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library/strings
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NOTES.txt
README.html
jsbackend.py
jsmap.py
overview_tests.py
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py2js.py
py2js_test.py
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pylib.js
runtests.py
unittest.sh
utils.py

README.html

<html>

<head>
<title>py2js README</title>
</head>

<body>

<h1>py2js - README</h1>

<h3>18/01/2009</h3>

py2js is a tool to assist developers in converting python source code to javascript.  Note only a subset of python is (and will ever be) supported - python code will need to be made somewhat javascript-friendly to be converted by py2js to javascript which performs an equivalent task.

For credits and licenses please see the <a href="#credits">Credits and Licenses</a> section at the
end of this document

<h2>Contents</h2>

<ul>
<li><a href="#getstarted">Getting Started</a></li>
<li><a href="#whatssupported"/>What is supported and what isn't</li>
<li><a href="#customizing" />Customizing py2js</li>
<ul>
<li><a href="#module_equivalents"/>module equivalents</li>
<li><a href="#py2js_macros"/>overriding py2js with py2js "macros"</li>
</ul>
<li><a href="#unit_tests"/>Running unit-tests</li>
<li><a href="#credits"/>Credits and Licenses</li>
<li><a href="#history">Appendix - Development History</a></li>
</ul>

<h2><a name="getstarted"/>Getting started</h2>

<p>
To convert the python program helloworld.py to javascript:
</p>

<pre>
python py2js.py helloworld.py &gt; helloworld.js
</pre>

<p>
You can now run helloworld.js using (for example) spidermonkey
</p>

<p>
Note:  	Depends on _ast module, and so requires Python2.5 or later.
	Currently tested with Python 2.5, spidermonkey
	Targets Javascript 1.5
</p>

<h2><a name="whatssupported"/>What is supported and what isn't</h2>

<h3>Supported</h3>

<ul>
<li>control flow (if/while/etc)</li>
<li>some python built-in functions</li>
<li>strings, lists, dictionaries and some string/list functionality</li>
<li>exception handling (raise,except,finally)</li>
<li>many OO features including class definitions</li>
<li>modules and module import</li>
<li>string formatting</li>
</ul>

<h3>Support planned in future</h3>

<ul>
<li>imported module location via classpath</li>
</ul> 

<h3>Not supported, no support planned</h3>

<ul>
<li>yield</li>
<li>generator functions</li>
<li>complete coverage of python operators and built-in functions</li>
</ul>

<h2><a name="customizing"/>Customizing py2js</h2>

To customize/extend the mapping of built in functions and operators, you can modify the python-&gt;javascript mappings in jsmap.py.  See the comments in this file for advice.

<h3><a name="module_equivalents"/>module equivalents</h3>

<p>
py2js can be configured with javascript and python equivalent implementations
of a module.  Place the code under modules/python and modules/javascript and
configure py2js_modules in jslib.py
</p>
<p>
module equivalents are useful when you need to manually convert a module from
python to javascript or when a javascript equivalent of a python module
already exists.
</p>
<p>
when importing a python module into your python program, for py2js to
correctly include the javascript equivalent code, you'll have to import the
module using "from <module> import *"
</p>
<p>
for an example of module equivalents, see the MersenneTwister example:
</p>
<pre>
modules/python/mtrandom.py
modules/javascript/MersenneTwister19937class.js
... and the test example tests/modules/rng.py
</pre>
<p>
for more details on the MersenneTwister python and javascript implementations
see section "Credit and Licenses" below.
</p>

<h3><a name="py2js_macros"/>overriding py2js with py2js "macros"</h3>

<p>
In some cases py2js will not be able to convert python to javascript.  In
these situations you can use py2js "macros" to manually control the
conversion.
</p>
<p>
To embed javascript equivalents into your python program (to allow for cases
where py2js cannot convert) using the following "macros" 
</p>
<p>
Use a triple-quoted string starting with the string "py2js-verbatim:" to
supply some javascript that will be exported to the output of py2js verbatim:
</p>
<pre>
"""py2js-verbatim:
function foo(x) {
	print(x);
}
"""
</pre>

<p>
Use string literals "py2js-skip-begin" and "py2js-skip-end" to
bracket python code which you do not want py2js to attempt to convert:
</p>

<pre>
"""py2js-skip-begin"""
def foo(x):
	print x
"""py2js-skip-end"""
</pre>

<h2><a name="unit_tests"/>Running unit-tests</h2>
<p>
Run unit tests using:
</p>
<pre>
./unittest.sh (this sets up PYTHONPATH and runs py2js_test.py)
</pre>
<p>
See the comments in py2js_test.py for more details on how the unit tests work
</p>
<p>
After running py2js_test.py, open the page tests/test.html in your browser to
see if you get the same results.  py2js_test generates the file
tests/unittestdata.js which is executed by this web page.
</p>

