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Ceylon

This is the 1.3.2-SNAPSHOT "Smile Tolerantly" release of the Ceylon command line tools. This is a production version of the platform.

Ceylon is a modern, modular, statically typed programming language for the Java and JavaScript virtual machines. The language features a flexible and very readable syntax, a unique and uncommonly elegant static type system, a powerful module architecture, and excellent tooling, including an awesome Eclipse-based IDE.

Ceylon enables the development of cross-platform modules which execute portably in both virtual machine environments. Alternatively, a Ceylon module may target one or the other platform, in which case it may interoperate with native code written for that platform.

Read more about Ceylon at http://ceylon-lang.org.

First steps

If you installed Ceylon using your system's or a third-party's package manager like apt-get, dnf, sdkman or brew there's nothing more for you to do, everything should just work fine.

If on the other hand you downloaded and extracted the ZIP file you will see the following files and folders:

  • bin - Unix/Windows commands
  • contrib - Sample Ceylon command-line plugins
  • doc - Documentation about Ceylon including the spec in HTML and PDF format
  • lib - Required libraries for the Ceylon commands
  • repo - Required bootstrap Ceylon modules (language, tools)
  • samples - Sample Ceylon modules
  • templates - Templates for new Ceylon projects
  • BUILDID - The Git commit id used to build this distribution
  • LICENSE-ASL - The Ceylon ASL license
  • LICENSE-GPL-CP - The Ceylon GPL/CP license
  • LICENSE-LGPL - The Ceylon LGPL license
  • NOTICE - 3rd party licenses
  • README.md - This file

The all-important ceylon command that is used for everything from compiling and running code to creating projects and copying modules can be found in the bin folder.

For ease of use you might want to consider adding the ceylon command to your PATH.

  • On Linux and Mac you can do this either by adding the bin folder to your PATH environment variable or by creating a symbolic link to bin/ceylon in an appropriate place like ~/bin.

  • On Windows you can search for "advanced system settings", click the "Environment Variables" button and add the path to the bin folder to the PATH variable.

NB: If you don't add Ceylon to your path you will have to always type the path to the bin/ceylon command. So in every example that follows you'll need to change ceylon to /path/to/ceylon-1.3.2-SNAPSHOT/bin/ceylon.

Trying it out

To see if Ceylon was installed correctly type (the $ is an indication of your command line prompt and should not be typed when trying these examples):

$ ceylon --version

You should see something like:

ceylon version 1.3.2-SNAPSHOT 1cac978 (Smile Tolerantly)

Tool usage

To see the list of subcommand that ceylon supports just type:

$ ceylon

You should see a short synopsis and then a list of subcommands like this (you might see more options):

* `bootstrap`  - Generates a Ceylon bootstrap script in the current directory
* `browse`     - Open module documentation in the browser
* `classpath`  - Print a classpath suitable for passing to Java tools to run a given Ceylon module
* `compile`    - Compile a Ceylon program for the Java backend
* `compile-js` - Compile a Ceylon program for the JavaScript backend
* `config`     - Manage Ceylon configuration files
* `copy`       - Copy modules from one module repository to another
* `doc`        - Document a Ceylon program
* `fat-jar`    - Generate a Ceylon executable jar for a given module
* `help`       - Display help about another tool
* `info`       - Print information about modules in repositories
* `jigsaw`     - Tools to interop with Java 9 (Jigsaw) modules
* `import-jar` - Import a Java `.jar` file into a Ceylon module repository
* `new`        - Generate a new Ceylon project
* `plugin`     - Package or install command-line plugins
* `run`        - Run a Ceylon program on the Java VM
* `run-js`     - Run a Ceylon program on node.js (JavaScript)
* `src`        - Fetch source archives from a repository and extract them
* `test`       - Test a Ceylon program on the Java VM
* `test-js`    - Test a Ceylon program on node.js (JavaScript)
* `version`    - Show and update version numbers in module descriptors
* `war`        - Generate a WAR file from a compiled `.car` file

Then to see a more detailed explanation of a particular subcommand, use the help subcommand. For example, to get help on the compile subcommand type:

$ ceylon help compile

Running the sample programs

The samples folder contains several small sample programs. To compile and run them, refer to the file README.md contained in the samples folder for further instructions.

Write some code

A very easy we to quickly set up a module to compile is to use the ceylon new command which creates the basic folder structure with the necessary files. Create an empty folder, change into it and type:

$ ceylon new hello-world

It will then ask you a series of questions:

Enter project folder name [helloworld]: .   
Enter module name [com.example.helloworld]: my.first.module
Enter module version [1.0.0]: 
Would you like to generate Eclipse project files? (y/n) [y]: 
Enter Eclipse project name [my.first.module]: 
Would you like to generate an ant build.xml? (y/n) [y]: 

In the above example we've accepted almost all the defaults except for the project folder name which we've changed to the current folder . and the name of the module where we've chosen "my.first.module". After it has finished the command will have created some source files, an Ant build file and will have prepared the project to be opened in Eclipse if you want.

You can now type:

$ ceylon compile my.first.module
Note: Created module my.first.module/1.0.0
$ ceylon run my.first.module/1.0.0
Hello, World!

to compile and run the newly created module. (You can also type ant if you let the tool create Ant build files).

We'll be making a small change to the code so you can see what files are involved. For this run you favorite editor, here we'll just use vi:

$ vi source/my/first/module/run.ceylon

Now change the second line to read:

shared void hello(String name = "Ceylon") {

and save and exit. When you now repeat the compile and run commands the output should read:

Hello, Ceylon

This is the very simplistic start of an interesting journey in learning to program in Ceylon. For much more information continue to the next section.

Learn more

If you want to learn more about Ceylon you can go to the documentation section of the Ceylon web site, where you'll find a tour, a walkthrough, and much more.

Source code

The source code for Ceylon is completely Open Source and freely available from http://github.com/ceylon.

Issues

If you find a bug or have a suggestion or request, you may report it in the GitHub issue tracker.

Contributing

We're always looking for help, so if you would like to contribute in any way look here for more information.

The Community

If you have any questions or want to join the developers in their discussions about current and future developments of the Ceylon language or just chat with other users you can find a full list of possible channels at the Ceylon web site. Good options include:

You can follow @ceylonlang on twitter.

License

The Ceylon distribution is and contains work released

  • partly under the ASL v2.0 as provided in the LICENSE-ASL file that accompanied this code, and
  • partly under the GPL v2 + Classpath Exception as provided in the LICENSE-GPL-CP file that accompanied this code.

License terms for 3rd Party Works

This software uses a number of other works, the license terms of which are documented in the NOTICE file that accompanied this code.

Acknowledgement

We're deeply indebted to the community volunteers who contributed a substantial part of the current Ceylon code base, working often in their own spare time.