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<h1> Having the tools is just the beginning</h1>
<p>At the <strong>Libre Graphics Meeting 2008</strong>, OSP picks up a
conversation that Harrison allegedly started in a taxi in Montreal, a year
earlier. We meet font designer and developer Dave Crossland in a noisy
food court to speak about his understanding of the intertwined histories
of typography and software, and the master in type design at the
Department of Typography at the University of Reading. Since the
interview, a lot has happened. Dave finished his typeface Cantarell and
moved on to consult the Google Web Fonts project, commissioning new
typefaces designed for the web. He is also currently offering lectures on
typeface design with Free Software.</p>
<p class="hh">1, 2.</p>
<p class="ll">Hello Dave.</p>
<p class="all">Hellooo ...</p>
<p class="dc">Alright!</p>
<p class="hh">Well, thank you for taking a bit of time with us for the
interview. First thing is maybe to set a kind of context of your
situation, your current situation. What you've done before. Why are you
setting fonts and these kind of things.</p>
<p class="dc">Oh yes, yeah. Well, I take it quite far back, when I was a
teenager. I was planning to do computer science university studying like
mathematics and physics in highschool. I needed some work experience. I
decided I didn't want to work with computers. So I dropped maths and
physics and I started working at ... I mean I started studying art and
design, and also socio-linguistics in highschool. I was looking at going
to Fine Arts but I wasn't really too worried about if I could get a job at
the end of it, because I could get a job with computers, if I needed to
get a job So I studied that at my school for like a one year course, after
my school. A foundation year, and the deal with that is that you study all
the different art and design disciplines. Because in highschool you don't
really have the specialities where you specifically study textile or
photography, not every school has a darkroom, schools are not well
equipped.</p>
<p>You get to experience all these areas of design and in that we studied
graphic design, motion graphics and I found in this a good opportunity to
bring together the computer things with fine arts and visual arts aspects.
In graphic design in my school it was more about paper, it had nothing to
do with computers. In art school, that was more the case. So I grew into
graphic design.</p>
<p>So, yes. I was looking at graphic design that was more computer based
than in art school. I wasn't so interested in like regular illustration as
a graphic design. Graphic design has really got three purposes: to
persuade people, that's advertising; to entertain people, movie posters,
music album covers, illustration magazines; and there is also graphic
design to inform people, in England it's called 'information design', in
the US it's called 'information architecture'... stucturing websites,
information design. Obviously a big part of that is typography, so that's
why I got interested in typography, via information design. I studied at
Ravensbourne college in London, what I applied for was graphic information
design. I started working at the IT department, and that really kept me
going to that college, I wasn't so happy with the direction of the
courses. The IT department there was really really good and I ended up
switching to the interaction design course, because that had more freedom
to do the kind of typographic work I was intersted in.</p>
<p>So I ended up looking at Free Sofware design tools because I became
frustrated by the limitations of the Adobe software which in the college
was using, just what everybody used. And at that point I realized what
'software freedom' meant. I've been using Debian since I was like a
teenager, but I hadn't really looked to the depth of what Free Software
was about. I mean back in the nineties Windows wasn't very good but
probably at that time 2003-2004, MacOSX came out and it was getting pretty
nice to use. I bought a Mac laptop without really thinking about it and
because it was a Unix I could use the software like I was used to do. And
I didn't really think about the issues with Free Software, MacOSX was Unix
so it was the same I figured. But when I started to do my work I really
stood against the limitations of Adobe software, specifically in parallel
publishing which is when you have the same basic informations that you
want to communicate in different mediums. You might want to publish
something in .pdf, on the web, maybe also on your mobile phone, etc. And
doing that with Adobe software back then was basically impossible. I was
aware of Free Software design tools and it was kind of obvious that even
if they weren't very pushed by then they at least had the potential to be
able to do this in a powerful way. So that's what I figured out. What that
issue with Free Software really meant. Who's in control of the software,
who decides what it does, who decides when it's going to support this
feature or that feature, because the features that I wanted, Adobe wasn't
planning to add them. So that's how I got interested in Free Software.</p>
<p>When I graduated I was looking for something that I could contribute in
this area. And one of the Scribus guys, Peter Linnell, made an important
post on the Scribus blog. Saying, you know, the number one problem with
Free Software design is fonts, like it's dodgy fonts with incorrect this,
incorrect that, have problems when printed as well... and so yeah, I felt
woa, I have a background in typography and I know about Free Software, I
could make contributions in fonts. Looking into that area, I found that
there was some postgraduate course you can study at in Europe. There's
two, there is one at The Hague in The Netherlands and one at Reading.
