", PERL_MODE_MAX);
            else if (in_crlf)
                strlcat(mode, "t", PERL_MODE_MAX);
#else
if (in_raw)
strcat(mode, "b");
else if (in_crlf)
strcat(mode, "t");
#endif

if (*name == '-' && name[1] == '\0') {
fp = PerlIO_stdin();
IoTYPE(io) = IoTYPE_STD;
}
else {
if (!num_svs) {
namesv = sv_2mortal(newSVpvn(type,strlen(type)));
num_svs = 1;
svp = &namesv;
type = Nullch;
}
fp = PerlIO_openn(aTHX_ type,mode,-1,0,0,NULL,num_svs,svp);
}
}
    }
    if (!fp) {
if (IoTYPE(io) == IoTYPE_RDONLY && ckWARN(WARN_NEWLINE)
&& strchr(name, '\n')

)
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NEWLINE), PL_warn_nl, "open");
goto say_false;
    }

    if (ckWARN(WARN_IO)) {
if ((IoTYPE(io) == IoTYPE_RDONLY) &&
(fp == PerlIO_stdout() || fp == PerlIO_stderr())) {
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_IO),
"Filehandle STD%s reopened as %s only for input",
((fp == PerlIO_stdout()) ? "OUT" : "ERR"),
GvENAME(gv));
}
else if ((IoTYPE(io) == IoTYPE_WRONLY) && fp == PerlIO_stdin()) {
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_IO),
"Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output",
GvENAME(gv));
}
    }

    fd = PerlIO_fileno(fp);
    /* If there is no fd (e.g. PerlIO::scalar) assume it isn't a
* socket - this covers PerlIO::scalar - otherwise unless we "know" the
* type probe for socket-ness.
*/
    if (IoTYPE(io) && IoTYPE(io) != IoTYPE_PIPE && IoTYPE(io) != IoTYPE_STD && fd >= 0) {
if (PerlLIO_fstat(fd,&PL_statbuf) < 0) {
/* If PerlIO claims to have fd we had better be able to fstat() it. */
(void) PerlIO_close(fp);
goto say_false;
}
#ifndef PERL_MICRO
if (S_ISSOCK(PL_statbuf.st_mode))
IoTYPE(io) = IoTYPE_SOCKET; /* in case a socket was passed in to us */
#ifdef HAS_SOCKET
else if (
#ifdef S_IFMT
!(PL_statbuf.st_mode & S_IFMT)
#else
!PL_statbuf.st_mode
#endif
&& IoTYPE(io) != IoTYPE_WRONLY /* Dups of STD* filehandles already have */
&& IoTYPE(io) != IoTYPE_RDONLY /* type so they aren't marked as sockets */
) { /* on OS's that return 0 on fstat()ed pipe */
char tmpbuf[256];
Sock_size_t buflen = sizeof tmpbuf;
if (PerlSock_getsockname(fd, (struct sockaddr *)tmpbuf, &buflen) >= 0
|| errno != ENOTSOCK)
IoTYPE(io) = IoTYPE_SOCKET; /* some OS's return 0 on fstat()ed socket */
/* but some return 0 for streams too, sigh */
}
#endif /* HAS_SOCKET */
#endif /* !PERL_MICRO */
    }

    /* Eeek - FIXME !!!
* If this is a standard handle we discard all the layer stuff
* and just dup the fd into whatever was on the handle before !
*/

    if (saveifp) { /* must use old fp? */
        /* If fd is less that PL_maxsysfd i.e. STDIN..STDERR
then dup the new fileno down
*/
if (saveofp) {
PerlIO_flush(saveofp); /* emulate PerlIO_close() */
if (saveofp != saveifp) { /* was a socket? */
PerlIO_close(saveofp);
}
}
if (savefd != fd) {
/* Still a small can-of-worms here if (say) PerlIO::scalar
is assigned to (say) STDOUT - for now let dup2() fail
and provide the error
*/
if (PerlLIO_dup2(fd, savefd) < 0) {
(void)PerlIO_close(fp);
goto say_false;
}
#ifdef VMS
if (savefd != PerlIO_fileno(PerlIO_stdin())) {
                char newname[FILENAME_MAX+1];
                if (PerlIO_getname(fp, newname)) {
                    if (fd == PerlIO_fileno(PerlIO_stdout()))
                        Perl_vmssetuserlnm(aTHX_ "SYS$OUTPUT", newname);
                    if (fd == PerlIO_fileno(PerlIO_stderr()))
                        Perl_vmssetuserlnm(aTHX_ "SYS$ERROR", newname);
                }
}
#endif

#if !defined(WIN32)
           /* PL_fdpid isn't used on Windows, so avoid this useless work.
* XXX Probably the same for a lot of other places. */
            {
                Pid_t pid;
                SV *sv;

                LOCK_FDPID_MUTEX;
                sv = *av_fetch(PL_fdpid,fd,TRUE);
                (void)SvUPGRADE(sv, SVt_IV);
                pid = SvIVX(sv);
                SvIV_set(sv, 0);
                sv = *av_fetch(PL_fdpid,savefd,TRUE);
                (void)SvUPGRADE(sv, SVt_IV);
                SvIV_set(sv, pid);
                UNLOCK_FDPID_MUTEX;
            }
#endif

if (was_fdopen) {
                /* need to close fp without closing underlying fd */
                int ofd = PerlIO_fileno(fp);
                int dupfd = PerlLIO_dup(ofd);
#if defined(HAS_FCNTL) && defined(F_SETFD)
/* Assume if we have F_SETFD we have F_GETFD */
                int coe = fcntl(ofd,F_GETFD);
#endif
                PerlIO_close(fp);
                PerlLIO_dup2(dupfd,ofd);
#if defined(HAS_FCNTL) && defined(F_SETFD)
/* The dup trick has lost close-on-exec on ofd */
fcntl(ofd,F_SETFD, coe);
#endif
                PerlLIO_close(dupfd);
}
            else
PerlIO_close(fp);
}
fp = saveifp;
PerlIO_clearerr(fp);
fd = PerlIO_fileno(fp);
    }
#if defined(HAS_FCNTL) && defined(F_SETFD)
    if (fd >= 0) {
int save_errno = errno;
fcntl(fd,F_SETFD,fd > PL_maxsysfd); /* can change errno */
errno = save_errno;
    }
#endif
    IoIFP(io) = fp;

    IoFLAGS(io) &= ~IOf_NOLINE;
    if (writing) {
if (IoTYPE(io) == IoTYPE_SOCKET
|| (IoTYPE(io) == IoTYPE_WRONLY && fd >= 0 && S_ISCHR(PL_statbuf.st_mode)) ) {
char *s = mode;
if (*s == IoTYPE_IMPLICIT || *s == IoTYPE_NUMERIC)
s++;
*s = 'w';
if (!(IoOFP(io) = PerlIO_openn(aTHX_ type,s,fd,0,0,NULL,0,svp))) {
PerlIO_close(fp);
IoIFP(io) = Nullfp;
goto say_false;
}
}
else
IoOFP(io) = fp;
    }
    return TRUE;

say_false:
    IoIFP(io) = saveifp;
    IoOFP(io) = saveofp;
    IoTYPE(io) = savetype;
    return FALSE;
}

