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# Apache Server Configs v2.0.0 | MIT License
# https://github.com/h5bp/server-configs-apache
# (!) Using `.htaccess` files slows down Apache, therefore, if you have access
# to the main server config file (usually called `httpd.conf`), you should add
# this logic there: http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/howto/htaccess.html.
# ##############################################################################
# # CROSS-ORIGIN RESOURCE SHARING (CORS) #
# ##############################################################################
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Cross-domain AJAX requests |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Enable cross-origin AJAX requests.
# http://code.google.com/p/html5security/wiki/CrossOriginRequestSecurity
# http://enable-cors.org/
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# Header set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "*"
# </IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | CORS-enabled images |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Send the CORS header for images when browsers request it.
# https://developer.mozilla.org/en/CORS_Enabled_Image
# http://blog.chromium.org/2011/07/using-cross-domain-images-in-webgl-and.html
# http://hacks.mozilla.org/2011/11/using-cors-to-load-webgl-textures-from-cross-domain-images/
<IfModule mod_setenvif.c>
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
<FilesMatch "\.(cur|gif|ico|jpe?g|png|svgz?|webp)$">
SetEnvIf Origin ":" IS_CORS
Header set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "*" env=IS_CORS
</FilesMatch>
</IfModule>
</IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Web fonts access |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Allow access from all domains for web fonts
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
<FilesMatch "\.(eot|otf|ttc|ttf|woff)$">
Header set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "*"
</FilesMatch>
</IfModule>
# ##############################################################################
# # ERRORS #
# ##############################################################################
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | 404 error prevention for non-existing redirected folders |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Prevent Apache from returning a 404 error for a rewrite if a directory
# with the same name does not exist.
# http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/content-negotiation.html#multiviews
# http://www.webmasterworld.com/apache/3808792.htm
Options -MultiViews
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Custom error messages / pages |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# You can customize what Apache returns to the client in case of an error (see
# http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/core.html#errordocument), e.g.:
# ErrorDocument 404 /404.html
# ##############################################################################
# # INTERNET EXPLORER #
# ##############################################################################
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Better website experience |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Force IE to render pages in the highest available mode in the various
# cases when it may not: http://hsivonen.iki.fi/doctype/ie-mode.pdf.
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
Header set X-UA-Compatible "IE=edge"
# `mod_headers` can't match based on the content-type, however, we only
# want to send this header for HTML pages and not for the other resources
<FilesMatch "\.(appcache|crx|css|cur|eot|gif|htc|ico|jpe?g|js|m4a|m4v|manifest|mp4|oex|oga|ogg|ogv|otf|pdf|png|safariextz|svgz?|ttf|vcf|webapp|webm|webp|woff|xml|xpi)$">
Header unset X-UA-Compatible
</FilesMatch>
</IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Cookie setting from iframes |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Allow cookies to be set from iframes in IE.
# http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms537343.aspx
# http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/CR-P3P-20001215/
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# Header set P3P "policyref=\"/w3c/p3p.xml\", CP=\"IDC DSP COR ADM DEVi TAIi PSA PSD IVAi IVDi CONi HIS OUR IND CNT\""
# </IfModule>
# ##############################################################################
# # MIME TYPES AND ENCODING #
# ##############################################################################
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Proper MIME types for all files |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
