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Certbot starts nginx after renew and bypasses systemd #5486

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pkramme opened this issue Jan 25, 2018 · 38 comments

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@pkramme
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commented Jan 25, 2018

My operating system is (include version):

centos7

I installed Certbot with (certbot-auto, OS package manager, pip, etc):

yum

I ran this command and it produced this output:

[root@asia ~]# systemctl stop nginx && certbot renew --standalone --dry-run && systemctl start nginx
Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/home.vortexlab.de.conf
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cert not due for renewal, but simulating renewal for dry run
Plugins selected: Authenticator standalone, Installer nginx
Starting new HTTPS connection (1): acme-staging.api.letsencrypt.org
Running pre-hook command: nginx -s stop
Hook command "nginx -s stop" returned error code 1
Error output from nginx:
nginx: [error] invalid PID number "" in "/run/nginx.pid"

Renewing an existing certificate
Performing the following challenges:
http-01 challenge for home.vortexlab.de
Waiting for verification...
Cleaning up challenges
nginx: [error] invalid PID number "" in "/run/nginx.pid"

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
new certificate deployed with reload of nginx server; fullchain is
/etc/letsencrypt/live/home.vortexlab.de/fullchain.pem
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
** DRY RUN: simulating 'certbot renew' close to cert expiry
**          (The test certificates below have not been saved.)

Congratulations, all renewals succeeded. The following certs have been renewed:
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/home.vortexlab.de/fullchain.pem (success)
** DRY RUN: simulating 'certbot renew' close to cert expiry
**          (The test certificates above have not been saved.)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Running post-hook command: nginx
Hook command "nginx" returned error code 1
Error output from nginx:
nginx: [emerg] bind() to 0.0.0.0:80 failed (98: Address already in use)
nginx: [emerg] bind() to 0.0.0.0:443 failed (98: Address already in use)
nginx: [emerg] bind() to 0.0.0.0:80 failed (98: Address already in use)
nginx: [emerg] bind() to 0.0.0.0:443 failed (98: Address already in use)
nginx: [emerg] bind() to 0.0.0.0:80 failed (98: Address already in use)
nginx: [emerg] bind() to 0.0.0.0:443 failed (98: Address already in use)
nginx: [emerg] bind() to 0.0.0.0:80 failed (98: Address already in use)
nginx: [emerg] bind() to 0.0.0.0:443 failed (98: Address already in use)
nginx: [emerg] bind() to 0.0.0.0:80 failed (98: Address already in use)
nginx: [emerg] bind() to 0.0.0.0:443 failed (98: Address already in use)
nginx: [emerg] still could not bind()

Job for nginx.service failed because the control process exited with error code. See "systemctl status nginx.service" and "journalctl -xe" for details.

Certbot's behavior differed from what I expected because:

Why is Certbot restarting nginx as root?! Why the hell is a costum pre and post hook not overriding this?!?!?

Here is a Certbot log showing the issue (if available):

Logs are stored in /var/log/letsencrypt by default. Feel free to redact domains, e-mail and IP addresses as you see fit.

Here is the relevant nginx server block or Apache virtualhost for the domain I am configuring:

@SwartzCr

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commented Jan 25, 2018

@paulkramme sorry to hear that you're having issues with certbot :(
I'm happy to help you work through them and file any necessary feature requests if we figure out that it's doing something that it shouldn't be. In the mean time I'd appreciate it if you could talk in a more relaxed manner. The people who work on this project are, in fact, people. And we have sensitive feelings. We're much more likely to take time out of our over-busy schedules to help you if you treat us as such and don't use hyperbolic language.
That said - it seems that nginx was already running as root when you ran the command listed above. While I don't know how you've previously invoked certbot (for example if you ran it with sudo previously this could be the result of your action), my guess is that this has to do with the pre-installed systemd timer that comes with the yum installation of cerbot on centos 7. That is that it comes with an automatic renewal pre-installed that may run as root - so if you've had certbot for long enough that it's needed to perform a renewal it may have done so as root and as such restarted nginx as root.
I believe this should be configurable, and in fact you can remove the built-in systemd timer if you prefer, but you'll have to refer to the centos documentation to see the specifics of this. These timers are recent and as such the posted documentation may not mention them until we do another website update. Sorry for the confusion this may have caused.

@pkramme

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commented Jan 27, 2018

Please excuse my language, i was very very angry at this. I understand that i am not helping you with outbreaks like this.