PerlIO *
Perl_nextargv(pTHX_ register GV *gv)
{
    register SV *sv;
#ifndef FLEXFILENAMES
    int filedev;
    int fileino;
#endif
    Uid_t fileuid;
    Gid_t filegid;
    IO * const io = GvIOp(gv);

    if (!PL_argvoutgv)
PL_argvoutgv = gv_fetchpv("ARGVOUT",TRUE,SVt_PVIO);
    if (io && (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_ARGV) && (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_START)) {
IoFLAGS(io) &= ~IOf_START;
if (PL_inplace) {
if (!PL_argvout_stack)
PL_argvout_stack = newAV();
av_push(PL_argvout_stack, SvREFCNT_inc(PL_defoutgv));
}
    }
    if (PL_filemode & (S_ISUID|S_ISGID)) {
PerlIO_flush(IoIFP(GvIOn(PL_argvoutgv))); /* chmod must follow last write */
#ifdef HAS_FCHMOD
if (PL_lastfd != -1)
(void)fchmod(PL_lastfd,PL_filemode);
#else
(void)PerlLIO_chmod(PL_oldname,PL_filemode);
#endif
    }
    PL_lastfd = -1;
    PL_filemode = 0;
    if (!GvAV(gv))
        return Nullfp;
    while (av_len(GvAV(gv)) >= 0) {
STRLEN oldlen;
sv = av_shift(GvAV(gv));
SAVEFREESV(sv);
sv_setsv(GvSVn(gv),sv);
SvSETMAGIC(GvSV(gv));
PL_oldname = SvPVx(GvSV(gv), oldlen);
if (do_open(gv,PL_oldname,oldlen,PL_inplace!=0,O_RDONLY,0,Nullfp)) {
if (PL_inplace) {
TAINT_PROPER("inplace open");
if (oldlen == 1 && *PL_oldname == '-') {
setdefout(gv_fetchpv("STDOUT",TRUE,SVt_PVIO));
return IoIFP(GvIOp(gv));
}
#ifndef FLEXFILENAMES
filedev = PL_statbuf.st_dev;
fileino = PL_statbuf.st_ino;
#endif
PL_filemode = PL_statbuf.st_mode;
fileuid = PL_statbuf.st_uid;
filegid = PL_statbuf.st_gid;
if (!S_ISREG(PL_filemode)) {
if (ckWARN_d(WARN_INPLACE))
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_INPLACE),
"Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file",
PL_oldname );
do_close(gv,FALSE);
continue;
}
if (*PL_inplace) {
const char *star = strchr(PL_inplace, '*');
if (star) {
const char *begin = PL_inplace;
sv_setpvn(sv, "", 0);
do {
sv_catpvn(sv, begin, star - begin);
sv_catpvn(sv, PL_oldname, oldlen);
begin = ++star;
} while ((star = strchr(begin, '*')));
if (*begin)
sv_catpv(sv,begin);
}
else {
sv_catpv(sv,PL_inplace);
}
#ifndef FLEXFILENAMES
if ((PerlLIO_stat(SvPVX_const(sv),&PL_statbuf) >= 0
&& PL_statbuf.st_dev == filedev
&& PL_statbuf.st_ino == fileino)
#ifdef DJGPP
|| ((_djstat_fail_bits & _STFAIL_TRUENAME)!=0)
#endif
                      )
{
if (ckWARN_d(WARN_INPLACE))
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_INPLACE),
"Can't do inplace edit: %"SVf" would not be unique",
sv);
do_close(gv,FALSE);
continue;
}
#endif
#ifdef HAS_RENAME
#if !defined(DOSISH) && !defined(__CYGWIN__) && !defined(EPOC)
if (PerlLIO_rename(PL_oldname,SvPVX_const(sv)) < 0) {
if (ckWARN_d(WARN_INPLACE))
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_INPLACE),
"Can't rename %s to %"SVf": %s, skipping file",
PL_oldname, sv, Strerror(errno) );
do_close(gv,FALSE);
continue;
}
#else
do_close(gv,FALSE);
(void)PerlLIO_unlink(SvPVX_const(sv));
(void)PerlLIO_rename(PL_oldname,SvPVX_const(sv));
do_open(gv,(char*)SvPVX_const(sv),SvCUR(sv),PL_inplace!=0,
O_RDONLY,0,Nullfp);
#endif /* DOSISH */
#else
(void)UNLINK(SvPVX_const(sv));
if (link(PL_oldname,SvPVX_const(sv)) < 0) {
if (ckWARN_d(WARN_INPLACE))
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_INPLACE),
"Can't rename %s to %"SVf": %s, skipping file",
PL_oldname, sv, Strerror(errno) );
do_close(gv,FALSE);
continue;
}
(void)UNLINK(PL_oldname);
#endif
}
else {
#if !defined(DOSISH) && !defined(AMIGAOS)
# ifndef VMS /* Don't delete; use automatic file versioning */
if (UNLINK(PL_oldname) < 0) {
if (ckWARN_d(WARN_INPLACE))
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_INPLACE),
"Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file",
PL_oldname, Strerror(errno) );
do_close(gv,FALSE);
continue;
}
# endif
#else
Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't do inplace edit without backup");
#endif
}

sv_setpvn(sv,">",!PL_inplace);
sv_catpvn(sv,PL_oldname,oldlen);
SETERRNO(0,0); /* in case sprintf set errno */
#ifdef VMS
if (!do_open(PL_argvoutgv,(char*)SvPVX_const(sv),SvCUR(sv),
PL_inplace!=0,O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TRUNC,0,Nullfp))
#else
if (!do_open(PL_argvoutgv,(char*)SvPVX_const(sv),SvCUR(sv),
PL_inplace!=0,O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|OPEN_EXCL,0666,
Nullfp))
#endif
{
if (ckWARN_d(WARN_INPLACE))
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_INPLACE), "Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s",
PL_oldname, Strerror(errno) );
do_close(gv,FALSE);
continue;
}
setdefout(PL_argvoutgv);
PL_lastfd = PerlIO_fileno(IoIFP(GvIOp(PL_argvoutgv)));
(void)PerlLIO_fstat(PL_lastfd,&PL_statbuf);
#ifdef HAS_FCHMOD
(void)fchmod(PL_lastfd,PL_filemode);
#else
# if !(defined(WIN32) && defined(__BORLANDC__))
/* Borland runtime creates a readonly file! */
(void)PerlLIO_chmod(PL_oldname,PL_filemode);
# endif
#endif
if (fileuid != PL_statbuf.st_uid || filegid != PL_statbuf.st_gid) {
#ifdef HAS_FCHOWN
(void)fchown(PL_lastfd,fileuid,filegid);
#else
#ifdef HAS_CHOWN
(void)PerlLIO_chown(PL_oldname,fileuid,filegid);
#endif
#endif
}
}
return IoIFP(GvIOp(gv));
}
else {
if (ckWARN_d(WARN_INPLACE)) {
const int eno = errno;
if (PerlLIO_stat(PL_oldname, &PL_statbuf) >= 0
&& !S_ISREG(PL_statbuf.st_mode))
{
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_INPLACE),
"Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file",
PL_oldname);
}
else
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_INPLACE), "Can't open %s: %s",
PL_oldname, Strerror(eno));
}
}
    }
    if (io && (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_ARGV))
IoFLAGS(io) |= IOf_START;
    if (PL_inplace) {
(void)do_close(PL_argvoutgv,FALSE);
if (io && (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_ARGV)
&& PL_argvout_stack && AvFILLp(PL_argvout_stack) >= 0)
{
GV *oldout = (GV*)av_pop(PL_argvout_stack);
setdefout(oldout);
SvREFCNT_dec(oldout);
return Nullfp;
}
setdefout(gv_fetchpv("STDOUT",TRUE,SVt_PVIO));
    }
    return Nullfp;
}