<IfModule mod_mime.c>
# Audio
AddType audio/mp4 m4a f4a f4b
AddType audio/ogg oga ogg
# JavaScript
# Normalize to standard type (it's sniffed in IE anyways):
# http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4329#section-7.2
AddType application/javascript js
AddType application/json json
# Video
AddType video/mp4 f4v f4p m4v mp4
AddType video/ogg ogv
AddType video/webm webm
AddType video/x-flv flv
# Web fonts
AddType application/font-woff woff
AddType application/vnd.ms-fontobject eot
# Browsers usually ignore the font MIME types and sniff the content,
# however, Chrome shows a warning if other MIME types are used for the
# following fonts.
AddType application/x-font-ttf ttc ttf
AddType font/opentype otf
# Make SVGZ fonts work on iPad:
# https://twitter.com/FontSquirrel/status/14855840545
AddType image/svg+xml svgz
AddEncoding gzip svgz
# Other
AddType application/octet-stream safariextz
AddType application/x-chrome-extension crx
AddType application/x-opera-extension oex
AddType application/x-web-app-manifest+json webapp
AddType application/x-xpinstall xpi
AddType application/xml atom rdf rss xml
AddType image/webp webp
AddType image/x-icon cur
AddType text/cache-manifest appcache manifest
AddType text/vtt vtt
AddType text/x-component htc
AddType text/x-vcard vcf
</IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | UTF-8 encoding |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Use UTF-8 encoding for anything served as `text/html` or `text/plain`.
AddDefaultCharset utf-8
# Force UTF-8 for certain file formats.
<IfModule mod_mime.c>
AddCharset utf-8 .atom .css .js .json .rss .vtt .webapp .xml
</IfModule>
# ##############################################################################
# # URL REWRITES #
# ##############################################################################
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Rewrite engine |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Turning on the rewrite engine and enabling the `FollowSymLinks` option is
# necessary for the following directives to work.
# If your web host doesn't allow the `FollowSymlinks` option, you may need to
# comment it out and use `Options +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch` but, be aware of the
# performance impact: http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/misc/perf-tuning.html#symlinks
# Also, some cloud hosting services require `RewriteBase` to be set:
# http://www.rackspace.com/knowledge_center/frequently-asked-question/why-is-mod-rewrite-not-working-on-my-site
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
Options +FollowSymlinks
# Options +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
RewriteEngine On
# RewriteBase /
</IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Suppressing / Forcing the "www." at the beginning of URLs |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The same content should never be available under two different URLs especially
# not with and without "www." at the beginning. This can cause SEO problems
# (duplicate content), therefore, you should choose one of the alternatives and
# redirect the other one.
# By default option 1 (no "www.") is activated:
# http://no-www.org/faq.php?q=class_b
# If you'd prefer to use option 2, just comment out all the lines from option 1
# and uncomment the ones from option 2.
# IMPORTANT: NEVER USE BOTH RULES AT THE SAME TIME!
# - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
# Option 1: rewrite www.example.com → example.com
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !=on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.(.+)$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^ http://%1%{REQUEST_URI} [R=301,L]
</IfModule>
# - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
# Option 2: rewrite example.com → www.example.com
# Be aware that the following might not be a good idea if you use "real"
# subdomains for certain parts of your website.
# <IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
# RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !=on
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\..+$ [NC]
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !=localhost [NC]
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !=127.0.0.1
# RewriteRule ^ http://www.%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [R=301,L]
# </IfModule>
# ##############################################################################
# # SECURITY #
# ##############################################################################
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Clickjacking |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Protect web site against clickjacking.