They're quite different courses in their character and in how much they
cost and how long they last for and what level of qualification they are.
But they're both postgraduate courses which focus on typeface design and
font software development. So if you're interesed in that area, you can
really concentrate for about a year and bring your skills up to a high
professional level. So I applied to the course at Reading and I was
accepted there and I'm currently studying there part time. I'm studying
there to work on Free Software fonts. So that's the full story of how I
ended up in this area.</p>
<p class="hh">Excellent! Last time we met, you summarized in a very
relevant way the history of font design software which is a proof by
itself that everything is related with fonts and this kind of small
networks and I would like you to summarize it again.</p>
<p class="dc">Alright. In that whole journey of getting into this area of
parallel publishing and automated design, I was asking around for people
who worked in that area because at that time not many people had worked in
parallel publishing. It's a lot of a bigger deal now, especially in the
Free Software community where we have Free Software manuals translated
into many languages, written in .doc and .xml and then transformed into
print and web versions and other versions. But back then this was kind of
a new concept, not all people worked on it. And so, asking around, I heard
about the department of typography at the university of Reading. One of
the lecturers there, actually the lecturer of the typeface design course
put me on to a designer in Holland, Petr van Blokland. He's a really nice
guy, really friendly. And I dropped him an e-mail as I was in Holland that
year -- just dropped by to see him and it turned out he's not only
involved in parallel publishing and automated design, but also in
typedesign. For him there is really no distinctions between type design
and typography. It's kind of like a big building -- you have the
architecture of the building but you can also go down into the bricks.
It's kind of like that with typography, the type design is all these
little pieces you assembly to create the typography out of . He's an
award-winning typeface designer and typographer and he was involved in the
early days of typography very actively. He kind of explained me the whole
story of type design technology.</p>
<p>So, the history of typography actually starts with Free Software, with
Donald Knuth and his TeX. The TeX typesetting system has its own font
software or font system called Metafont. Metafont is a font programming
language, and algebraic programming language describing letter forms. It
really gets into the internal structure of the shapes. This is a very
non-visual programming approach to it where you basically use this
programming language to describe with algebra how the shapes make up the
letters. If you have a capital H, you got essentially 3 lines, two
verticals stands and a horizontal crossbar and so, in algebra you can say
that you've got one ratio whitch is the height of the vertical lines and
another ratio which is the width between them and another ratio which is
the distance between the top point and the middle point of the crossbar
and the bottom point. By describing all of that in algebra, you really
describe the structure of that shape and that gives you a lot of power
because it means you can trace a pen nib objects over that skeleton to
generate the final typeform and so you can apply variations, you can
rotate the pen nib -- you can have different pen nib shapes And you can
have a lot of different typefaces out of that kind of source code. But
that approach is not a visual approach, you have to take it with a
mathematical mind and that isn't something which graphic designers
typically have as a strong part of their skill set.</p>
<p>The next step was describing the outline of a typeface, and the guy who
did this was working, I believe, at URW. He invented a digital typography
system or typedesign program called Ikarus. The rumor is it's called
Ikarus because it crashed too much. Peter Karow is this guy. He was the
absolute unknown real pioneer in this area. They were selling this
proprietary software powered by a tablet, with a drawing pen for entering
the points and it used it's own kind of spline-curve technology.</p>
<p>This was very expensive -- it ran on DMS computers and URW was making a
lot of money selling those mini computers in well I guess late 70s and
early 80s. And there was a new small home computer that came out called
the Apple Macintosh. This was quite important because not only was it a
personal computer. It had a graphical user interface and also a printer, a
laser writer which was based on the Adobe PostScript technology. This was
what made desktop publishing happen. I believe it was a Samsung printer
revised by Apple and Adobe's PostScript technology. Those three companies,
those three technologies was what made desktop publishing happen. Petr van
Blokland was involved in it, using the Ikarus software, developing it. And
so he ported the program to the Mac. So Ikarus M was the first font editor
for personal computers and this was taken on by URW but never really
promoted because the... Mac costs not a lot money compared to those big
expensive computers. So, Ikarus M was not widely distributed. It's kind of
an obvious idea -- you know you have those innovative computers doing
graphic interfaces and laser printing and several different people had
several different ideas about how to employ that. Obviously you had John
Warnock within Adobe and at that point Adobe was a systems company, they
made this PostScript system and these components, they didn't make any
user applications. But John Warnock -- and this is documented in the book
on the Adobe story -- he really pushed within the company to develop Adobe
Illustrator, which allowed you to interact with the edit PostScript code
and do vector drawings interactively. That was the kind of illustration
and graphic design which we mentioned earlier. That was the... page layout
sort of thing and that was taking care of by a guy called Paul Brainerd,
whose company Aldus made PageMaker. That did similar kind of things than