#ifdef HAS_PIPE
void
Perl_do_pipe(pTHX_ SV *sv, GV *rgv, GV *wgv)
{
    register IO *rstio;
    register IO *wstio;
    int fd[2];

    if (!rgv)
goto badexit;
    if (!wgv)
goto badexit;

    rstio = GvIOn(rgv);
    wstio = GvIOn(wgv);

    if (IoIFP(rstio))
do_close(rgv,FALSE);
    if (IoIFP(wstio))
do_close(wgv,FALSE);

    if (PerlProc_pipe(fd) < 0)
goto badexit;
    IoIFP(rstio) = PerlIO_fdopen(fd[0], "r"PIPE_OPEN_MODE);
    IoOFP(wstio) = PerlIO_fdopen(fd[1], "w"PIPE_OPEN_MODE);
    IoOFP(rstio) = IoIFP(rstio);
    IoIFP(wstio) = IoOFP(wstio);
    IoTYPE(rstio) = IoTYPE_RDONLY;
    IoTYPE(wstio) = IoTYPE_WRONLY;
    if (!IoIFP(rstio) || !IoOFP(wstio)) {
if (IoIFP(rstio)) PerlIO_close(IoIFP(rstio));
else PerlLIO_close(fd[0]);
if (IoOFP(wstio)) PerlIO_close(IoOFP(wstio));
else PerlLIO_close(fd[1]);
goto badexit;
    }

    sv_setsv(sv,&PL_sv_yes);
    return;

badexit:
    sv_setsv(sv,&PL_sv_undef);
    return;
}
#endif

/* explicit renamed to avoid C++ conflict -- kja */
bool
Perl_do_close(pTHX_ GV *gv, bool not_implicit)
{
    bool retval;
    IO *io;

    if (!gv)
gv = PL_argvgv;
    if (!gv || SvTYPE(gv) != SVt_PVGV) {
if (not_implicit)
SETERRNO(EBADF,SS_IVCHAN);
return FALSE;
    }
    io = GvIO(gv);
    if (!io) { /* never opened */
if (not_implicit) {
if (ckWARN(WARN_UNOPENED)) /* no check for closed here */
report_evil_fh(gv, io, PL_op->op_type);
SETERRNO(EBADF,SS_IVCHAN);
}
return FALSE;
    }
    retval = io_close(io, not_implicit);
    if (not_implicit) {
IoLINES(io) = 0;
IoPAGE(io) = 0;
IoLINES_LEFT(io) = IoPAGE_LEN(io);
    }
    IoTYPE(io) = IoTYPE_CLOSED;
    return retval;
}

bool
Perl_io_close(pTHX_ IO *io, bool not_implicit)
{
    bool retval = FALSE;

    if (IoIFP(io)) {
if (IoTYPE(io) == IoTYPE_PIPE) {
const int status = PerlProc_pclose(IoIFP(io));
if (not_implicit) {
STATUS_NATIVE_SET(status);
retval = (STATUS_POSIX == 0);
}
else {
retval = (status != -1);
}
}
else if (IoTYPE(io) == IoTYPE_STD)
retval = TRUE;
else {
if (IoOFP(io) && IoOFP(io) != IoIFP(io)) { /* a socket */
bool prev_err = PerlIO_error(IoOFP(io));
retval = (PerlIO_close(IoOFP(io)) != EOF && !prev_err);
PerlIO_close(IoIFP(io)); /* clear stdio, fd already closed */
}
else {
bool prev_err = PerlIO_error(IoIFP(io));
retval = (PerlIO_close(IoIFP(io)) != EOF && !prev_err);
}
}
IoOFP(io) = IoIFP(io) = Nullfp;
    }
    else if (not_implicit) {
SETERRNO(EBADF,SS_IVCHAN);
    }

    return retval;
}

bool
Perl_do_eof(pTHX_ GV *gv)
{
    register IO *io;
    int ch;

    io = GvIO(gv);

    if (!io)
return TRUE;
    else if ((IoTYPE(io) == IoTYPE_WRONLY) && ckWARN(WARN_IO))
report_evil_fh(gv, io, OP_phoney_OUTPUT_ONLY);

    while (IoIFP(io)) {
        int saverrno;

        if (PerlIO_has_cntptr(IoIFP(io))) { /* (the code works without this) */
if (PerlIO_get_cnt(IoIFP(io)) > 0) /* cheat a little, since */
return FALSE; /* this is the most usual case */
        }

saverrno = errno; /* getc and ungetc can stomp on errno */
ch = PerlIO_getc(IoIFP(io));
if (ch != EOF) {
(void)PerlIO_ungetc(IoIFP(io),ch);
errno = saverrno;
return FALSE;
}
errno = saverrno;

        if (PerlIO_has_cntptr(IoIFP(io)) && PerlIO_canset_cnt(IoIFP(io))) {
if (PerlIO_get_cnt(IoIFP(io)) < -1)
PerlIO_set_cnt(IoIFP(io),-1);
}
if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL) { /* not necessarily a real EOF yet? */
if (gv != PL_argvgv || !nextargv(gv)) /* get another fp handy */
return TRUE;
}
else
return TRUE; /* normal fp, definitely end of file */
    }
    return TRUE;
}

Off_t
Perl_do_tell(pTHX_ GV *gv)
{
    register IO *io = 0;
    register PerlIO *fp;

    if (gv && (io = GvIO(gv)) && (fp = IoIFP(io))) {
#ifdef ULTRIX_STDIO_BOTCH
if (PerlIO_eof(fp))
(void)PerlIO_seek(fp, 0L, 2); /* ultrix 1.2 workaround */
#endif
return PerlIO_tell(fp);
    }
    if (ckWARN2(WARN_UNOPENED,WARN_CLOSED))
report_evil_fh(gv, io, PL_op->op_type);
    SETERRNO(EBADF,RMS_IFI);
    return (Off_t)-1;
}

bool
Perl_do_seek(pTHX_ GV *gv, Off_t pos, int whence)
{
    register IO *io = 0;
    register PerlIO *fp;

    if (gv && (io = GvIO(gv)) && (fp = IoIFP(io))) {
#ifdef ULTRIX_STDIO_BOTCH
if (PerlIO_eof(fp))
(void)PerlIO_seek(fp, 0L, 2); /* ultrix 1.2 workaround */
#endif
return PerlIO_seek(fp, pos, whence) >= 0;
    }
    if (ckWARN2(WARN_UNOPENED,WARN_CLOSED))
report_evil_fh(gv, io, PL_op->op_type);
    SETERRNO(EBADF,RMS_IFI);
    return FALSE;
}

Off_t
Perl_do_sysseek(pTHX_ GV *gv, Off_t pos, int whence)
{
    register IO *io = 0;
    register PerlIO *fp;

    if (gv && (io = GvIO(gv)) && (fp = IoIFP(io)))
return PerlLIO_lseek(PerlIO_fileno(fp), pos, whence);
    if (ckWARN2(WARN_UNOPENED,WARN_CLOSED))
report_evil_fh(gv, io, PL_op->op_type);
    SETERRNO(EBADF,RMS_IFI);
    return (Off_t)-1;
}

int
Perl_mode_from_discipline(pTHX_ SV *discp)
{
    int mode = O_BINARY;
    if (discp) {
STRLEN len;
const char *s = SvPV_const(discp,len);
while (*s) {
if (*s == ':') {
switch (s[1]) {
case 'r':
if (s[2] == 'a' && s[3] == 'w'
&& (!s[4] || s[4] == ':' || isSPACE(s[4])))
{
mode = O_BINARY;
s += 4;
len -= 4;
break;
}
/* FALL THROUGH */
case 'c':
if (s[2] == 'r' && s[3] == 'l' && s[4] == 'f'
&& (!s[5] || s[5] == ':' || isSPACE(s[5])))
{
mode = O_TEXT;
s += 5;
len -= 5;
break;
}
/* FALL THROUGH */
default:
goto fail_discipline;
}
}
else if (isSPACE(*s)) {
++s;
--len;
}
else {
const char *end;
fail_discipline:
end = strchr(s+1, ':');
if (!end)
end = s+len;
#ifndef PERLIO_LAYERS
Perl_croak(aTHX_ "IO layers (like '%.*s') unavailable", end-s, s);
#else
len -= end-s;
s = end;
#endif
}
}
    }
    return mode;
}

int
Perl_do_binmode(pTHX_ PerlIO *fp, int iotype, int mode)
{
 /* The old body of this is now in non-LAYER part of perlio.c
* This is a stub for any XS code which might have been calling it.
*/
 const char *name = ":raw";
#ifdef PERLIO_USING_CRLF
 if (!(mode & O_BINARY))
     name = ":crlf";
#endif
 return PerlIO_binmode(aTHX_ fp, iotype, mode, name);
}