No, the systemd timer is definitely not the problem. The problem is that certbot is trying to start nginx at the end:

Running post-hook command: nginx
For some reason, even if i am setting a post-hook, this gets done every time, which means that the systemd service is stopped, but never restarted, which means that there is a rogue nginx running on the system, which i have to kill manually. I want to be in control over with actions certbot is doing.

I fixed this by killing the certbot started nginx and restarting it over systemd, but there has to be a better way.

certbot renew --dry-run --post-hook "echo helloworld" && nginx -s stop && systemctl start nginx

@pkramme pkramme changed the title Why is certbot restarting nginx as root?! Certbot starts nginx after renew and bypasses systemd Jan 27, 2018

@aleksei-a-savitski

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commented Jan 29, 2018

Hi, I have similar issue and my guess that systemd has nothing to do with it.

I installed certificates for two domains with the following command:
sudo certbot --authenticator standalone --installer nginx --pre-hook "service nginx stop" --post-hook "service nginx start". After that I can use service nginx start/stop/restart and everything works fine.

But everything breaks after renewal attempt.
For example if I run certbot renew --dry-run I receive error messages:

Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/sophia.poder.io.conf
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cert not due for renewal, but simulating renewal for dry run
Plugins selected: Authenticator standalone, Installer nginx
Running pre-hook command: service nginx stop
Renewing an existing certificate
Performing the following challenges:
http-01 challenge for bot.epica.ai
http-01 challenge for sophia.poder.io
Waiting for verification...
Cleaning up challenges
nginx: [error] open() "/run/nginx.pid" failed (2: No such file or directory)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
new certificate deployed with reload of nginx server; fullchain is
/etc/letsencrypt/live/sophia.poder.io/fullchain.pem
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/bot.epica.ai.conf
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cert not due for renewal, but simulating renewal for dry run
Plugins selected: Authenticator standalone, Installer nginx
Pre-hook command already run, skipping: service nginx stop
Renewing an existing certificate
Performing the following challenges:
http-01 challenge for bot.epica.ai
Cleaning up challenges
Attempting to renew cert (bot.epica.ai) from /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/bot.epica.ai.conf produced an unexpected error: Problem binding to port 80: Couldnot bind to IPv4 or IPv6.. Skipping.
The following certs could not be renewed:
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/bot.epica.ai/fullchain.pem (failure)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
** DRY RUN: simulating 'certbot renew' close to cert expiry
**          (The test certificates below have not been saved.)

The following certs were successfully renewed:
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/sophia.poder.io/fullchain.pem (success)

The following certs could not be renewed:
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/bot.epica.ai/fullchain.pem (failure)
** DRY RUN: simulating 'certbot renew' close to cert expiry
**          (The test certificates above have not been saved.)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Running post-hook command: service nginx start
Hook command "service nginx start" returned error code 1
Error output from service:
Job for nginx.service failed because the control process exited with error code. See "systemctl status nginx.service" and "journalctl -xe" for details.

1 renew failure(s), 0 parse failure(s)

After that I can't stop nginx service and any attempt to restart it will give the same message:

Job for nginx.service failed because the control process exited with error code. See "systemctl status nginx.service" and "journalctl -xe" for details.

Only killall nginx and service nginx start helps to make nginx work correctly.

@jpetitte

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commented Jan 29, 2018

I'm seeing similar issues with renewal. Can't pin it down. Quite frustrating.

@SwartzCr

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commented Jan 30, 2018

Tagging @bmw and @ohemorange to look into this

@ohemorange

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commented Jan 31, 2018

@paulkramme would you mind posting the redacted contents of /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/home.vortexlab.de.conf (we don't need account key or anything like that)? My guess is that when the cert was originally created, the Nginx installer was selected. certbot renew is meant to be on its own and pick up existing flags so you don't have to restate them every time; since --standalone only sets an authenticator, Certbot is reading your configuration file and assuming you want us to try restarting your server to pick up the changes. If that's the case, deleting the installer line from the configuration file will fix this.

@ohemorange

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commented Jan 31, 2018

@abiaskosty, I believe it's a similar issue. If you remove the post-hook flag from renew, the installer selection of Nginx will automatically restart Nginx for you.