Illustrator, but focused on page layout and typography, text layout rather
than making illustrations. So you had Illustrator and PageMaker and this
was the beginning of the desktop publishing tool-chain.</p>
<p class="hh">When was it?</p>
<p class="dc">This is in the mid-eighties. The Mac came out in 1984</p>
<p class="ph">Illustrator in 1986 I think.</p>
<p class="dc">Yeah. And then the Apple LaserWriter, which is I believe a
Samsung printer, came out in 1985, and I believe the first edition of
Illustrator was in 1988...</p>
<p class="ph">No, I think Illustrator 1 was in 1986.</p>
<p class="dc">OK, if you read the official Adobe story book, it's fully
documented
.</p>
<p class="hh">It's interesting that it follows so quickly after the
Macintosh.</p>
<p class="dc">Yes! That's right. It all happened very quickly because
Adobe and Apple had really built with PostScript and the MacOS, they had
the infrastructure there, they could build on top of. And that's a common
thing we see played out over and over... Things are developed quite slowly
when they are getting the infrastructure right, and then when the
infrastructure is in place you see this burst of activity where people can
slot it together very quickly to make some interesting things. So, you had
this other guy called Jim von Ehr and he saw the need for a graphical user
interface to develop fonts with and so he founded a small compagny called
Altsys and he made a program called Fontographer. So that became the kind
of de-facto standard font editing program.</p>
<p class="ph">And before that, do you know what font design software Adobe
designers used?</p>
<p class="dc">I don't know. Basically when Adobe made PostScript for the
Apple LaserWriter then they had the core 35 PostScript fonts, which is
about a thousand families, 35 differents weights or variants of the fonts.
And I believe that those were from Linotype. Linotype developed that in
collaboration with Adobe, I have no idea about what software they used,
they may have had their own internal software. I know that before they had
Illustrator they were making PostScript documents by hand like TeX,
programming PostScript sourcecode. It might have been in a very low tech
way. Because those were the core fonts that have been used in
PostScript.</p>
<p>So you had Fontographer and this is yeah I mean a GUI application for
home computers to make fonts with. Fontographer made early 90s David
Carson graphic design posters. Because it meant that anybody could start
making fonts not only people that were in the type design guild. That all
David Carson kind of punk graphic design, it's really because of Desktop
publishing and specifically because of Fontographer. Because that allowed
people to make these fonts. Previous printing technologies wouldn't allow
you to make these kinds of fonts without extreme efforts. I mean a lot of
the effects you can do with digital graphics you can't do without digital
graphics -- air brushing sophisticated effects like that can be achieved
but it's really a lot of efforts.</p>
<p>So going back to the guys from Holland, Petr has a younger brother
called Erik and he went to the college at the Royal Academie of design the
KABK in the Hague with a guy who is Just van Rossum and he's the younger
brother of Guido van Rossum who is now quite famous because he's the guy
who developed and invented Python. In the early 90s Jim von Ehr is
developping Fontographer, and Fontographer 4 comes out and Petr and Just
and Erik managed to get a copy of the source code of Fontographer 3 which
is the golden version that we used, like Quark, that was what we used
throughout most of the 90s and so they started adding things to that to do
scripting on Fontographer with Python and this was called Robofog, and
that was still used until quite recently, because it had features no one
has ever seen enywhere else. The deal was you had to get a Fontographer 4
license, and then you could get a Robofont license, for Fontographer 3.
Then Apple changed the system architecture and that meant Fontographer 3
would no longer run on Apple computers. Obviously that was a bit of a damn
on Robofog. Pretty soon after that Jim sold Fontographer to Macromedia. He
and his employes continued to develop Fontographer into Freehand, it went
from a font drawing application into a more general purpose illustration
tool. So Macromedia bought Altsys for Freehand because they were competing
with Adobe at that time. And they didn't really have any interest in
continuing to develop Fontographer. Fonts is a really obscure kind of
area. As a proprietary software company, what you are doing things to make
a profit and if the market is too small to justify your investment then
you'll just not keep developing the software. Fontographer shut at that
point.</p>
<p class="ph">I think they paid one guy to maintain it and answer
questions.</p>
<p class="dc">Yeah. I think they even stop actively selling it, you had to
ask them to sell you a license. Fontographer has stopped at that point and
there was no actively developed font editor. There were a few Windows
programs, which were kind of shareware for developing fonts because in
this time Apple and Microsoft got fed up with paying Adobe's extortion of
PostScript licensing fees. They developed their own font format called
TrueType. There were Windows font editing programs.</p>
<p>Yeah. I think they even stop actively selling it, you had to ask them
to sell you a license. Fontographer has stopped at that point and there
was no actively developed font editor. There were a few Windows programs,
which were kind of shareware for developing fonts because in this time
Apple and Microsoft got fed up with paying Adobe's extortion of PostScript
licensing fees. They developed their own font format called TrueType. When
Fontographer stopped there was the question of which one will become the
predominant font editor and so there was Fontlab. This was developed by a
guy Yuri Yarmola, Russian originally I believe, and it became the primary
proprietary type design tool.</p>
<p>The Python guys from Holland started using Fontlab. They managed to
convince the Fontlab guys to include Python scripting support in Fontlab.