#if !defined(HAS_TRUNCATE) && !defined(HAS_CHSIZE)
I32
my_chsize(int fd, Off_t length)
{
#ifdef F_FREESP
/* code courtesy of William Kucharski */
#define HAS_CHSIZE

    struct flock fl;
    Stat_t filebuf;

    if (PerlLIO_fstat(fd, &filebuf) < 0)
return -1;

    if (filebuf.st_size < length) {

/* extend file length */

if ((PerlLIO_lseek(fd, (length - 1), 0)) < 0)
return -1;

/* write a "0" byte */

if ((PerlLIO_write(fd, "", 1)) != 1)
return -1;
    }
    else {
/* truncate length */

fl.l_whence = 0;
fl.l_len = 0;
fl.l_start = length;
fl.l_type = F_WRLCK; /* write lock on file space */

/*
* This relies on the UNDOCUMENTED F_FREESP argument to
* fcntl(2), which truncates the file so that it ends at the
* position indicated by fl.l_start.
*
* Will minor miracles never cease?
*/

if (fcntl(fd, F_FREESP, &fl) < 0)
return -1;

    }
    return 0;
#else
    Perl_croak_nocontext("truncate not implemented");
#endif /* F_FREESP */
    return -1;
}
#endif /* !HAS_TRUNCATE && !HAS_CHSIZE */

bool
Perl_do_print(pTHX_ register SV *sv, PerlIO *fp)
{
    register const char *tmps;
    STRLEN len;

    /* assuming fp is checked earlier */
    if (!sv)
return TRUE;
    if (PL_ofmt) {
if (SvGMAGICAL(sv))
mg_get(sv);
        if (SvIOK(sv) && SvIVX(sv) != 0) {
PerlIO_printf(fp, PL_ofmt, (NV)SvIVX(sv));
return !PerlIO_error(fp);
}
if ( (SvNOK(sv) && SvNVX(sv) != 0.0)
|| (looks_like_number(sv) && sv_2nv(sv) != 0.0) ) {
PerlIO_printf(fp, PL_ofmt, SvNVX(sv));
return !PerlIO_error(fp);
}
    }
    switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
    case SVt_NULL:
if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
report_uninit();
return TRUE;
    case SVt_IV:
if (SvIOK(sv)) {
if (SvGMAGICAL(sv))
mg_get(sv);
if (SvIsUV(sv))
PerlIO_printf(fp, "%"UVuf, (UV)SvUVX(sv));
else
PerlIO_printf(fp, "%"IVdf, (IV)SvIVX(sv));
return !PerlIO_error(fp);
}
/* FALL THROUGH */
    default:
if (PerlIO_isutf8(fp)) {
if (!SvUTF8(sv))
sv_utf8_upgrade_flags(sv = sv_mortalcopy(sv),
SV_GMAGIC|SV_UTF8_NO_ENCODING);
}
else if (DO_UTF8(sv)) {
if (!sv_utf8_downgrade((sv = sv_mortalcopy(sv)), TRUE)
&& ckWARN_d(WARN_UTF8))
{
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_UTF8), "Wide character in print");
}
}
tmps = SvPV_const(sv, len);
break;
    }
    /* To detect whether the process is about to overstep its
* filesize limit we would need getrlimit(). We could then
* also transparently raise the limit with setrlimit() --
* but only until the system hard limit/the filesystem limit,
* at which we would get EPERM. Note that when using buffered
* io the write failure can be delayed until the flush/close. --jhi */
    if (len && (PerlIO_write(fp,tmps,len) == 0))
return FALSE;
    return !PerlIO_error(fp);
}

I32
Perl_my_stat(pTHX)
{
    dSP;
    IO *io;
    GV* gv;

    if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
EXTEND(SP,1);
gv = cGVOP_gv;
      do_fstat:
io = GvIO(gv);
if (io && IoIFP(io)) {
PL_statgv = gv;
sv_setpvn(PL_statname,"", 0);
PL_laststype = OP_STAT;
return (PL_laststatval = PerlLIO_fstat(PerlIO_fileno(IoIFP(io)), &PL_statcache));
}
else {
if (gv == PL_defgv)
return PL_laststatval;
if (ckWARN2(WARN_UNOPENED,WARN_CLOSED))
report_evil_fh(gv, io, PL_op->op_type);
PL_statgv = Nullgv;
sv_setpvn(PL_statname,"", 0);
return (PL_laststatval = -1);
}
    }
    else {
SV* sv = POPs;
const char *s;
STRLEN len;
PUTBACK;
if (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVGV) {
gv = (GV*)sv;
goto do_fstat;
}
else if (SvROK(sv) && SvTYPE(SvRV(sv)) == SVt_PVGV) {
gv = (GV*)SvRV(sv);
goto do_fstat;
}

s = SvPV_const(sv, len);
PL_statgv = Nullgv;
sv_setpvn(PL_statname, s, len);
s = SvPVX_const(PL_statname); /* s now NUL-terminated */
PL_laststype = OP_STAT;
PL_laststatval = PerlLIO_stat(s, &PL_statcache);
if (PL_laststatval < 0 && ckWARN(WARN_NEWLINE) && strchr(s, '\n'))
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NEWLINE), PL_warn_nl, "stat");
return PL_laststatval;
    }
}

static const char no_prev_lstat[] = "The stat preceding -l _ wasn't an lstat";

I32
Perl_my_lstat(pTHX)
{
    dSP;
    SV *sv;
    if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
EXTEND(SP,1);
if (cGVOP_gv == PL_defgv) {
if (PL_laststype != OP_LSTAT)
Perl_croak(aTHX_ no_prev_lstat);
return PL_laststatval;
}
if (ckWARN(WARN_IO)) {
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_IO), "Use of -l on filehandle %s",
GvENAME(cGVOP_gv));
return (PL_laststatval = -1);
}
    }

    PL_laststype = OP_LSTAT;
    PL_statgv = Nullgv;
    sv = POPs;
    PUTBACK;
    if (SvROK(sv) && SvTYPE(SvRV(sv)) == SVt_PVGV && ckWARN(WARN_IO)) {
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_IO), "Use of -l on filehandle %s",
GvENAME((GV*) SvRV(sv)));
return (PL_laststatval = -1);
    }
    /* XXX Do really need to be calling SvPV() all these times? */
    sv_setpv(PL_statname,SvPV_nolen_const(sv));
    PL_laststatval = PerlLIO_lstat(SvPV_nolen_const(sv),&PL_statcache);
    if (PL_laststatval < 0 && ckWARN(WARN_NEWLINE) && strchr(SvPV_nolen_const(sv), '\n'))
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_NEWLINE), PL_warn_nl, "lstat");
    return PL_laststatval;
}