@thommeredith

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commented Jan 31, 2018

I am seeing this issue right now as well. Cannot restart nginx now from command line with

service nginx start

@aleksei-a-savitski

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commented Jan 31, 2018

Hi @ohemorange, I commented out the post_hook in renewal config files for both domains what I use. Now they look like this:

# renew_before_expiry = 30 days
version = 0.19.0
archive_dir = /etc/letsencrypt/archive/bot.epica.ai
cert = /etc/letsencrypt/live/bot.epica.ai/cert.pem
privkey = /etc/letsencrypt/live/bot.epica.ai/privkey.pem
chain = /etc/letsencrypt/live/bot.epica.ai/chain.pem
fullchain = /etc/letsencrypt/live/bot.epica.ai/fullchain.pem

# Options used in the renewal process
[renewalparams]
authenticator = standalone
installer = nginx
account = XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
pre_hook = service nginx stop
# post_hook = service nginx start

But it didn't help. I still see errors in certbot renew --dry-run output:

Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/sophia.poder.io.conf
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cert not due for renewal, but simulating renewal for dry run
Plugins selected: Authenticator standalone, Installer nginx
Running pre-hook command: service nginx stop
Renewing an existing certificate
Performing the following challenges:
http-01 challenge for bot.epica.ai
http-01 challenge for sophia.poder.io
Waiting for verification...
Cleaning up challenges
nginx: [error] open() "/run/nginx.pid" failed (2: No such file or directory)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
new certificate deployed with reload of nginx server; fullchain is
/etc/letsencrypt/live/sophia.poder.io/fullchain.pem
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/bot.epica.ai.conf
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cert not due for renewal, but simulating renewal for dry run
Plugins selected: Authenticator standalone, Installer nginx
Pre-hook command already run, skipping: service nginx stop
Renewing an existing certificate
Performing the following challenges:
http-01 challenge for bot.epica.ai
Cleaning up challenges
Attempting to renew cert (bot.epica.ai) from /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/bot.epica.ai.conf produced an unexpected error: Problem binding to port 80: Could not bind to IPv4 or IPv6.. Skipping.
The following certs could not be renewed:
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/bot.epica.ai/fullchain.pem (failure)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
** DRY RUN: simulating 'certbot renew' close to cert expiry
**          (The test certificates below have not been saved.)

The following certs were successfully renewed:
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/sophia.poder.io/fullchain.pem (success)

The following certs could not be renewed:
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/bot.epica.ai/fullchain.pem (failure)
** DRY RUN: simulating 'certbot renew' close to cert expiry
**          (The test certificates above have not been saved.)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

and I still see the same job for nginx.service failure when I try to restart nginx after renewal attempt.

@ohemorange

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commented Jan 31, 2018

Ah, looks like something might have changed around nginx -s stop vs. service nginx stop. While we look into this, leaving the hooks as-is and commenting out installer = nginx will solve the problem for now; nginx can be killed in the way the installer started it by running nginx -s stop.

@ohemorange

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commented Jan 31, 2018

Also, what OS and version of certbot is everyone running? This can be found by running certbot --version. @paulkramme, @abiaskosty, @jpetitte, @thommeredith

@aleksei-a-savitski

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commented Feb 1, 2018

I use certbot v0.19.0

@aleksei-a-savitski

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commented Feb 1, 2018

I commented out installer = nginx config and it solved the issue. Now renew options look like this:

...
# Options used in the renewal process
[renewalparams]
authenticator = standalone
# installer = nginx
account = XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
pre_hook = service nginx stop
post_hook = service nginx start

@ohemorange thanks for your help! Do you think it's good as longterm solution or some update for renewal process will come later?

@ohemorange

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commented Feb 2, 2018

@abiaskosty what OS are you using?

I'm still trying to figure out why this is happening suddenly now, and hadn't happened previously -- that's an older version of certbot that's been packaged in centos for 4 months, so my guess is that previously running sudo nginx would interact nicely with service nginx * but no longer does.

If you leave it like that forever, you might miss future updates to fix security issues that come up in the Nginx configuration, but otherwise it shouldn't be a problem for just renewing certificates.

@xergioalex

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commented Feb 4, 2018

Today I had the same problem when i have been trying to use the default method for automating the renewal at ubuntu 16.04. As @paulkramme said, certbot is starting another nginx process that I can't control, then I had to kill it manually.

After trying several solutions, i decided to create my own workaround cron job without nginx plugin using certonly certbot method.

I hope this solution can help while the problem is solved: https://github.com/RockaLabs/certbot-cronjob

@aleksei-a-savitski

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commented Feb 5, 2018

@ohemorange the certbot is on Ubuntu v16.04.3 and nginx v1.10.3.