# The example below sends the `X-Frame-Options` response header with the value
# `DENY`, informing browsers not to display the web page content in any frame.
# This might not be the best setting for everyone. You should read about the
# other two possible values for `X-Frame-Options`: `SAMEORIGIN` and `ALLOW-FROM`
# http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7034#section-2.1.
# Keep in mind that while you could send the `X-Frame-Options` header for all
# of your site’s pages, this has the potential downside that it forbids even
# non-malicious framing of your content (e.g.: when users visit your site using
# a Google Image Search results page).
# Nonetheless, you should ensure that you send the `X-Frame-Options` header for
# all pages that allow a user to make a state changing operation (e.g: pages
# that contain one-click purchase links, checkout or bank-transfer confirmation
# pages, pages that make permanent configuration changes, etc.).
# Sending the `X-Frame-Options` header can also protect your web site against
# more than just clickjacking attacks: https://cure53.de/xfo-clickjacking.pdf.
# http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7034
# http://blogs.msdn.com/b/ieinternals/archive/2010/03/30/combating-clickjacking-with-x-frame-options.aspx
# https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Clickjacking
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# Header set X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN"
# <FilesMatch "\.(appcache|crx|css|cur|eot|gif|htc|ico|jpe?g|js|m4a|m4v|manifest|mp4|oex|oga|ogg|ogv|otf|pdf|png|safariextz|svgz?|ttf|vcf|webapp|webm|webp|woff|xml|xpi)$">
# Header unset X-Frame-Options
# </FilesMatch>
# </IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Content Security Policy (CSP) |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# You can mitigate the risk of cross-site scripting and other content-injection
# attacks by setting a Content Security Policy which whitelists trusted sources
# of content for your site.
# The example header below allows ONLY scripts that are loaded from the current
# site's origin (no inline scripts, no CDN, etc). This almost certainly won't
# work as-is for your site!
# For more details on how to craft a reasonable policy for your site, read:
# http://html5rocks.com/en/tutorials/security/content-security-policy (or the
# specification: http://w3.org/TR/CSP). Also, to make things easier, you can
# use an online CSP header generator such as: http://cspisawesome.com/.
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# Header set Content-Security-Policy "script-src 'self'; object-src 'self'"
# <FilesMatch "\.(appcache|crx|css|cur|eot|gif|htc|ico|jpe?g|js|m4a|m4v|manifest|mp4|oex|oga|ogg|ogv|otf|pdf|png|safariextz|svgz?|ttf|vcf|webapp|webm|webp|woff|xml|xpi)$">
# Header unset Content-Security-Policy
# </FilesMatch>
# </IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | File access |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Block access to directories without a default document.
# Usually you should leave this uncommented because you shouldn't allow anyone
# to surf through every directory on your server (which may includes rather
# private places like the CMS's directories).
<IfModule mod_autoindex.c>
Options -Indexes
</IfModule>
# - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
# Block access to hidden files and directories.
# This includes directories used by version control systems such as Git and SVN.
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteCond %{SCRIPT_FILENAME} -d [OR]
RewriteCond %{SCRIPT_FILENAME} -f
RewriteRule "(^|/)\." - [F]
</IfModule>
# - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
# Block access to backup and source files.
# These files may be left by some text editors and can pose a great security
# danger when anyone has access to them.
<FilesMatch "(^#.*#|\.(bak|config|dist|fla|inc|ini|log|psd|sh|sql|sw[op])|~)$">
# Apache < 2.3
<IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
Order allow,deny
Deny from all
Satisfy All
</IfModule>
# Apache ≥ 2.3
<IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
Require all denied
</IfModule>
</FilesMatch>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Reducing MIME-type security risks |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Prevent some browsers from MIME-sniffing the response.
# This reduces exposure to drive-by download attacks and should be enable
# especially if the web server is serving user uploaded content, content
# that could potentially be treated by the browser as executable.
# http://blogs.msdn.com/b/ie/archive/2008/07/02/ie8-security-part-v-comprehensive-protection.aspx
# http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ie/gg622941.aspx
# http://mimesniff.spec.whatwg.org/
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# Header set X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff"
# </IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Reflected Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) attacks |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# (1) Try to re-enable the Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) filter built into the