#ifndef OS2
bool
Perl_do_aexec(pTHX_ SV *really, register SV **mark, register SV **sp)
{
    return do_aexec5(really, mark, sp, 0, 0);
}
#endif

bool
Perl_do_aexec5(pTHX_ SV *really, register SV **mark, register SV **sp,
int fd, int do_report)
{
#if defined(MACOS_TRADITIONAL) || defined(SYMBIAN)
    Perl_croak(aTHX_ "exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system");
#else
    if (sp > mark) {
char **a;
const char *tmps = Nullch;
Newx(PL_Argv, sp - mark + 1, char*);
a = PL_Argv;

while (++mark <= sp) {
if (*mark)
*a++ = (char*)SvPV_nolen_const(*mark);
else
*a++ = "";
}
*a = Nullch;
if (really)
tmps = SvPV_nolen_const(really);
if ((!really && *PL_Argv[0] != '/') ||
(really && *tmps != '/')) /* will execvp use PATH? */
TAINT_ENV(); /* testing IFS here is overkill, probably */
PERL_FPU_PRE_EXEC
if (really && *tmps)
PerlProc_execvp(tmps,EXEC_ARGV_CAST(PL_Argv));
else
PerlProc_execvp(PL_Argv[0],EXEC_ARGV_CAST(PL_Argv));
PERL_FPU_POST_EXEC
if (ckWARN(WARN_EXEC))
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_EXEC), "Can't exec \"%s\": %s",
(really ? tmps : PL_Argv[0]), Strerror(errno));
if (do_report) {
int e = errno;

PerlLIO_write(fd, (void*)&e, sizeof(int));
PerlLIO_close(fd);
}
    }
    do_execfree();
#endif
    return FALSE;
}

void
Perl_do_execfree(pTHX)
{
    Safefree(PL_Argv);
    PL_Argv = Null(char **);
    Safefree(PL_Cmd);
    PL_Cmd = Nullch;
}

#if !defined(OS2) && !defined(WIN32) && !defined(DJGPP) && !defined(EPOC) && !defined(SYMBIAN) && !defined(MACOS_TRADITIONAL)

bool
Perl_do_exec(pTHX_ char *cmd)
{
    return do_exec3(cmd,0,0);
}

bool
Perl_do_exec3(pTHX_ char *cmd, int fd, int do_report)
{
    register char **a;
    register char *s;

    while (*cmd && isSPACE(*cmd))
cmd++;

    /* save an extra exec if possible */

#ifdef CSH
    {
        char flags[PERL_FLAGS_MAX];
if (strnEQ(cmd,PL_cshname,PL_cshlen) &&
strnEQ(cmd+PL_cshlen," -c",3)) {
#ifdef HAS_STRLCPY
          strlcpy(flags, "-c", PERL_FLAGS_MAX);
#else
strcpy(flags,"-c");
#endif
s = cmd+PL_cshlen+3;
if (*s == 'f') {
s++;
#ifdef HAS_STRLCPY
              strlcat(flags, "f", PERL_FLAGS_MAX);
#else
strcat(flags,"f");
#endif
}
if (*s == ' ')
s++;
if (*s++ == '\'') {
char *ncmd = s;

while (*s)
s++;
if (s[-1] == '\n')
*--s = '\0';
if (s[-1] == '\'') {
*--s = '\0';
PERL_FPU_PRE_EXEC
PerlProc_execl(PL_cshname,"csh", flags, ncmd, (char*)0);
PERL_FPU_POST_EXEC
*s = '\'';
return FALSE;
}
}
}
    }
#endif /* CSH */

    /* see if there are shell metacharacters in it */

    if (*cmd == '.' && isSPACE(cmd[1]))
goto doshell;

    if (strnEQ(cmd,"exec",4) && isSPACE(cmd[4]))
goto doshell;

    for (s = cmd; *s && isALNUM(*s); s++) ; /* catch VAR=val gizmo */
    if (*s == '=')
goto doshell;

    for (s = cmd; *s; s++) {
if (*s != ' ' && !isALPHA(*s) &&
strchr("$&*(){}[]'\";\\|?<>~`\n",*s)) {
if (*s == '\n' && !s[1]) {
*s = '\0';
break;
}
/* handle the 2>&1 construct at the end */
if (*s == '>' && s[1] == '&' && s[2] == '1'
&& s > cmd + 1 && s[-1] == '2' && isSPACE(s[-2])
&& (!s[3] || isSPACE(s[3])))
{
                const char *t = s + 3;

while (*t && isSPACE(*t))
++t;
if (!*t && (PerlLIO_dup2(1,2) != -1)) {
s[-2] = '\0';
break;
}
}
doshell:
PERL_FPU_PRE_EXEC
PerlProc_execl(PL_sh_path, "sh", "-c", cmd, (char*)0);
PERL_FPU_POST_EXEC
return FALSE;
}
    }

    Newx(PL_Argv, (s - cmd) / 2 + 2, char*);
    PL_Cmd = savepvn(cmd, s-cmd);
    a = PL_Argv;
    for (s = PL_Cmd; *s;) {
while (*s && isSPACE(*s)) s++;
if (*s)
*(a++) = s;
while (*s && !isSPACE(*s)) s++;
if (*s)
*s++ = '\0';
    }
    *a = Nullch;
    if (PL_Argv[0]) {
PERL_FPU_PRE_EXEC
PerlProc_execvp(PL_Argv[0],PL_Argv);
PERL_FPU_POST_EXEC
if (errno == ENOEXEC) { /* for system V NIH syndrome */
do_execfree();
goto doshell;
}
{
if (ckWARN(WARN_EXEC))
Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_EXEC), "Can't exec \"%s\": %s",
PL_Argv[0], Strerror(errno));
if (do_report) {
int e = errno;
PerlLIO_write(fd, (void*)&e, sizeof(int));
PerlLIO_close(fd);
}
}
    }
    do_execfree();
    return FALSE;
}

#endif /* OS2 || WIN32 */

I32
Perl_apply(pTHX_ I32 type, register SV **mark, register SV **sp)
{
    register I32 val;
    register I32 tot = 0;
    const char *what;
    const char *s;
    SV ** const oldmark = mark;

#define APPLY_TAINT_PROPER() \
STMT_START { \
if (PL_tainted) { TAINT_PROPER(what); } \
} STMT_END