@sgehrig

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commented Feb 6, 2018

Running the renew command with --installer none works as well as a workaround on Ubuntu 16.04:

sudo certbot renew \
    --installer none \
    --pre-hook "service nginx stop" \
    --post-hook "service nginx start"
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commented Feb 6, 2018

@sgehrig what OS, certbot version, and Nginx version are you using?

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commented Feb 6, 2018

@ohemorange certbot 0.21.1, nginx version: nginx/1.10.3 (Ubuntu) on Ubuntu 16.04.3 LTS (GNU/Linux 4.4.0-1050-aws x86_64). nginx installed via Ubuntu packages, certbot installed via certbot PPA.

Certificates have been installed using authenticator standalone and installer nginx.

sudo certbot run \
    --authenticator standalone \
    --installer nginx 

Even after the installation there was an nginx process running that couldn't be stopped with service.... Same happens when renewing certificates without the --installer none option.

@ohemorange

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commented Feb 6, 2018

And just to check, did this setup previously work for people and has recently stopped working, or is everyone here a new Certbot user?

@sgehrig

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commented Feb 6, 2018

For me it was a completely fresh installation on an Amazon EC2 instance.

@aleksei-a-savitski

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commented Feb 7, 2018

I also host it on EC2. It was setup 3-4 months ago and I can't say if the renewal process had issue or not.

@bmw

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commented Feb 8, 2018

The main problem here occurs if Certbot's Nginx plugin has to start Nginx and you later try to stop/start Nginx with systemctl. On most modern Linux systems, service is a wrapper around systemctl. If Nginx was already running and Certbot just has to reload Nginx to make it pick up changes to its configuration, there's not a problem. (This is why commands like sudo certbot --authenticator standalone --installer nginx --pre-hook "service nginx stop" --post-hook "service nginx start" work and certbot renew does not. The renew subcommand runs post-hooks right before Certbot exits while the run subcommand (which is the default) runs it directly after obtaining the cert before the installer is run.)

If Certbot's Nginx plugin has to start Nginx, it does so by using the nginx command directly rather than going through systemctl or service. In the couple systems I looked at where service doesn't invoke systemctl, everything should still work fine. The problem is that systemctl stop <service> often doesn't work if that service wasn't started by systemd. (On Ubuntu 16.04, this is because Nginx is stopped using the value ExecStop which isn't run if the service wasn't started with ExecStart as described here. On CentOS 7, systemd keeps track of Nginx's PID and sends a signal to it, however, if Nginx wasn't started with systemd, it doesn't know the PID).

I don't immediately have a solution in mind, but that is my understanding of the problem here.

@bbashel1

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commented Feb 8, 2018

When I ran this
certbot --authenticator standalone --installer nginx --pre-hook "service nginx stop" --post-hook "service nginx start"

I get Following error:
Cleaning up challenges
Running post-hook command: service nginx start
Hook command "service nginx start" returned error code 1
Error output from service:
Job for nginx.service failed because the control process exited with error code. See "systemctl status nginx.service" and "journalctl -xe" for details.

Problem binding to port 80: Could not bind to IPv4 or IPv6.

Any help will be appreciated.( I am running nginx in ubuntu)

@adet4ever

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commented Mar 22, 2018

I think it should be up to the user to decide whether they want to stop start restart nginx or not. Also does certbot install a different version of nginx? because My nginx installation is in /opt/nginx however certbot is tryying to start nginx as service. I never installed nginx as a service

I eventually used getssl to get a new certificate but I think its good to mention certbot is suppposed to reduce the pain of cert renewal not cause more ...

@jakob-o

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commented May 18, 2018

Hi,

is there a reliable way of renewing the certificates and restarting nginx on Ubuntu 16.04 and CentOS 7? We tried the workaround with

certbot renew \
    --installer none \
    --pre-hook "service nginx stop" \
    --post-hook "service nginx start"

and it works if there are no certificates due for renewal and also in dry run mode.
However when cron actually tries to renew certificates we run into the port binding issue.
Whether this is a timing problem or a rogue nginx instance is not clear, yet.
This is a real dealbreaker for production usage since we have to restart nginx manually whenever certificates are renewed. Any reliable workaround would be highly appreciated.

Regards

Jakob

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commented May 21, 2018

Yes. Problems like this can occur when using the standalone plugin or hooks with the Nginx plugin. If you need help fixing this for your system, I'd recommend making a post at https://community.letsencrypt.org where there is a larger community of people familiar with Certbot and able to help.