Python had become a major language, for doing this kind of scripting. So
Fontlab added in Python scripting. And then different type designers, font
developers started to use Python scripts to help them develop their fonts,
and a few of the guys doing that decided to join up and they created the
RoboFab project which took the ideas that had been developed for Robofob
and reimplemented them with Fontlab -- so RoboFab. This is now a Free
Software package, under the MIT Python style licence. So it is a Free
Software licence but without copyleft. It has beeing developed as a
collaborative project. If you're interested in the development you can
just join the mailing list. It's a very mature project and the really
beautiful thing about it that they developed a font object model and so in
Python you have a very clean and easily understandable object-oriented
model of what a font is. It makes it very easy to script things. This is
quite exciting because that means you can start to do things which are
just not really visible with the graphic design interface. The thing with
those fonts is like there is a scale, it is like architecture. You've got
the designer of the building and the designer of the bricks. With a font
it is the same. You have the designer who shapes each letter and then
you've got the character-spacing which makes what a paragraph will look
like. A really good example of this is if you want to do interpolation, if
you have a very narrow version of a font and a very wide one, and you want
to interpolate in different versions between those two masters -- you
really want to do that in a script, and RoboFab makes this really easy to
do this within Fontlab. The ever important thing about RoboFab was that
they developed UFO, I think it's the Universal Font Object -- I'm not sure
what the exact name is -- but it's a XML font format which means that you
can interchange font source data with different programs and specifically
that means that you have a really good font interpolation program that can
read and write that UFO XML format and then you can have your regular type
design format font editor that will generate bitmap font formats that you
actually use in a system. You can write your own tool for a specific task
and push and pull the data back and forth. Some of these Dutch guys,
especially Erik has written a really good interpolation tool. So, as a
kind of thread in the story of font. Remember that time where Fontographer
was not developed actively then you have Georges Williams from California
who was interested in digital typography and fonts and Fontographer was
not being activelly developed and he found that quite frustrating so he
said like <em>Well, I'll write my own font editor</em>. He wrote it from
scratch. I mean this is a great project.</p>
<p class="ll">Can you tell us some details about your course?</p>
<p class="dc">There are four main deliverables in the course, that you
normally do in one year, twelve months. The big thing is that you do a
professional quality OpenType font, with an extended pan-european latin
coverage in regular and italic, maybe bold. You also do a complex
non-latin in Arabic, Indic, maybe Cyrillic ... well not really Cyrillic
because there are problems to get a Cyrillic type experts from Russia to
Britain... or Greek, or any script with which you have a particular
background in. And so, they didn't mandate which software students can
use, and I was already used to FontForge, while pretty much all the other
students were using FontLab. This font development is the main thing. The
second thing is the dissertation, that goes up to 8,000 words, an academic
master in typography dissertation. Then there is a smaller essay, that
will be published on
http://www.typeculture.com/academic_resource/articles_essays/, and it's a
kind of a practice for writing the dissertation. Then you have to document
your working process throughout the year, you have to submit your working
files, source files. Every single step is documented and you have to write
a small essay describing your process. And also, of course, apart from the
type design, you make a font specimen, so you make a very nice piece of
design that show up your font in use, as commercial companies do. All that
takes a full intense year. For British people, the course costs about
&#163;3,000, for people in the EU, it costs about &#163;5,000 and about
&#163;10,000 for non-EU. Have a look at the website for details, but yes,
it's very expensive.</p>
<p class="ll">And did you also design a font?</p>
<p class="dc">Yes. But I do it part-time. Normally, you could do the
typeface, and the year after you do the dissertation. For personal
reasons, I do the dissertation first, in the summer, and next year I'll do
the typeface, I think in July next year.</p>
<p class="ll">You have an idea on which font you'll work?</p>
<p class="dc">Yes. The course doesn't specify which kind of typeface you
have to work on. But they really prefer a textface, a serif one, because
it's the most complicate and demanding work. If you can do a high quality
serif text typeface design, you can do almost any typeface design! Of
course, lots of students do also a sans serif typeface to be read at 8 or
9 points, or even for by example dictionaries at 6 or 7 points. Other
students design display typefaces that can be used for pararaphs but
probably not at 9 points...</p>
<p class="fs">It looks like you are asked to produce quite a lot of
documents. Are these documents published anywhere, are they available for
other designers?</p>
<p class="dc">Yes, the website is http://www.typefacedesign.net and the
teaching team encourages students to publish their essays, and some people
have published their dissertation on the web, but it varies. Of course,
being an academic dissertation, you can request if from the university.</p>
<p class="fs">I'm asking because in various presentations the figure of
the 'expert typographer' came up, and the role Open Source software could
have, to open up this guild.</p>
<p class="dc">Yeah, the course in The Hague is cheaper, the pound was
quite high so it's expensive to live in Britain during the last year, and
the number of people able to produce high quality fonts is pretty small...