    /* This is a first heuristic; it doesn't catch tainting magic. */
    if (PL_tainting) {
while (++mark <= sp) {
if (SvTAINTED(*mark)) {
TAINT;
break;
}
}
mark = oldmark;
    }
    switch (type) {
    case OP_CHMOD:
what = "chmod";
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
if (++mark <= sp) {
val = SvIVx(*mark);
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
tot = sp - mark;
while (++mark <= sp) {
                GV* gv;
                if (SvTYPE(*mark) == SVt_PVGV) {
                    gv = (GV*)*mark;
do_fchmod:
if (GvIO(gv) && IoIFP(GvIOp(gv))) {
#ifdef HAS_FCHMOD
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
if (fchmod(PerlIO_fileno(IoIFP(GvIOn(gv))), val))
tot--;
#else
Perl_die(aTHX_ PL_no_func, "fchmod");
#endif
}
else {
tot--;
}
}
else if (SvROK(*mark) && SvTYPE(SvRV(*mark)) == SVt_PVGV) {
gv = (GV*)SvRV(*mark);
goto do_fchmod;
}
else {
const char *name = SvPV_nolen_const(*mark);
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
if (PerlLIO_chmod(name, val))
tot--;
}
}
}
break;
#ifdef HAS_CHOWN
    case OP_CHOWN:
what = "chown";
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
if (sp - mark > 2) {
            register I32 val2;
val = SvIVx(*++mark);
val2 = SvIVx(*++mark);
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
tot = sp - mark;
while (++mark <= sp) {
                GV* gv;
                if (SvTYPE(*mark) == SVt_PVGV) {
                    gv = (GV*)*mark;
do_fchown:
if (GvIO(gv) && IoIFP(GvIOp(gv))) {
#ifdef HAS_FCHOWN
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
if (fchown(PerlIO_fileno(IoIFP(GvIOn(gv))), val, val2))
tot--;
#else
Perl_die(aTHX_ PL_no_func, "fchown");
#endif
}
else {
tot--;
}
}
else if (SvROK(*mark) && SvTYPE(SvRV(*mark)) == SVt_PVGV) {
gv = (GV*)SvRV(*mark);
goto do_fchown;
}
else {
const char *name = SvPV_nolen_const(*mark);
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
if (PerlLIO_chown(name, val, val2))
tot--;
}
}
}
break;
#endif
/*
XXX Should we make lchown() directly available from perl?
For now, we'll let Configure test for HAS_LCHOWN, but do
nothing in the core.
--AD 5/1998
*/
#ifdef HAS_KILL
    case OP_KILL:
what = "kill";
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
if (mark == sp)
break;
s = SvPVx_nolen_const(*++mark);
if (isALPHA(*s)) {
if (*s == 'S' && s[1] == 'I' && s[2] == 'G')
s += 3;
if ((val = whichsig((char *)s)) < 0)
Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Unrecognized signal name \"%s\"",s);
}
else
val = SvIVx(*mark);
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
tot = sp - mark;
#ifdef VMS
/* kill() doesn't do process groups (job trees?) under VMS */
if (val < 0) val = -val;
if (val == SIGKILL) {
# include <starlet.h>
/* Use native sys$delprc() to insure that target process is
* deleted; supervisor-mode images don't pay attention to
* CRTL's emulation of Unix-style signals and kill()
*/
while (++mark <= sp) {
I32 proc = SvIVx(*mark);
register unsigned long int __vmssts;
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
if (!((__vmssts = sys$delprc(&proc,0)) & 1)) {
tot--;
switch (__vmssts) {
case SS$_NONEXPR:
case SS$_NOSUCHNODE:
SETERRNO(ESRCH,__vmssts);
break;
case SS$_NOPRIV:
SETERRNO(EPERM,__vmssts);
break;
default:
SETERRNO(EVMSERR,__vmssts);
}
}
}
break;
}
#endif
if (val < 0) {
val = -val;
while (++mark <= sp) {
I32 proc = SvIVx(*mark);
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
#ifdef HAS_KILLPG
if (PerlProc_killpg(proc,val)) /* BSD */
#else
if (PerlProc_kill(-proc,val)) /* SYSV */
#endif
tot--;
}
}
else {
while (++mark <= sp) {
I32 proc = SvIVx(*mark);
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
if (PerlProc_kill(proc, val))
tot--;
}
}
break;
#endif
    case OP_UNLINK:
what = "unlink";
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
tot = sp - mark;
while (++mark <= sp) {
s = SvPV_nolen_const(*mark);
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
if (PL_euid || PL_unsafe) {
if (UNLINK((char *)s))
tot--;
}
else { /* don't let root wipe out directories without -U */
if (PerlLIO_lstat(s,&PL_statbuf) < 0 || S_ISDIR(PL_statbuf.st_mode))
tot--;
else {
if (UNLINK((char*)s))
tot--;
}
}
}
break;
#ifdef HAS_UTIME
    case OP_UTIME:
what = "utime";
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
if (sp - mark > 2) {
#if defined(I_UTIME) || defined(VMS)
struct utimbuf utbuf;
struct utimbuf *utbufp = &utbuf;
#else
struct {
Time_t actime;
Time_t modtime;
} utbuf;
void *utbufp = &utbuf;
#endif

           SV* accessed = *++mark;
           SV* modified = *++mark;

           /* Be like C, and if both times are undefined, let the C
* library figure out what to do. This usually means
* "current time". */

           if ( accessed == &PL_sv_undef && modified == &PL_sv_undef )
                utbufp = NULL;
           else {
                Zero(&utbuf, sizeof utbuf, char);
#ifdef BIG_TIME
                utbuf.actime = (Time_t)SvNVx(accessed); /* time accessed */
                utbuf.modtime = (Time_t)SvNVx(modified); /* time modified */
#else
                utbuf.actime = (Time_t)SvIVx(accessed); /* time accessed */
                utbuf.modtime = (Time_t)SvIVx(modified); /* time modified */
#endif
            }
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
tot = sp - mark;
while (++mark <= sp) {
char *name = SvPV_nolen(*mark);
APPLY_TAINT_PROPER();
if (PerlLIO_utime(name, utbufp))
tot--;
}
}
else
tot = 0;
break;
#endif
    }
    return tot;

#undef APPLY_TAINT_PROPER
}

/* Do the permissions allow some operation? Assumes statcache already set. */
#ifndef VMS /* VMS' cando is in vms.c */
bool
Perl_cando(pTHX_ Mode_t mode, Uid_t effective, register Stat_t *statbufp)
/* Note: we use "effective" both for uids and gids.
* Here we are betting on Uid_t being equal or wider than Gid_t. */
{
#ifdef DOSISH
    /* [Comments and code from Len Reed]
* MS-DOS "user" is similar to UNIX's "superuser," but can't write
* to write-protected files. The execute permission bit is set
* by the Miscrosoft C library stat() function for the following:
* .exe files
* .com files
* .bat files
* directories
* All files and directories are readable.
* Directories and special files, e.g. "CON", cannot be
* write-protected.
* [Comment by Tom Dinger -- a directory can have the write-protect
* bit set in the file system, but DOS permits changes to
* the directory anyway. In addition, all bets are off
* here for networked software, such as Novell and
* Sun's PC-NFS.]
*/

     /* Atari stat() does pretty much the same thing. we set x_bit_set_in_stat
* too so it will actually look into the files for magic numbers
*/
     return (mode & statbufp->st_mode) ? TRUE : FALSE;

#else /* ! DOSISH */
    if ((effective ? PL_euid : PL_uid) == 0) { /* root is special */
if (mode == S_IXUSR) {
if (statbufp->st_mode & 0111 || S_ISDIR(statbufp->st_mode))
return TRUE;
}
else
return TRUE; /* root reads and writes anything */
return FALSE;
    }
    if (statbufp->st_uid == (effective ? PL_euid : PL_uid) ) {
if (statbufp->st_mode & mode)
return TRUE; /* ok as "user" */
    }
    else if (ingroup(statbufp->st_gid,effective)) {
if (statbufp->st_mode & mode >> 3)
return TRUE; /* ok as "group" */
    }
    else if (statbufp->st_mode & mode >> 6)
return TRUE; /* ok as "other" */
    return FALSE;
#endif /* ! DOSISH */
}
#endif /* ! VMS */

bool
Perl_ingroup(pTHX_ Gid_t testgid, Uid_t effective)
{
#ifdef MACOS_TRADITIONAL
    /* This is simply not correct for AppleShare, but fix it yerself. */
    return TRUE;
#else
    if (testgid == (effective ? PL_egid : PL_gid))
return TRUE;
#ifdef HAS_GETGROUPS
    {
Groups_t *gary = NULL;
I32 anum;
        bool rc = FALSE;

anum = getgroups(0, gary);
        Newx(gary, anum, Groups_t);
        anum = getgroups(anum, gary);
while (--anum >= 0)
if (gary[anum] == testgid) {
                rc = TRUE;
                break;
            }

        Safefree(gary);
        return rc;
    }
#endif
    return FALSE;
#endif
}

#if defined(HAS_MSG) || defined(HAS_SEM) || defined(HAS_SHM)

I32
Perl_do_ipcget(pTHX_ I32 optype, SV **mark, SV **sp)
{
    key_t key = (key_t)SvNVx(*++mark);
    const I32 n = (optype == OP_MSGGET) ? 0 : SvIVx(*++mark);
    const I32 flags = SvIVx(*++mark);
    (void)sp;

    SETERRNO(0,0);
    switch (optype)
    {
#ifdef HAS_MSG
    case OP_MSGGET:
return msgget(key, flags);
#endif
#ifdef HAS_SEM
    case OP_SEMGET:
return semget(key, n, flags);
#endif
#ifdef HAS_SHM
    case OP_SHMGET:
return shmget(key, n, flags);
#endif
#if !defined(HAS_MSG) || !defined(HAS_SEM) || !defined(HAS_SHM)
    default:
Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s not implemented", PL_op_desc[optype]);
#endif
    }
    return -1; /* should never happen */
}