# most recent web browsers.
#
# The filter is usually enabled by default, but in some cases it may be
# disabled by the user. However, in IE for example, it can be re-enabled
# just by sending the `X-XSS-Protection` header with the value of `1`.
#
# (2) Prevent web browsers from rendering the web page if a potential reflected
# (a.k.a non-persistent) XSS attack is detected by the filter.
#
# By default, if the filter is enabled and browsers detect a reflected
# XSS attack, they will attempt to block the attack by making the smallest
# possible modifications to the returned web page.
#
# Unfortunately, in some browsers (e.g.: IE), this default behavior may
# allow the XSS filter to be exploited, thereby, it's better to tell
# browsers to prevent the rendering of the page altogether, instead of
# attempting to modify it.
#
# http://hackademix.net/2009/11/21/ies-xss-filter-creates-xss-vulnerabilities
#
# IMPORTANT: Do not rely on the XSS filter to prevent XSS attacks! Ensure that
# you are taking all possible measures to prevent XSS attacks, the most obvious
# being: validating and sanitizing your site's inputs.
# http://blogs.msdn.com/b/ie/archive/2008/07/02/ie8-security-part-iv-the-xss-filter.aspx
# http://blogs.msdn.com/b/ieinternals/archive/2011/01/31/controlling-the-internet-explorer-xss-filter-with-the-x-xss-protection-http-header.aspx
# https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Cross-site_Scripting_%28XSS%29
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# # (1) (2)
# Header set X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block"
# <FilesMatch "\.(appcache|crx|css|cur|eot|gif|htc|ico|jpe?g|js|m4a|m4v|manifest|mp4|oex|oga|ogg|ogv|otf|pdf|png|safariextz|svgz?|ttf|vcf|webapp|webm|webp|woff|xml|xpi)$">
# Header unset X-XSS-Protection
# </FilesMatch>
# </IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Rewrite secure requests properly to prevent SSL certificate warnings, e.g.:
# prevent `https://www.example.com` when your certificate only allows
# `https://secure.example.com`.
# <IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
# RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT} !^443
# RewriteRule ^ https://example-domain-please-change-me.com%{REQUEST_URI} [R=301,L]
# </IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Force client-side SSL redirection.
# If a user types "example.com" in his browser, the above rule will redirect
# him to the secure version of the site. That still leaves a window of oppor-
# tunity (the initial HTTP connection) for an attacker to downgrade or redirect
# the request. The following header ensures that browser will ONLY connect to
# your server via HTTPS, regardless of what the users type in the address bar.
# http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-websec-strict-transport-sec-14#section-6.1
# http://www.html5rocks.com/en/tutorials/security/transport-layer-security/
# (!) Remove the `includeSubDomains` optional directive if the subdomains are
# not using HTTPS.
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# Header set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=16070400; includeSubDomains"
# </IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Server software information |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Avoid displaying the exact Apache version number, the description of the
# generic OS-type and the information about Apache's compiled-in modules.
# ADD THIS DIRECTIVE IN THE `httpd.conf` AS IT WILL NOT WORK IN THE `.htaccess`!
# ServerTokens Prod
# ##############################################################################
# # WEB PERFORMANCE #
# ##############################################################################
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Compression |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
<IfModule mod_deflate.c>
# Force compression for mangled headers.
# http://developer.yahoo.com/blogs/ydn/posts/2010/12/pushing-beyond-gzipping
<IfModule mod_setenvif.c>
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
SetEnvIfNoCase ^(Accept-EncodXng|X-cept-Encoding|X{15}|~{15}|-{15})$ ^((gzip|deflate)\s*,?\s*)+|[X~-]{4,13}$ HAVE_Accept-Encoding
RequestHeader append Accept-Encoding "gzip,deflate" env=HAVE_Accept-Encoding
</IfModule>
</IfModule>
# Compress all output labeled with one of the following MIME-types
# (for Apache versions below 2.3.7, you don't need to enable `mod_filter`
# and can remove the `<IfModule mod_filter.c>` and `</IfModule>` lines
# as `AddOutputFilterByType` is still in the core directives).
<IfModule mod_filter.c>
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/atom+xml \
application/javascript \
application/json \
application/rss+xml \
application/vnd.ms-fontobject \
application/x-font-ttf \
application/x-web-app-manifest+json \
application/xhtml+xml \
application/xml \
font/opentype \
image/svg+xml \
image/x-icon \
text/css \
text/html \
text/plain \
text/x-component \
text/xml
</IfModule>
</IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Content transformations |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Prevent some of the mobile network providers from modifying the content of
# your site: http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec14.html#sec14.9.5.
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# Header set Cache-Control "no-transform"
# </IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | ETag removal |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Since we're sending far-future expires headers (see below), ETags can
