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+
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+* revised and updated by: Marcus Hennecke, Ross Moore, Herb Swan
+* with significant contributions from:
+ Jens Lippmann, Marek Rouchal, Martin Wilck and others -->
+<HTML>
+<HEAD>
+<TITLE>Sentiment Classification using Machine Learning Techniques</TITLE>
+<META NAME="description" CONTENT="Sentiment Classification using Machine Learning Techniques">
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+<BR>
+<B> Next:</B> <A NAME="tex2html7"
+ HREF="node1.html">Introduction</A>
+<BR>
+<BR></DIV>
+<!--End of Navigation Panel-->
+
+<P>
+
+<P>
+
+<P>
+<H1 ALIGN=CENTER>Sentiment Classification using Machine Learning Techniques</H1>
+<P ALIGN=CENTER><STRONG>Pranjal Vachaspati</STRONG>
+<BR><I><TT><SMALL CLASS="SMALL">pranjal@mit.edu</SMALL></TT></I>
+</P><P ALIGN=CENTER><STRONG>Cathy Wu</STRONG>
+<BR><I><TT><SMALL CLASS="SMALL">cathywu@mit.edu</SMALL></TT> </I>
+</P>
+<HR>
+
+<P>
+
+<H3>Abstract:</H3>
+<DIV CLASS="ABSTRACT">
+We implement a series of classifiers (Naive Bayes, Maximum Entropy, and SVM) to distinguish positive and negative sentiment in critic and user reviews. We apply various processing methods, including negation tagging, part-of-speech tagging, and position tagging to achieve maximum accuracy. We test our classifiers on an external dataset to see how well they generalize. Finally, we use a majority-voting technique to combine classifiers and achieve accuracy of close to 90% in 3-fold cross-validation, far outperforming Pang's 2002 work [<A
+ HREF="node20.html#Pang">7</A>].
+</DIV>
+<P>
+
+<P>
+<BR><HR>
+<!--Table of Child-Links-->
+<A NAME="CHILD_LINKS"></A>
+
+<UL CLASS="ChildLinks">
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html8"
+ HREF="node1.html">Introduction</A>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html9"
+ HREF="node2.html">Previous Work</A>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html10"
+ HREF="node3.html">The User Review Domain</A>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html11"
+ HREF="node4.html">Machine Learning Methods</A>
+<UL>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html12"
+ HREF="node5.html">The Naive Bayes Classifier</A>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html13"
+ HREF="node6.html">The Maximum Entropy Classifier</A>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html14"
+ HREF="node7.html">The Support Vector Machine Classifier</A>
+</UL>
+<BR>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html15"
+ HREF="node8.html">Experimental Setup</A>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html16"
+ HREF="node9.html">Results</A>
+<UL>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html17"
+ HREF="node10.html">Feature Counting Method</A>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html18"
+ HREF="node11.html">Conditional Independence Assumption</A>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html19"
+ HREF="node12.html">Number of Features</A>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html20"
+ HREF="node13.html">Negation Tagging</A>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html21"
+ HREF="node14.html">Position Tagging</A>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html22"
+ HREF="node15.html">Part of Speech Tagging</A>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html23"
+ HREF="node16.html">Adjectives</A>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html24"
+ HREF="node17.html">Verbs</A>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html25"
+ HREF="node18.html">Majority Voting</A>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html26"
+ HREF="node19.html">Neighboring Domain Data</A>
+</UL>
+<BR>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html27"
+ HREF="node20.html">Bibliography</A>
+<LI><A NAME="tex2html28"
+ HREF="node21.html">About this document ...</A>
+</UL>
+<!--End of Table of Child-Links-->
+<BR><HR>
+<ADDRESS>
+Pranjal Vachaspati
+2012-02-05
+</ADDRESS>
+</BODY>
+</HTML>
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+\begin{thebibliography}{1}\itemsep=-1pt
+
+\bibitem{PyML}
+A.~Ben-Hur.
+\newblock Pyml - machine learning in python.
+\newblock http://pyml.sourceforge.net/, 2011.
+
+\bibitem{Manning}
+P.~R. Christopher D.~Manning and H.~Schütze.
+\newblock {\em Introduction to Information Retrieval}.
+\newblock Cambridge University Press, 2008.
+
+\bibitem{Jaynes}
+E.~Jaynes.
+\newblock Information theory and statistical mechanics.
+\newblock In {\em The Physical Review}, volume 106, 1957.
+
+\bibitem{Le}
+Z.~Le.
+\newblock Maximum entropy modeling toolkit for python and c++.
+\newblock http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/lzhang10/maxent\_toolkit.html, 2011.
+
+\bibitem{Liu}
+D.~C. Liu and J.~Nocedal.
+\newblock On the limited memory bfgs method for large scale optimization.
+\newblock In {\em Mathematical Programming 45}, pages 503--528, 1989.
+
+\bibitem{qtag}
+O.~Mason.
+\newblock Qtag.
+\newblock http://phrasys.net/uob/om/software.
+
+\bibitem{Pang}
+B.~Pang, L.~Lee, and S.~Vaithyanathan.
+\newblock Thumbs up? {Sentiment} classification using machine learning
+ techniques.
+\newblock In {\em Proceedings of the 2002 Conference on Empirical Methods in
+ Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)}, pages 79--86, 2002.
+
+\bibitem{yelp}
+Yelp.
+\newblock Yelp academic dataset.
+\newblock http://www.yelp.com/academic\_dataset.
+
+\bibitem{Zhang}
+H.~Zhang.
+\newblock The optimality of naive bayes.
+\newblock In {\em American Association for Artificial Intelligence}, 2004.
+
+\end{thebibliography}
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