I32
Perl_do_ipcctl(pTHX_ I32 optype, SV **mark, SV **sp)
{
    SV *astr;
    char *a;
    STRLEN infosize;
    I32 getinfo;
    I32 ret = -1;
    const I32 id = SvIVx(*++mark);
    const I32 n = (optype == OP_SEMCTL) ? SvIVx(*++mark) : 0;
    const I32 cmd = SvIVx(*++mark);
    PERL_UNUSED_ARG(sp);

    astr = *++mark;
    infosize = 0;
    getinfo = (cmd == IPC_STAT);

    switch (optype)
    {
#ifdef HAS_MSG
    case OP_MSGCTL:
if (cmd == IPC_STAT || cmd == IPC_SET)
infosize = sizeof(struct msqid_ds);
break;
#endif
#ifdef HAS_SHM
    case OP_SHMCTL:
if (cmd == IPC_STAT || cmd == IPC_SET)
infosize = sizeof(struct shmid_ds);
break;
#endif
#ifdef HAS_SEM
    case OP_SEMCTL:
#ifdef Semctl
if (cmd == IPC_STAT || cmd == IPC_SET)
infosize = sizeof(struct semid_ds);
else if (cmd == GETALL || cmd == SETALL)
{
struct semid_ds semds;
union semun semun;
#ifdef EXTRA_F_IN_SEMUN_BUF
            semun.buff = &semds;
#else
            semun.buf = &semds;
#endif
getinfo = (cmd == GETALL);
if (Semctl(id, 0, IPC_STAT, semun) == -1)
return -1;
infosize = semds.sem_nsems * sizeof(short);
/* "short" is technically wrong but much more portable
than guessing about u_?short(_t)? */
}
#else
Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s not implemented", PL_op_desc[optype]);
#endif
break;
#endif
#if !defined(HAS_MSG) || !defined(HAS_SEM) || !defined(HAS_SHM)
    default:
Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s not implemented", PL_op_desc[optype]);
#endif
    }

    if (infosize)
    {
if (getinfo)
{
SvPV_force_nolen(astr);
a = SvGROW(astr, infosize+1);
}
else
{
STRLEN len;
a = SvPV(astr, len);
if (len != infosize)
Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Bad arg length for %s, is %lu, should be %ld",
PL_op_desc[optype],
(unsigned long)len,
(long)infosize);
}
    }
    else
    {
IV i = SvIV(astr);
a = INT2PTR(char *,i); /* ouch */
    }
    SETERRNO(0,0);
    switch (optype)
    {
#ifdef HAS_MSG
    case OP_MSGCTL:
ret = msgctl(id, cmd, (struct msqid_ds *)a);
break;
#endif
#ifdef HAS_SEM
    case OP_SEMCTL: {
#ifdef Semctl
            union semun unsemds;

#ifdef EXTRA_F_IN_SEMUN_BUF
            unsemds.buff = (struct semid_ds *)a;
#else
            unsemds.buf = (struct semid_ds *)a;
#endif
ret = Semctl(id, n, cmd, unsemds);
#else
Perl_croak(aTHX_ "%s not implemented", PL_op_desc[optype]);
#endif
        }
break;
#endif
#ifdef HAS_SHM
    case OP_SHMCTL:
ret = shmctl(id, cmd, (struct shmid_ds *)a);
break;
#endif
    }
    if (getinfo && ret >= 0) {
SvCUR_set(astr, infosize);
*SvEND(astr) = '\0';
SvSETMAGIC(astr);
    }
    return ret;
}

I32
Perl_do_msgsnd(pTHX_ SV **mark, SV **sp)
{
#ifdef HAS_MSG
    SV *mstr;
    const char *mbuf;
    I32 msize, flags;
    STRLEN len;
    const I32 id = SvIVx(*++mark);
    PERL_UNUSED_ARG(sp);

    mstr = *++mark;
    flags = SvIVx(*++mark);
    mbuf = SvPV_const(mstr, len);
    if ((msize = len - sizeof(long)) < 0)
Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Arg too short for msgsnd");
    SETERRNO(0,0);
    return msgsnd(id, (struct msgbuf *)mbuf, msize, flags);
#else
    Perl_croak(aTHX_ "msgsnd not implemented");
#endif
}

I32
Perl_do_msgrcv(pTHX_ SV **mark, SV **sp)
{
#ifdef HAS_MSG
    SV *mstr;
    char *mbuf;
    long mtype;
    I32 msize, flags, ret;
    const I32 id = SvIVx(*++mark);
    PERL_UNUSED_ARG(sp);

    mstr = *++mark;
    /* suppress warning when reading into undef var --jhi */
    if (! SvOK(mstr))
sv_setpvn(mstr, "", 0);
    msize = SvIVx(*++mark);
    mtype = (long)SvIVx(*++mark);
    flags = SvIVx(*++mark);
    SvPV_force_nolen(mstr);
    mbuf = SvGROW(mstr, sizeof(long)+msize+1);

    SETERRNO(0,0);
    ret = msgrcv(id, (struct msgbuf *)mbuf, msize, mtype, flags);
    if (ret >= 0) {
SvCUR_set(mstr, sizeof(long)+ret);
*SvEND(mstr) = '\0';
#ifndef INCOMPLETE_TAINTS
/* who knows who has been playing with this message? */
SvTAINTED_on(mstr);
#endif
    }
    return ret;
#else
    Perl_croak(aTHX_ "msgrcv not implemented");
#endif
}

I32
Perl_do_semop(pTHX_ SV **mark, SV **sp)
{
#ifdef HAS_SEM
    SV *opstr;
    const char *opbuf;
    STRLEN opsize;
    const I32 id = SvIVx(*++mark);
    PERL_UNUSED_ARG(sp);

    opstr = *++mark;
    opbuf = SvPV_const(opstr, opsize);
    if (opsize < 3 * SHORTSIZE
|| (opsize % (3 * SHORTSIZE))) {
SETERRNO(EINVAL,LIB_INVARG);
return -1;
    }
    SETERRNO(0,0);
    /* We can't assume that sizeof(struct sembuf) == 3 * sizeof(short). */
    {
        const int nsops = opsize / (3 * sizeof (short));
        int i = nsops;
        short *ops = (short *) opbuf;
        short *o = ops;
        struct sembuf *temps, *t;
        I32 result;

        Newx (temps, nsops, struct sembuf);
        t = temps;
        while (i--) {
            t->sem_num = *o++;
            t->sem_op = *o++;
            t->sem_flg = *o++;
            t++;
        }
        result = semop(id, temps, nsops);
        t = temps;
        o = ops;
        i = nsops;
        while (i--) {
            *o++ = t->sem_num;
            *o++ = t->sem_op;
            *o++ = t->sem_flg;
            t++;
        }
        Safefree(temps);
        return result;
    }
#else
    Perl_croak(aTHX_ "semop not implemented");
#endif
}

I32
Perl_do_shmio(pTHX_ I32 optype, SV **mark, SV **sp)
{
#ifdef HAS_SHM
    SV *mstr;
    char *shm;
    I32 mpos, msize;
    struct shmid_ds shmds;
    const I32 id = SvIVx(*++mark);
    PERL_UNUSED_ARG(sp);

    mstr = *++mark;
    mpos = SvIVx(*++mark);
    msize = SvIVx(*++mark);
    SETERRNO(0,0);
    if (shmctl(id, IPC_STAT, &shmds) == -1)
return -1;
    if (mpos < 0 || msize < 0 || mpos + msize > shmds.shm_segsz) {
SETERRNO(EFAULT,SS_ACCVIO); /* can't do as caller requested */
return -1;
    }
    shm = (char *)shmat(id, (char*)NULL, (optype == OP_SHMREAD) ? SHM_RDONLY : 0);
    if (shm == (char *)-1) /* I hate System V IPC, I really do */
return -1;
    if (optype == OP_SHMREAD) {
const char *mbuf;
/* suppress warning when reading into undef var (tchrist 3/Mar/00) */
if (! SvOK(mstr))
sv_setpvn(mstr, "", 0);
SvPV_force_nolen(mstr);
mbuf = SvGROW(mstr, msize+1);