And these courses are quite inaccessible for most of the people because of
being so expensive, you have to be quite commited to follow them. The
proprietary font editing software, even with a student discount, is also a
bit expensive. So yes, Free and Open Source software could be an enabler.
FontForge allows anybody to grab it on the Internet and start making
fonts. But having the tools is just the beginning. You have to know what
you're doing to a design a typeface, and this is separate from font
software techinques. And books on the subject, there are quite a few, but
none are really a full solution. There www.typophile.org, a type design
forum on the web, where you can post preliminary designs. But of course
you do not get the kind of critical feedback as you can get on a masters
course...</p>
<p class="fs">We talked to Denis Jacquerye from the D&#233;j&#224;Vu
project, and most of the people who collaborate on the project are not
type designers but people who are interested in having certain glyphs
added to a typeface. And we asked him if there is some kind of teaching
going on, to be sure that the people contributing understand what they are
doing. Do you see any way of, let's say, a more open way of teaching
typography starting to happen?</p>
<p class="dc">Yeah, I mean, that the part of why the Free Software
movement is going to branch down into the Free Culture movement. There is
that website Freedom Defined <sup><a href="#b026324c">1</a></sup> that
states that the principles of Free Software can apply to all other kind of
works. This isn't shared by everybody in the Free Software movement.
Richard Stallman makes a clear difference between three kind of works: the
ones that function like software, encyclopedias, dictionaries, text books
that tell how to makes things, and text typefaces. Art works like music
and films, and text works about opinions like scientific papers or
political manifestos. He believes that different kinds of rights should
apply for that different kind of works. There is also a different view in
which anything in a computer can be edited ought to be free like Free
Software. That is certainly a position that many people take in the Free
Software community. In the WikiMedia Foundation text books project, you
can see that when more and more people are involved in typeface design
from the Free Culture community, we will see more and more education
material. There will be a snowball effect.</p>
<p class="ph">Dave, we are running out of time...</p>
<p class="dc">So just to finish about the FontForge Python scripting ...
There is Python embeded in FontForge so you can run scripts to control
FontForge, you can add new features that maybe would be specific to your
font and then in FontForge there is also a Python module which means that
you can type into a Python interpretor. You type <tt>import fontforge</tt>
and if it doesn't give you an error then you can start to do FontForge
functions, just like in the RoboFab environment. And in the process of
adding that George kind of re-architectured the FontForge source code so
instead of being one large program, there is now a large C library,
libfontforge, and then a small C program for rendering and also the Python
module, a binding or interface to that C library. This means if you are an
application programmer it is very straightforward to make a new font
editor in whatever language you want, using whatever graphic toolkit you
want. So if you're a JDK guy or a GTK guy or even if you're on Windows or
Mac OS X, you can make a font editor that has all the functionality of
FontForge. FontForge is a kind of engine to make font editors. This is
quite exciting because it means it's pretty straight forward for somebody
to write a font editing program which is designed for, say, beginners.</p>
<p>So, to come back to what we were just talking about in term of
educational materials to get people new to typeface design to be confident
with themselves. Maybe they won't be in that professional level yet, but
they will be pleased with their own work and happy to work in a user
interface where you feel like in 2006, you know, with nice icons nice
windows; anti aliasing and these kind of things.</p>
<p>I mean there's nothing wrong with the FontForge interface. It is what
it is. But it scares a lot of people away, people say that they don't like
this. I think it is too scary, too different. I think we are going to see
some exciting stuff in the next few years in the Free Software font editor
space.</p>
<hr/>
<ol>
<li id="b026324c"> http://freedomdefined.org </li>
</ol>
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