# be removed: http://developer.yahoo.com/performance/rules.html#etags.
# `FileETag None` is not enough for every server.
<IfModule mod_headers.c>
Header unset ETag
</IfModule>
FileETag None
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Expires headers (for better cache control) |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The following expires headers are set pretty far in the future. If you don't
# control versioning with filename-based cache busting, consider lowering the
# cache time for resources like CSS and JS to something like 1 week.
<IfModule mod_expires.c>
ExpiresActive on
ExpiresDefault "access plus 1 month"
# CSS
ExpiresByType text/css "access plus 1 year"
# Data interchange
ExpiresByType application/json "access plus 0 seconds"
ExpiresByType application/xml "access plus 0 seconds"
ExpiresByType text/xml "access plus 0 seconds"
# Favicon (cannot be renamed!) and cursor images
ExpiresByType image/x-icon "access plus 1 week"
# HTML components (HTCs)
ExpiresByType text/x-component "access plus 1 month"
# HTML
ExpiresByType text/html "access plus 0 seconds"
# JavaScript
ExpiresByType application/javascript "access plus 1 year"
# Manifest files
ExpiresByType application/x-web-app-manifest+json "access plus 0 seconds"
ExpiresByType text/cache-manifest "access plus 0 seconds"
# Media
ExpiresByType audio/ogg "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/gif "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/jpeg "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/png "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/mp4 "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/ogg "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/webm "access plus 1 month"
# Web feeds
ExpiresByType application/atom+xml "access plus 1 hour"
ExpiresByType application/rss+xml "access plus 1 hour"
# Web fonts
ExpiresByType application/font-woff "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType application/vnd.ms-fontobject "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType application/x-font-ttf "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType font/opentype "access plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/svg+xml "access plus 1 month"
</IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Filename-based cache busting |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# If you're not using a build process to manage your filename version revving,
# you might want to consider enabling the following directives to route all
# requests such as `/css/style.12345.css` to `/css/style.css`.
# To understand why this is important and a better idea than `*.css?v231`, read:
# http://stevesouders.com/blog/2008/08/23/revving-filenames-dont-use-querystring
# <IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
# RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
# RewriteRule ^(.+)\.(\d+)\.(js|css|png|jpg|gif)$ $1.$3 [L]
# </IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | File concatenation |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Allow concatenation from within specific CSS and JS files, e.g.:
# Inside of `script.combined.js` you could have
# <!--#include file="libs/jquery.js" -->
# <!--#include file="plugins/jquery.idletimer.js" -->
# and they would be included into this single file.
# <IfModule mod_include.c>
# <FilesMatch "\.combined\.js$">
# Options +Includes
# AddOutputFilterByType INCLUDES application/javascript application/json
# SetOutputFilter INCLUDES
# </FilesMatch>
# <FilesMatch "\.combined\.css$">
# Options +Includes
# AddOutputFilterByType INCLUDES text/css
# SetOutputFilter INCLUDES
# </FilesMatch>
# </IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Persistent connections |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Allow multiple requests to be sent over the same TCP connection:
# http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/en/mod/core.html#keepalive.
# Enable if you serve a lot of static content but, be aware of the
# possible disadvantages!
# <IfModule mod_headers.c>
# Header set Connection Keep-Alive
# </IfModule>
# ##############################################################################
# # CUSTOM #
# ##############################################################################
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Pretty URLs |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule (.*) index.php?p=$1 [PT,QSA]
# Don't allow access to templates or layouts directly
RewriteRule "^(templates|layouts)/" - [F]
</IfModule>
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# | Block Ruby development files |
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Block access to Ruby source files (Bundler, Compass, etc.).
<FilesMatch "(^#.*#|\.(rb|lock)|~|Gemfile)$">
# Apache < 2.3
<IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
Order allow,deny
Deny from all
Satisfy All
</IfModule>
# Apache ≥ 2.3
<IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
Require all denied
</IfModule>
</FilesMatch>