<h2><a name="credits"/>Credits and Licenses</h2>

<ul>
<li>py2js is distributed under the <a href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php">MIT License</a></li>

<li>Module equivalents example (Pure-python and Javascript implementations of the Mersenne Twister random number generator) are provided (in modules/python/mtrandom.py and modules/Javascript/MersenneTwister19937class.js respectively) under a BSD-style license.
<p>
<a href="http://millerideas.com/?p=48">mtrandom (Pure-Python Port)</a>
</p>
<pre>
   Converted to Python by Jeff Miller
   2007-02-03
   jwmillerusa (at) gmail (dot) com
   http://millerideas.com

   =======================================================================
   Code from CPython's random module is subject to the following:
   http://www.python.org/psf/license/
   =======================================================================
</pre>
</li>
<li>
<a href="http://www.math.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/~m-mat/MT/VERSIONS/JAVASCRIPT/java-script.html">MersenneTwister19937 (Javascript Port) by Yasuhara Okada</a>
<pre>
   original C-program for Mersenne Twister:

   C-program for MT19937, with initialization improved 2002/1/26.
   Coded by Takuji Nishimura and Makoto Matsumoto.

   Before using, initialize the state by using init_genrand(seed)
   or init_by_array(init_key, key_length).

   Copyright (C) 1997 - 2002, Makoto Matsumoto and Takuji Nishimura,
   All rights reserved.

   Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
   modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
   are met:

     1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
        notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

     2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
        notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
        documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

     3. The names of its contributors may not be used to endorse or promote
        products derived from this software without specific prior written
        permission.

   THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
   "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
   LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
   A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER
OR
   CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
   EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
   PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR
   PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
   LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
   NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
   SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

   Any feedback is very welcome.
   http://www.math.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/~m-mat/MT/emt.html
   email: m-mat @ math.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp (remove space)
</pre>
</li>
</ul>

<h2>Using py2js</h2>

<pre>

* py2js maps many python builtin methods and functions to javascript equivalents.

Avoid defining method and function names which match those of python builtin method and function names, because these will also be mapped.

* empty dictionary and list values in python evaluate to false, but the same
is not true in javascript.  Use explicit tests, eg.

if len(list_or_dict) > 0:
	# do something with non-empty list/dict

... instead of

if list_or_dict:
	# do something wit non-empty list/dict

* list and dictionary access which would cause an exception in python, return
an undefined value in javascript.  Consider guarding access to list and dictionary, eg. use:

if key in dict:
	val = dict[key]
except:
	val = "not found"

... instead of

try:
	val = dict[key]
except:
	val = "not found"

* do not use negative subscripts when accessing arrays

eg. use:

x = ['a','b','c']
print x[len(x)-1] # prints 'c'

... instead of ...

x = ['a','b','c']
print x[-1]	  # prints 'c'

* in python 2.5 and earlier, integer division results (by default) in an
integer.  Use "from __future__ import division" to return a floating point
result from integer division in python (which matches the javascript
behaviour).

* do not use + in python to concatenate lists, + does not work on Javascript Arrays in the same way. 

eg use extend:

a = [1,2,3]
b = [4,5,6]
c = a[:]
c.extend(b)

... instead of
a = [1,2,3]
b = [4,5,6]
c = a + b

</pre>

<h2><a name="history"/>Appendix - Development History</h2>

<pre>
26/10/2008	Initial version
01/11/2008	Add for ... in ... support, and other stuff
08/11/2008	Add basic class support, try/except/finally, more operators	
15/11/2008	Add a few builtin functions, list comprehension
22/11/2008	Improve support for classes - inheritance and static members
30/11/2008	Import support part 1 (not yet stable)
05/12/2008	Import support part 2 (more stable, but...)
12/12/2008	Run unit tests in browsers, support for del
20/12/2008	Support for generator classes
27/12/2008	Some bug fixes.  Support for module equivalents (Mersenne Twister example)
02/01/2009	Initial support for super(&gt;class&lt;,&gt;instance&lt;).
11/01/2009	Some clean up.  Add support for string formatting (mostly complete).
18/01/2009	Completed string formatting.
</pre>

<h3>Prototypes</h3>

The prototypes sub-directory contains manually created python and javascript
equivalents to prove concepts

</body>
</html>