Copy(shm + mpos, mbuf, msize, char);
SvCUR_set(mstr, msize);
*SvEND(mstr) = '\0';
SvSETMAGIC(mstr);
#ifndef INCOMPLETE_TAINTS
/* who knows who has been playing with this shared memory? */
SvTAINTED_on(mstr);
#endif
    }
    else {
I32 n;
STRLEN len;

const char *mbuf = SvPV_const(mstr, len);
if ((n = len) > msize)
n = msize;
Copy(mbuf, shm + mpos, n, char);
if (n < msize)
memzero(shm + mpos + n, msize - n);
    }
    return shmdt(shm);
#else
    Perl_croak(aTHX_ "shm I/O not implemented");
#endif
}

#endif /* SYSV IPC */

/*
=head1 IO Functions

=for apidoc start_glob

Function called by C<do_readline> to spawn a glob (or do the glob inside
perl on VMS). This code used to be inline, but now perl uses C<File::Glob>
this glob starter is only used by miniperl during the build process.
Moving it away shrinks pp_hot.c; shrinking pp_hot.c helps speed perl up.

=cut
*/

PerlIO *
Perl_start_glob (pTHX_ SV *tmpglob, IO *io)
{
    SV * const tmpcmd = NEWSV(55, 0);
    PerlIO *fp;
    ENTER;
    SAVEFREESV(tmpcmd);
#ifdef VMS /* expand the wildcards right here, rather than opening a pipe, */
           /* since spawning off a process is a real performance hit */
    {
#include <descrip.h>
#include <lib$routines.h>
#include <nam.h>
#include <rmsdef.h>
char rslt[NAM$C_MAXRSS+1+sizeof(unsigned short int)] = {'\0','\0'};
char vmsspec[NAM$C_MAXRSS+1];
char * const rstr = rslt + sizeof(unsigned short int);
char *begin, *end, *cp;
$DESCRIPTOR(dfltdsc,"SYS$DISK:[]*.*;");
PerlIO *tmpfp;
STRLEN i;
struct dsc$descriptor_s wilddsc
= {0, DSC$K_DTYPE_T, DSC$K_CLASS_S, 0};
struct dsc$descriptor_vs rsdsc
= {sizeof rslt, DSC$K_DTYPE_VT, DSC$K_CLASS_VS, rslt};
unsigned long int cxt = 0, sts = 0, ok = 1, hasdir = 0, hasver = 0, isunix = 0;

/* We could find out if there's an explicit dev/dir or version
by peeking into lib$find_file's internal context at
((struct NAM *)((struct FAB *)cxt)->fab$l_nam)->nam$l_fnb
but that's unsupported, so I don't want to do it now and
have it bite someone in the future. */
cp = SvPV(tmpglob,i);
for (; i; i--) {
if (cp[i] == ';') hasver = 1;
if (cp[i] == '.') {
if (sts) hasver = 1;
else sts = 1;
}
if (cp[i] == '/') {
hasdir = isunix = 1;
break;
}
if (cp[i] == ']' || cp[i] == '>' || cp[i] == ':') {
hasdir = 1;
break;
}
}
       if ((tmpfp = PerlIO_tmpfile()) != NULL) {
Stat_t st;
if (!PerlLIO_stat(SvPVX_const(tmpglob),&st) && S_ISDIR(st.st_mode))
ok = ((wilddsc.dsc$a_pointer = tovmspath((char *)SvPVX_const(tmpglob),vmsspec)) != NULL);
else ok = ((wilddsc.dsc$a_pointer = tovmsspec((char *)SvPVX_const(tmpglob),vmsspec)) != NULL);
if (ok) wilddsc.dsc$w_length = (unsigned short int) strlen(wilddsc.dsc$a_pointer);
for (cp=wilddsc.dsc$a_pointer; ok && cp && *cp; cp++)
if (*cp == '?') *cp = '%'; /* VMS style single-char wildcard */
while (ok && ((sts = lib$find_file(&wilddsc,&rsdsc,&cxt,
&dfltdsc,NULL,NULL,NULL))&1)) {
/* with varying string, 1st word of buffer contains result length */
end = rstr + *((unsigned short int*)rslt);
if (!hasver) while (*end != ';' && end > rstr) end--;
*(end++) = '\n'; *end = '\0';
for (cp = rstr; *cp; cp++) *cp = _tolower(*cp);
if (hasdir) {
if (isunix) trim_unixpath(rstr,SvPVX(tmpglob),1);
begin = rstr;
}
else {
begin = end;
while (*(--begin) != ']' && *begin != '>') ;
++begin;
}
ok = (PerlIO_puts(tmpfp,begin) != EOF);
}
if (cxt) (void)lib$find_file_end(&cxt);
if (ok && sts != RMS$_NMF &&
sts != RMS$_DNF && sts != RMS_FNF) ok = 0;
if (!ok) {
if (!(sts & 1)) {
SETERRNO((sts == RMS$_SYN ? EINVAL : EVMSERR),sts);
}
PerlIO_close(tmpfp);
fp = NULL;
}
else {
PerlIO_rewind(tmpfp);
IoTYPE(io) = IoTYPE_RDONLY;
IoIFP(io) = fp = tmpfp;
IoFLAGS(io) &= ~IOf_UNTAINT; /* maybe redundant */
}
}
    }
#else /* !VMS */
#ifdef MACOS_TRADITIONAL
    sv_setpv(tmpcmd, "glob ");
    sv_catsv(tmpcmd, tmpglob);
    sv_catpv(tmpcmd, " |");
#else
#ifdef DOSISH
#ifdef OS2
    sv_setpv(tmpcmd, "for a in ");
    sv_catsv(tmpcmd, tmpglob);
    sv_catpv(tmpcmd, "; do echo \"$a\\0\\c\"; done |");
#else
#ifdef DJGPP
    sv_setpv(tmpcmd, "/dev/dosglob/"); /* File System Extension */
    sv_catsv(tmpcmd, tmpglob);
#else
    sv_setpv(tmpcmd, "perlglob ");
    sv_catsv(tmpcmd, tmpglob);
    sv_catpv(tmpcmd, " |");
#endif /* !DJGPP */
#endif /* !OS2 */
#else /* !DOSISH */
#if defined(CSH)
    sv_setpvn(tmpcmd, PL_cshname, PL_cshlen);
    sv_catpv(tmpcmd, " -cf 'set nonomatch; glob ");
    sv_catsv(tmpcmd, tmpglob);
    sv_catpv(tmpcmd, "' 2>/dev/null |");
#else
    sv_setpv(tmpcmd, "echo ");
    sv_catsv(tmpcmd, tmpglob);
#if 'z' - 'a' == 25
    sv_catpv(tmpcmd, "|tr -s ' \t\f\r' '\\012\\012\\012\\012'|");
#else
    sv_catpv(tmpcmd, "|tr -s ' \t\f\r' '\\n\\n\\n\\n'|");
#endif
#endif /* !CSH */
#endif /* !DOSISH */
#endif /* MACOS_TRADITIONAL */
    (void)do_open(PL_last_in_gv, (char*)SvPVX_const(tmpcmd), SvCUR(tmpcmd),
FALSE, O_RDONLY, 0, Nullfp);
    fp = IoIFP(io);
#endif /* !VMS */
    LEAVE;
    return fp;
}

/*
* Local variables:
* c-indentation-style: bsd
* c-basic-offset: 4
* indent-tabs-mode: t
* End:
*
* ex: set ts=8 sts=4 sw=4 noet:
*/
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