@pkramme

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commented May 31, 2018

@bbashel1 , After you run this command you have to issue killall nginx and then systemctl restart nginx

@ionutzp

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commented Jun 27, 2018

Same problem here :(

certbot 0.25.0
nginx version: nginx/1.12.2
Ubuntu 16.04.3 LTS
@arno01

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commented Jul 16, 2018

I actually had the same issue with the certbot 0.17.0, but it looks like is working just fine with certbot 0.25.0.

sudo certbot renew --installer none --pre-hook 'nginx -t && systemctl stop nginx' --post-hook 'nginx -t && systemctl start nginx'
@jakob-o

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commented Jul 26, 2018

FYI We switched to a combination of certbot timer for renewal, renewal-hook deploy to reload nginx and --webroot for not having to start and stop nginx instances. Thanks to @spaletta!

@tobeee

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commented Aug 28, 2018

@jakob-o Does this mean all thats now needed is:
sudo certbot --nginx -d example.com rather than relying on pre/post hooks for existing nginx installations running under service nginx start?

@spaletta

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commented Aug 28, 2018

@tobeee, don’t know about the nginx plugin, as I strictly avoid it, and I recommend against using it. This is a pretty good tutorial for using certbot with the webroot plugin on nginx: https://www.dzombak.com/blog/2018/01/Deploying-Let-s-Encrypt-with-Nginx-on-Ubuntu-16-04.html. The only error that needs to be mentioned is that the cronjob is unnecessary, and the systemd unit certbot.timer (on Ubuntu) or certbot-renew.timer (RedHat/Fedora) should be enabled if it isn’t already.

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commented Aug 29, 2018

@tobeee, using sudo certbot --nginx -d example.com will work just fine as long as Nginx is already running when you issue that command. The problem described in this issue occurs when Certbot's Nginx plugin has to start Nginx for you which bypasses your init system causing commands like systemctl ... nginx or service nginx ... to not work as you expect until you run sudo nginx -s stop and then use systemctl or service to start Nginx again.

@spaletta, if the webroot plugin is working well for you, that's great and you should keep using it! We certainly recommend Nginx users use our Nginx plugin though. On top of automating certificate installation and Nginx reloads for you, we're able to configure your server to use sane ciphersuites, HTTP->HTTPS redirects, OCSP stapling, HSTS, etc. If you have time to share any suggestions for how we can make the Nginx plugin work better for you and others, please open an issue!

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commented Oct 3, 2018

@bmw Maybe I don't understand the problem fully, but can't you just check whether or not the service is present and enabled for nginx and if so, use systemctl to manage it? Or let the hooks override the nginx control, like suggested earlier? Starting nginx directly can be a fallback method.

In my case starting nginx directly causes additional issues or does not work at all. I have had all the services go down due to renewal not being able to properly start up nginx again. There is a posthook that tries to start nginx through systemctl, however by that time there is a rogue process already started and fails due to that. Its not clear to me how the 'rogue process' is started, but for example it does not write pid file in --dry-run, so that nginx -s stop has no effect either and it is apparently either crashing soon after or failing to server files.

Dry run seems to work with this monster:

certbot renew  --installer none --pre-hook 'nginx -t && systemctl stop nginx' --post-hook 'nginx -t && killall nginx; systemctl start nginx

I'll see how it will behave during actual renewal.

Edit: modified the command in response to @sh4d0v1 comment

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commented Dec 5, 2018

@hkinks Your command will fail to start nginx if killall doesn't find a nginx instance to kill before, since you use '&&'.

I still see nginx failing to get restarted after a cert renewal, and I tried the workarounds mentioned in this thread. certbot seems to bind something (nginx?) to port 80 for cert renewal, and this seems to block nginx to bind there through the post-hook. Also tried to insert a 'sleep 1m' into the post-hook before restarting nginx, it is still failing to come up again due to 'address already in use'-error. When running 'service nginx restart' manually then, it does restart successfully though.

OS is Debian Stretch.

Edit: I stopped using the 'standalone' web server for the cert renew and started using the nginx module. cert renew is working finally now. Don't know why I only tried the standalone module.

@M034B5

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commented Mar 22, 2019

is there any fix or workaround for this on production servers?

@bmw

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commented Mar 25, 2019

While we should try and find a way to fix this, the best way to work around the problem is to not use Certbot's standalone plugin and use the webroot or nginx plugin instead if possible. With these approaches, no hooks are needed to start/stop nginx.

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