The goal of the BOP is to provide a prototype platform designed to lower the barrier for researchers who need to access big streaming spatio-temporal datasets.
The BOP is a project run by the Harvard Center for Geographic Analysis (CGA) with funding by the Sloan Foundation. It is being developed specifically to provide a big data API to the Harvard Dataverse and Harvard WorldMap platforms. The platform is loaded with streaming geo-referenced tweets but a similar dataset could, with some tweaking, be substituted. Hosting of the BOP is being provided by Massachusetts Open Cloud.
The BOP builds on the the 2D grid heatmap faceting capability of Apache Lucene/Solr which we (CGA) refers to as HHypermap Core. Development of that feature was through CGA with funding by the National Endowment for the Humanities. It's also used by a CGA map service discovery platform called HHypermap Registry.
The primary infrastructure components are Apache Kafka and Apache Solr. Harvard CGA is harvesting geo-tweets which are enriched with metadata for 1)sentiment analysis and 2)spatial joins with census and other boundary datasets. Enriched geot-weets are archived using a long-term Kafka topic.
The BOP itself, which consists of a Solr index–based copy of the data, represents the latest billion geo-tweets while the index goes back further in time. The BOP exposes a search and extraction webservice API that the client consumes. All components are deployed to a Docker based infrastructure managed by Kontena. The term “BOP-core” is used to refer to both the Solr index and the web service that exposes it. The system is hosted on Massachusetts Open Cloud (MOC).
BOP Web Client: http://bop.worldmap.harvard.edu/bop/
BOP Web-Service (which BOP client uses): http://bop.worldmap.harvard.edu/bopws/swagger#/default The link is to "Swagger" based documentation.
BOP Web Client Source: https://github.com/cga-harvard/bop-ui
The high-level architecture of BOP is shown below. The primary infrastructure components are Apache Kafka and Apache Solr. Harvard CGA is harvesting geotweets, which are then enriched with metadata in the form of sentiment analysis and spatial joins with census and other boundary datasets. All geotweets are archived using a long-term Kafka topic. The BOP-core itself, which consists of a Solr index–based copy of the data just, represents the latest billion while the index goes back further in time. The BOP-core exposes a search and extraction web service API that the client consumes. All components are deployed to a Docker based infrastructure managed by Kontena. The term “BOP-core” is used to refer to both the Solr index and the web service that exposes it. The system is hosted on Massachusetts Open Cloud (MOC).
The primary infrastructure components are Apache Kafka and Apache Solr. Furthermore we deploy everything to a Docker based infrastructure managed by Kontena -- although you could deploy this software on bare metal if you like. The following sequence illustrates the path a tweet takes through the system, and refers to modules (subdirectories in this GitHub repository) where applicable.
- Tweets are "harvested" by [/CGA-Harvester/]. It's a service that continuously polls Twitter's API and then deposits the JSON tweets into a Kafka topic. We compress the JSON tweets using MessagePack.
- Tweets are "enriched" by [/enrich/]. This service consumes input Kafka topic(s), does it's enrichment, then adds the enriched tweets onto another Kafka topic. Enrichment consists of sentiment analysis (e.g. happy/sad) and geo enrichment (e.g. USA/Massachusetts) -- reverse-geocoding tagging.
- Tweets are "ingested" (aka indexed) into Solr by [/bop/ingest]. This service consumes input Kafka topic(s) and of course sends them to Solr.
- A custom Solr UpdateRequestProcessor (URP) called "DateShardingURPFactory" in [/bop/solr-plugins/] sees incoming tweets to route them to the correct time based shard. This URP will also create and delete new shards as needed.
Search Request Flow:
- There is a BOP web UI that makes HTTP/REST requests to the BOP. (Technically this is not part of the BOP). Or they might come from someone else.
- HTTP requests are proxied through a Kontena loadbalancer [/loadbalancer/] that is more so serving a proxy function into the Kontena "weave" network than a load balancing one.
- The BOP Webservice at [/bop/webservice] is a RESTful webservice providing a search service to Solr. (This enables our own API instead of Solr's or securing Solr).
- A custom Solr SearchHandler called DateShardRoutingSearchHandler looks for special start-end parameters to determine which date shards to route the request to (avoiding complete fan-out).
Each portion of the BOP may have further documentation beyond this document. Expore and read README.md files.
This presentation provides a good overview.
Presentation: "H-Hypermap: Heatmap Analytics at Scale" (2016-10) slides: http://www.slideshare.net/DavidSmiley2/hhypermap-heatmap-analytics-at-scale video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nzAH5QEl9hQ
Next Step: Building the BOP
- Benjamin Lewis (HCGA) -- Project Leader
- David Smiley (independent) -- Lead Developer
- Devika Kakkar (HCGA) -- Developer: Sentiment analysis, geotweet harvesting