Permalink
Fetching contributors…
Cannot retrieve contributors at this time
289 lines (200 sloc) 8.86 KB
layout title published sorting tags
default
Examples and Tutorials
true
40
Examples

Links to Examples

  • [Example Snippets][Example Snippets]: This section is divided into topical areas and includes many examples of policy and promises. Each of the snippets can be easily copied or downloaded to a policy server and used as is.

Note: CFEngine also includes a small set of examples by default, which can be found in /var/cfengine/share/doc/examples.

  • [Enterprise API Examples][Enterprise API Examples]
  • [Tutorials][Tutorials]

See Also:

  • [Tutorial for Running Examples][Examples and Tutorials#Tutorial for Running Examples]
    • ["Hello World" Policy Example][Examples and Tutorials#"Hello World" Policy Example]
    • [Activate a Bundle Manually][Examples and Tutorials#Activate a Bundle Manually]
    • [Make the Example Stand Alone][Examples and Tutorials#Make the Example Stand Alone]
    • [Make the Example an Executable Script][Examples and Tutorials#Make the Example an Executable Script]
    • [Integrating the Example into your Main Policy][Examples and Tutorials#Integrating the Example into your Main Policy]

Tutorial for Running Examples

In this tutorial, you will perform the following:

  • Create a simple "Hello World!" example policy file
  • Make the example a standalone policy
  • Make the example an executable script
  • Add the example to the main policy file (promises.cf)

Note if your CFEngine administrator has enabled continuous deployment of the policy from a Version Control System, your changes may be overwritten!

"Hello World" Policy Example

Policies contain bundles, which are collections of promises. A promise is a declaration of intent. Bundles allow related promises to be grouped together, as illustrated in the steps that follow.

Following these steps, you will login to your policy server via the SSH protocol, use the vi command line editor to create a policy file named hello_world.cf, and create a bundle that calls a promise to display some text.

  1. Log into a running server machine using ssh (PuTTY may be used if using Windows).

  2. Type sudo su for super user (enter your password if prompted).

  3. To get to the masterfiles directory, type cd /var/cfengine/masterfiles.

  4. Create the file with the command: vi hello_world.cf

  5. In the vi editor, enter i for "Insert" and enter the following content (ie. copy and paste from a text editor):

    bundle agent hello_world
    {
      reports:
    
    	any::
    	  
    	  "Hello World!";
    
    }
    
  6. Exit the "Insert" mode by pressing the "esc" button. This will return to the command prompt.

  7. Save the changes to the file by typing :w then "Enter".

  8. Exit vi by typing :q then "Enter".

In the policy file above, we have defined an agent bundle named hello_world. Agent bundles are only evaluated by cf-agent, the [agent component][cf-agent] of CFEngine.

This bundle [promises][Promise Types and Attributes] to [report][reports] on any [class of hosts][Classes and Decisions].

Activate a Bundle Manually

Activate the bundle manually by executing the following command at prompt:

% /var/cfengine/bin/cf-agent --no-lock --file ./hello_world.cf --bundlesequence hello_world

This command instructs CFEngine to ignore [locks][Controlling Frequency], load the hello_world.cf policy, and activate the hello_world bundle. See the output below:

# /var/cfengine/bin/cf-agent --no-lock --file ./hello_world.cf --bundlesequence hello_world
2013-08-20T14:03:43-0500   notice: R: Hello World!

As you get familiar with CFEngine, you'll probably start shortening this command to this equivalent:

/var/cfengine/bin/cf-agent -Kf ./hello_world.cf -b hello_world

Note the full path to the binary in the above command. CFEngine stores its binaries in /var/cfengine/bin on Linux and Unix systems. Your path might vary depending on your platform and the packages your are using. CFEngine uses /var because it is one of the Unix file systems that resides locally. Thus, CFEngine can function even if everything else fails (your other file systems, your network, and even system binaries) and possibly repair problems.

Make the Example Stand Alone

Instead of specifying the bundle sequence on the command line (as it was above), a [body common control][Components and Common Control#Common Control] section can be added to the policy file. The body common control refers to those promises that are hard-coded into all CFEngine components and therefore affect the behavior of all components. Note that only one body common control is allowed per agent activation.

Go back into vi by typing "vi" at the prompt. Then type i to insert body common control to hello_world.cf. Place it above bundle agent hello_world, as shown in the following example:

body common control
{
  bundlesequence => { "hello_world" };
}

bundle agent hello_world
{
  reports:

    any::
      
      "Hello World!";

}

Now press "esc" to exit the "Insert" mode, then type :w to save the file changes and "Enter". Exit vi by typing :q then "Enter." This will return to the prompt.

Execute the following command:

/var/cfengine/bin/cf-agent --no-lock --file ./hello_world.cf

The output is shown below:

# /var/cfengine/bin/cf-agent --no-lock --file ./hello_world.cf
2013-08-20T14:25:36-0500   notice: R: Hello World!

Note: It may be necessary to add a reference to the standard library within the body common control section, and remove the bundlesequence line. Example:

body common control {

    inputs => {
       "libraries/cfengine_stdlib.cf",
    };
}

Make the Example an Executable Script

Add the #! marker ("shebang") to hello_world.cf in order to invoke CFEngine policy as an executable script: Again type "vi" then "Enter" then i to insert the following:

#!/var/cfengine/bin/cf-agent --no-lock

Add it before body common control, as shown below:

#!/var/cfengine/bin/cf-agent --no-lock
body common control
{
  bundlesequence => { "hello_world" };
}

bundle agent hello_world
{
  reports:

    any::
      
      "Hello World!";

}

Now exit "Insert" mode by pressing "esc". Save file changes by typing :w then "Enter" then exit vi by typing :q then "Enter". This will return to the prompt.

Make the policy file executable, and then run it, by typing the following two commands:

chmod +x ./hello_world.cf 

Followed by:

./hello_world.cf

See the output below:

# chmod +x ./hello_world.cf
# ./hello_world.cf
2013-08-20T14:39:34-0500   notice: R: Hello World!

Integrating the Example into your Main Policy

Make the example policy part of your main policy by doing the following on your policy server:

  1. Ensure the example is located in /var/cfengine/masterfiles.

  2. If the example contains a body common control section, delete it. That section will look something like this:

    	  body common control
    	  {
    		bundlesequence  => { "hello_world" };
    	  }
    

You cannot have duplicate control bodies (i.e. two agent control bodies, one in the main file and one in the example) as CFEngine won't know which it should use and they may conflict.

To resolve this, copy the contents of the control body section from the example into the identically named control body section in the main policy file /var/cfengine/masterfiles/promises.cfand then remove the control body from the example.

  1. Insert the example's bundle name in the bundlesequence section of the main policy file /var/cfengine/masterfiles/promises.cf:

    	  bundlesequence => {
    		  ...
    		  "hello_world",
    		  ...
    	  };
    
  2. Insert the policy file name in the [inputs][Components and Common Control#inputs] section of the main policy file /var/cfengine/masterfiles/promises.cf:

    inputs => {
        ...
    	"hello_world.cf",
        ...
    };
    
  3. You must also remove any inputs section from the example that includes the external library:

    inputs => {
        "libraries/cfengine_stdlib.cf"
    };
    

    This is necessary, since cfengine_stdlib.cf is already included in the inputs section of the master policy.

  4. The example policy will now be executed every five minutes along with the rest of your main policy.

Notes: You may have to fill the example with data before it will work. For example, the LDAP query in active_directory.cf needs a domain name. In the variable declaration, replace "cftesting" with your domain name:

[%CFEngine_include_snippet(integrating_the_example_into_your_main_policy.cf, .* )%]